The effectiveness of OSH training would further be enhanced if the more engaging training is applied after less engaging training. The declarative and basic safety knowledge are recommended to deliver by using less engaging training method follow by a more engaging training method where the trainees are required to applied the knowledge in a real or stimulated environment. More engaging training may further enhance the output of safety training as workers are given chances to apply the knowledge acquired on the practices provided in the safety training with guidance from trainers. Language communication problems may cause the workers to be unable to fully understand the content delivered using less engaging training method; meanwhile, follow-up training using more engaging method would enhance their understanding as trainees would be exposed with practical and self-experiences. Therefore, by reviewing previous research, this research proposes that mix mode of less and more engaging training methods may be more suitable for OSH training in Malaysiaconstruction industry which consists of multi-cultural labours.
Construction and manufacturing differ significantly in the physical features of the end product. In manufacturing, finished goods generally can be moved as a whole to retailers or end customers. Construction, on the other hand, deals with larger units that cannot be transported.
ABSTRACT: Globally, the construction industry is one sector that contributes to economic growth in Malaysia. The construction industry is developing rapidly and become one of the backbones of the country compared with other developing countries in the world. As developing countries are now moving towards sustainable development is in line with the 9th Malaysia Plan, development should be built to meet current and future needs for achieving sustainability of economic development, social and environmental responsibility for the prosperity without compromising the needs of future generations. Therefore, to ensure the government's objective was achieved construction industry must implement the Life Cycle Costing (LCC) method to construct the structures and infrastructure projects that it will not cause losses to the industry itself and government. Each stage of construction project begins with planning, design, construction, operation, maintenance and demolishes the project and it cost should be considered to ensure the overall project costs as are known. Through this LCC, factors and maintenance costs for a building products accounted at the design stage to obtain a more accurate projection of the cost. This paper will describe the LCC as a vital element in all sectors of the construction industry because this method can drive quality improvement by taking into account the cost of a comprehensive project. The aim of this paper is to understand the LCC for the construction industry in Malaysia expecially in maintenance phase. Secondly is to identify the process of LCC in buildings construction and last but not least is recommending that appropriate measures to implement the LCC in the construction industry in Malaysia. The main sources of the literature research will be taken through articles, journals, references books in the resources centre and internet search. Hopefully the implementation of LCC in the construction industry in Malaysia could be accessed and used for research reference by future researcher and as reference materials for the construction management industry in Malaysia.
A case example given by Vázquez & Stalnaker (2004) is, on a construction site where several systems had been turned over to operations, a lockout/tagout was needed to isolate a petroleum tank vent line before welding but the isolation valve was not shut due in part of a language barrier, causing an explosion and significant damage to the tank. Investigation found that a communication breakdown between the English-speaking operators and Spanish-speaking construction workers to be a contributing cause (Vázquez & Stalnaker, 2004). This is an obvious and serious matter that explains one of the reasons why it is important to overcome language barriers in order to improve safety.
Construction accidents are the third most likely cause of work-related injury, after mining and agriculture. For every 100,000 workers in the construction industry, 15 die due to construction accidents each year. Some common causes of construction accident reports include faulty scaffolding, falls from heights, motor vehicle accidents, carbon monoxide poisoning due to faulty gas mechanisms, forklift accidents, electrocution, machinery accidents, and injury due to falling objects.
Malaysia, construction sector has recorded the highest number of deaths compared to other sectors over the years, according to statistics from the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) and Social Security Organization (SOCSO). High fatality rate in the construction industry indicates the crucial need to reduce the number of accidents in construction. In this case, the major causes of accidents include the nature of the industry, human behaviour, difficult work-site conditions, and poor safety management and cultures, which tend to result in unsafe work methods, equipment, and procedures (Abdelhamid and Everett, 2000). As suggested by Rahim et al. (2008), current site safety practices require a vast and quick overhaul.
The objective of this research is to verify the importance of technology transfer in international construction and investigate the impact of three main barriers of technology transfer in the Malaysiaconstruction industry and the Iranian construction industry. The three main barriers identified through literature review are: language barrier, cultural barrier and procurement options.
Nowadays, application of electronic commerce is increasing in commercial fields; this includes procurement process which introduced e-Tendering in construction industry. e-Tendering concept is to engage lesser paperwork and provide higher transparency in every transaction of procurement process. The aim of this paper is to study ethical issues related e-Tendering in Malaysiaconstruction industry. This paper reviewed previous and recent literature in order to identify the ethical issues and risk of corruption encountered in electronic commerce. Questionnaire survey was used to identify the current situation of e- Tendering involving ethical issues and factors that contributed to these issues. This study proposed potential initiatives to resolve the issues of procurement transparency that improve ethical behavior of parties in managing and bidding tender. This study utilized Average Index method and ideal solution (TOPSIS) for data analysis. TOPSIS which is one of the multi-criteria decision making methods for ranking the factors contributed to ethical issue in e-tendering and the potential initiatives for improvement. Results of TOPSIS showed that the most critical factor that contributed to the ethical issue in e-Tendering was cronyism, followed by lack of meritocracy, collusion, unpublicized process, long-term relationship, human greed and transparency feature of e-Tendering. In addition, from the result, it was concluded that the initiative that was known to be most potential in enhancing e-Tendering process was the features of the e- Tendering system and the ethical awareness among tendering authorities.
