attributions to him were published. The story of sex with the white girl is reminiscent of a passage in The Autobiography of MalcolmX that white boys in Lansing would “push me to proposition certain white girls” since if they broke “the terrible taboo by slipping off with me somewhere, they would have that hammer over the girls’ heads, to make them give in to them,” although there Malcolm says he declined to do so. The Flint boarding- house story is substantiated by the 1940 census, which shows Delia Williams, forty, wife of Willie Williams, thirty-one, both Negroes from Arkansas, living at 1614 ½ Clifford Street, Flint, Michigan, with two lodgers, also Negro. Willie Williams is a striking match for Willie Mae, the alleged “Miss Jones,” and his landlord status would square with paying the rent (although it is inconsistent with Willie Mae’s description as “another boarder”). That Malcolm Little did work for Paul Lennon, 5 Arlington Street, Boston, as “butler and occ. house-worker,” and for the Capitol Bedding Company in Lansing from April to June 1945, are confirmed by his Masachusetts prison file. The Autobiography, finally, refers to “table-waiting” at the “exclusive parties” of a “sensitive old man” and observes that Boston’s rich whites “had their private specialty desires catered to by Negroes who come to their homes camouflaged as chauffeurs, maids, waiters, or some other accepted image.” 23
MalcolmX experienced a more profound change in his thinking when he left the Nation of Islam, made a pilgrimage to Mecca, and became an orthodox Sunni Muslim in 1964. He realized that he had become a sounding board for Elijah Muhammad, whom he had come to distrust, and his true opinions had yet to be expressed (X 176 in Howard-Pitney). Giving a press conference on his return from Mecca, he reported that he found in Saudi Arabia that people of all colors could share a religion and a brotherhood in the family of man. He realized that racism, because of the history of slavery, was an American problem, not truly a problem of race. Like King, he recognized that individuals, even whites, could be “good”, but evil manifests itself insidiously in the collective (X 159 in Howard-Pitney). Malcolm’s words at the end of his Autobiography in 1965 seem prophetic. He knew that he would be killed by agents of the Nation of Islam, who saw him as a traitor to Elijah Muhammad. He knew that posterity would always pit him as the antithesis to King’s creed of nonviolence. He knew that the white press would label him as the representative of “hate” (X 178 in Howard-Pitney). All these things came to pass. He was assassinated that year by Nation of Islam agents, shortly after having met with Coretta Scott King in an apparent attempt to find common ground with her husband (Howard-Pitney 188). Posterity has indeed insisted on making him the antithesis of King, perhaps because King’s tactic of nonviolence was so successful in winning desegregation in the South, and perhaps because so much of Malcolm’s initial message came not from himself, but from Elijah Muhammad. The white press did label him as the representative of “hate,” perhaps owing to the taint of Mike Wallace’s 1959 television documentary about the Nation of Islam, “The Hate that Hate Produced,” the vehicle that introduced Malcolm to the nation (Howard- Pitney 183 in Howard-Pitney). Malcolm was conciliatory in the end. He saw himself for what he was – a gadfly, biting at the conscience not only of the white community, but especially of the Civil Rights movement itself. He saw his role as necessary to bringing truth to light to “destroy the racist cancer that is malignant in the body of America” (X 179 in Howard-Pitney).
Pan-Africanism is an identifiable movement with its own history and ideological roots. It formally began at the first Pan-African Congress in London in 1900 and has a distinct linage up to the present day African Union. Unfortunately, the movement has not presented a challenge to imperial domination in Africa, rather it has helped continue the exploitation of the continent. Accepting the colonial nation state has prevented any politics of liberation from developing in the movement. It is important to decentre Pan-Africanism from radical histories of resistance because the movement developed in parallel to and rejection of more revolutionary, anti-imperial politics. Garveyism developed a mass movement rooted on the global black nation, shattering the boundaries of Westphalian sovereignty. MalcolmX picked up the work of Garvey, developing on some of its regressive weakness to form the OAAU. By unpicking this tradition from Pan-Africanism we can begin to chart a route to revolutionary concepts and practice of nationalism that can present a challenge to the imperial social order.
The second factor in MXLU’s failure was the lack of support from civil rights organizations. The state convention of the NAACP was held in Durham just two weeks before the scheduled opening of MXLU. In his keynote address, the president of the North Carolina chapter of the NAACP told civil rights leaders that “many black people have a vested interest in segregation and they want it to live. Some of them want it because they can’t compete in an integrated society because of their failures in many ways.” Alexander went on to say that racial isolation had never done anything but impede the progression of blacks. “I’m not going to debate on whether you should go to a MalcolmX University or to any other kind of university. But I’m saying to you that if you’re going to be a bookkeeper or an accountant, you had better go where you can
To prove the second assertion, let A be a collection of subsets of X with fip, and let C be the collection of all proper filters on X which contain A . Clearly the filter generated by A is proper, so C 6= ∅. We consider C as a partially ordered set under inclusion. Any subset D of C which is a chain has an upper bound in C , namely S D
The Court should adopt the evidentiary standard endorsed by the Re- statement (Third) in order to ensure a fair trial for both plaintiff and defen- dant. This standard would allow manufacturers to educate juries about the required regulations. It would also allow manufacturers to differentiate em- pirically between the performance of two products, such as the OMW 206 and 207, that may seem substantially similar but may include certain signif- icant differences, and it would make it harder for plaintiffs to unfairly mis- represent product performance. The public policy considerations at issue would remain viable because the strict liability standard inherently places a heavy burden on the manufacturer, and the Restatement specifically notes that regulatory compliance is not sufficient to establish absence of defect. The district court in Malcolm prohibited evidence of FMVSS compli- ance in part because it thought that the results would confuse the jury, 113
Considering the results obtained in the current study, it can be concluded that the Malcolm Baldrige model includes many features to evaluate the performance of health and health care organizations, and the educational institutes. According to the results of this survey, Malcolm Baldrige can be used as a comprehensive model to evaluate the performance of health care and educational organizations. With the use of this model, the organizations’ weaknesses and strengths would be clear to the authorities, and they can take steps towards the improvement and the growing promotion of their organization by using these data. As Mojdeh Kar, also, states in the results of her work: “By using the Malcolm Baldrige model in hospital assessment, determining the sensitivity and key areas, the assessment at any period of time, and profiting a suitable framework to improve the hospital performance would be possible. The platform organizational learning and the improvement basis would be provided. As a result of the attitude system, the recognition of inputs, outputs, the system components, and processes and feedbacks would be obtained  . Manjanas also used the Malcolm Baldrige model to evaluate the performance of a hospital case study and could infer the weaknesses and strengths of that organization.
Abstract. We obtain the asymptotic estimations for n k=2 f (k) and n k=2 1/f (k), where f (k) = k/π (k), k ≥ 2. We study the expression 2f (x + y) − f (x) − f (y) for integers x, y ≥ 2 and as an application we make several remarks in connection with the conjecture of Hardy and Littlewood.