The oil and gas projects are categorised as part of the construction industry in Malaysia and it is considered a big section of the con- struction industry in Malaysia with two of five largest private projects being oil and gas projects in 2015/2016 according to CIDB (2016). The two projects were the Engineering, Procure- ment, Construction and Commissioning (EPCC) of Independent Deepwater Petroleum Terminal Phase at Pengerang, Johor and Piping and Associated Facilities (PAF) EPCC Contract at PETRONAS LNG Complex (PLC), Bintulu, Sarawak (2). The construction project life cycle can be divided into five parts, namely conceptual design, preliminary design, detailed design, construction and testing, commissioning and handover where if classified in the term of EPC, the conceptual design, preliminary design, detailed design, are covered under the Engineering (E) and Procurement (P) umbrella and the construction and testing, com- missioning, and handover, is covered under the Construction (C) section (9, 10). Figure 1 shows how the typical logic flow diagram for the construction project is with sequence of the five parts of construction life cycle with the involvement of the stakeholders at the various levels as shown in figure1 by (10).
Based on the above fact, RCC dam was considered new to the Malaysian construction industry. Hence, the understanding and involvement from the local construction players were still at the beginning stage. The construction personnel such as engineer, supervisor, technician and even the general workers have very limited knowledge, skills and experiences on the RCC dam project that lead to the construction of RCC dam in Malaysia facing many issues and challenges both in the technical and management aspects during construction. According to Bass (2004), during the early years of RCC projects, even contractors had little to no experience working with RCC.
Researchers and reports addressed these problems as the main indicator of construction project failure in Malaysia. In general, lack of competent project manager is one of the factors that cause project failure (CHAOS, 2003; Zimmerer and Yasin, 1998). It is found that lack of knowledge and skills of the construction workforce in particular project managers is one of the critical factors that cause these problems (Abdullah, Mukmin and Samad, 2011; Tan, 2013; Esa and Samad, 2011; Malaysia Productivity Corporation, 2011; Rahman, et al., 2012). A competent project manager is a critical factor that affects project success or failure (Smith, Carson, and Alexander, 1984; Karpin, 1995; Pinto and Kharbanda, 1995; Crawford, 2000; Bedingfield and Thal, 2008). In order to settle this problem, construction companies often use training as a method to improve their project managers' competencies, however, training is very costly and difficult to be conducted on-site while projects are executed (Wang and Dunston, 2007; Hill, 2010). Also, the high cost of training makes companies to be late in the payment of the training fees, or postpone the current training (Hasmori, Ismail, and Said 2012). Despite the high expenditure on training by contractors, new research findings still state that the problem of lack of project managers' competencies is not totally solved and remains as a barrier to project success. Therefore, construction companies need an alternative method to solve this problem besides training.
Statistics have shown that the number of fatalities in Malaysian construction industries for the past six years (2007–2012) was 422 cases. The number is not satisfying as compared to Singapore with 160 cases (Workplace Safety and Health Statistics Report, 2007-2012), Hong Kong with 230 cases (Labour Department of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, 2007-2012) and Australia with 248 cases (Safe Work Australia, 2007-2012). Although there were significant reductions in industrial accidents since the implementation of Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) in 1994, there is still room for improvement in reducing the number of accidents in Malaysia’s construction industry. The role of SICW is too great; it should not be allowed to be ineffective. Therefore, it is important to ensure the effectiveness of the SICW to deliver the necessary knowledge on safety and awareness to the workers.
The Construction Industry Standard ( CIS 7:2006) on Quality Assessment System was developed on November 2006 to evaluate and improve the quality of the building construction works. The Standard that established by the CIDB’s Technical Committee ( TC ) that with support by representatives from Public Works Department (PWD) , Jabatan Perumahan Negara (JPN) , Real Estate and Housing Developers Association ( REDHA), Pertubuhan Arkitek Malaysia ( PAM) , Master Builders Association Malaysia (MBAM), National House Buyers Association (HBA) and others relevant organizations and authorities take part on this assessment towards quality aspects.
Construction projects usually cover a wide spectrum of activity, with the involvement of many stakeholders with divergent and even competing interests coming together into achieve project completion. Hence, construction contracts can be quite complicated, and the finalization of the contract can take an extended period of time. As a result, customized contracts can be daunting tasks for smaller or more inexperienced employer organizations and even larger organizations with no functional expertise on construction contracts. This leaves the adoption of a standard form contract as the more popular option for most construction projects since it is “one of the key methods of ameliorating a potentially fractious relationship to achieve a common end” (Tay, 2006. p. v).
ISO 9001 Quality Management System is one of the ISO 9000 set of standards that provides a series of guidelines on how to establish a quality system to manage the processes that affect its product or services. There are many benefits offered by ISO but it does not mean if a company managed to secure the certification, they will be able to experience all the beneficial outcomes. Construction companies that wish to implement the system should be prepared for the upcoming obstacles that may be encountered during the process. The objectives of this research are to identify the benefits of implementing ISO 9001 Quality Management System in the Malaysian construction companies, to identify the problems faced by construction companies in implementing ISO 9001 Quality Management System and to identify the strategies adopted by the ISO certified construction companies in overcoming or minimizing the implementation problems. Case study approach has been selected to collect data for this research. For the purpose of the case study, five construction companies were selected to be interviewed. One representative form each company is interviewed in order to get more information from their perspective regarding the benefits, problems and strategies for the implementation of ISO 9001 QMS. The research findings concluded that improved company’s management & work efficiency as the most important benefit from the implementation of the system while lack of awareness on the system among staff is the most significant problem. It is suggested training and audit (internal and external) need to be enhanced to overcome those implementation problems.
World Bank reports, easy doing business for 189 countries around the world, comprises of ten indicators, starting a business, dealing with construction permit, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting minority investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and Resolving insolvency. Dealing in construction is one of the indicators give direct impact to the construction industry. Delay in construction will create significant impact on the economy growth. Less business activity and indirectly reduced the investor rates. Most of the study done by World Bank proved that, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and municipal transparency index has a relation. It is important to address delay in construction permit which is rampant happen in construction industry in Malaysia. (Pemudah Bulletin, 2012) This study contributes to the understanding of the performance of the building permit process and to develop a new model that is more efficient in dealing with construction permits.
would bring harm to the environment. According to a study conducted by Global Green of USA, 40% of the world’s natural resources and non-renewable energy resources used is related to the construction and building maintenance activities. Indeed, the construction industry is among the biggest contributors to environmental pollutions, waste and acceleration of global warming. The aim of this paper is to promote a sustainable environment in the construction proximity. Thus, the objective of this paper is to investigate the level of commitment by contractors in the northern states of Malaysia with regards to sustainable and green construction practices. The level of co-operation between the government and private sectors will also be investigated. The prompt growth of the construction industry brought undesirable influences to the environment. Uncontrollable construction will lead to energy waste, physical destruction, environment pollution, high energy consumption and cause health problems if improper materials are used. However, the progress and advancement of Malaysia in green and sustainable construction are far beyond the expected time. The conventional construction activities lead to resource deterioration, chemical pollution, physical disruption and flash flood as in Klang Valley and Kuala Lumpur. Therefore, the implementation of sustainable and green construction is desired to mitigate the environmental problems caused by construction and development activities.
Hatush and Skitmore ; and Blayse and Manley . Whilst cost can be measured based on the extent of deviation of the project cost from the initial project budget, quality is measured based on the quantity of non-conformance items detected during the project implementation. Quality is usually reflected by the extent of the project implementation in accordance to the set technical specifications and standards . On the other hand, time is measured based on the timely completion of the project as compared to the projection completion date. However, Low and Chuan  argue that the ‘Iron Triangle’ conventional measures only reflect the project management performance and do not indicate the actual representation of the overall project performance. According to Almahmoud, Doloi and Panuwatwanich  who conducted a study on construction projects in Saudi Arabia that there are some other important criteria involved. They included in their study three additional measurement criteria for project performance – scope; safety; and satisfaction. The scope criterion reflects the amount or value of the project variation orders. Safety is defined as the extent of safety of the project based on number of accidents or the number of non-conformance safety standard’s reports. Satisfaction is reflected by customer satisfaction index which indicates the level of customers’ satisfaction on the overall project. In addition, according to Ibrahim et al.  besides improving the three iron-triangle aspects of performance, the construction industry shall also focus on health, safety and environment of construction projects. These factors contribute to a more comprehensive representation of the performance of a construction project. The inclusion of these additional criteria for measuring construction project performance is supported by numerous scholars such as Kometa, Olomolaiye and Harris ; Dulaimi, Ling, and Ofori ; Chan and Chan ; Nudurupati, Arshad and Turner .
To encourage proper BIM education, there are several barriers that need to be highlighted to ensure that BIM education can be successfully implemented in Malaysia . The barriers are such as lack of time and resources to provide a new curriculum; this is because to develop a new curriculum the government needs to do a comprehensive study about the relevance of the curriculum for short- and long-term education. Secondly, lack of financial or funding to provide appropriate BIM materials and educational resources due to the high cost to buy the BIM software and hardware. Thirdly, lack of support and interest from the faculty to explore and add BIM syllabus in current curriculum because BIM education will be replaced by other technologies in a few years. Fourthly, the teachers or lecturers did not have real industry experience and accreditation in operating the BIM, which can contribute to the complexity in understanding the BIM system and uncertainties of BIM software (Revit, Bentley, etc.) and finally, the lack of collaboration with the private sector or organization that run the BIM project to give an opportunity to students or talents to have their on-job training or internship programs.