DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Overall, the results of this study did not reveal statistically significant differences between male and female volleyball athletes concerning trait anxiety, consciousness and intellectual ability – imagination. On the contrary, statistically significant differences were found between male and female athletes as regards to extraversion, agreeableness, and emotional stability factors. It appears that male athletes as compared to female athletes appear less extraverted. Τhat is less cordial and social and they search to a lesser degree for emotions regarding sport and activity. Furthermore, they appear more stable emotionally, with less anxiety, aggression and emotions of sadness, shyness and impulsivity while demonstrating less agreeableness caring less to be likeable and attractive (8).
comment so the student could classify their reasoning behind choosing a black or white athlete in response to the comments. Some of the responses pertaining to athletic ability included: “Blacks are known to have great talent but sometimes lack the knowledge to play the game” (Black male student response) (Fraley & Buffington, 2006, p14); “Because Blacks are typically better athletes than white. However, because they have greater natural ability, they often learn the game without strict instruction; do not play with exact fundamentals. Whites usually have to work harder with less natural ability to become good players” (White male student response) (Fraley & Buffington, 2006, p. 14). White males received negative references pertaining to athleticism. One white male student responded, “not many Caucasian males have great talent” (Fraley & Buffington, 2006, p. 16). In relation to female athletes perceptions based on race black female athletes also tend to be characterized as more athletic with more athletic descriptors, while media focuses on white female athletes femininity and looks. Black female athletes lack the feminine descriptors within sports media that white female athletes have been accustomed to, which allows black female athletes to be seen more often as athletic based on their talent than as sexual based on their appearance.
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The participants of this study were recruited from Universiti Malaya (UM). Level of Sport Performance Scale (LSPS) was used in this study. This questionnaire based on previous literature on sport performance. Level of Sport Performance Scale (LSPS), contain 30 items, which measures 7 important elements of sport performance. They are Speed (mobility of limbs, muscular strength and flexibility of joints), Core Training Workout (levels of fitness and activity), deal with stress and anxiety, tolerance of pain, confident, deal with distraction and satisfaction. Besides that, each participant must evaluate their performance as high, medium or low at the demographic section. The data were collected during MASUM (Sport between Universities) competition. The sample consisted of 79 athletes, with male athletes (N=49) and female athletes (N=30). While individual sport athletes (N=43), and team sport athletes (N= 36).
The objective of this article is to present the results of a study on the impact of age and sex on the repertory of coping used by Tunisian athletes in collective sport. In this context, we used the Arabic version of the inventory of sports adaptation strategies (Hajji et al., 2016) for 419 athletes, including 278 men and 141 women with an average age of 19.00 years (SD = 5.52). This measuring instrument includes ten first-order coping strategies arranged into three second-order coping strategies. The processing of the data collected by the IBM SPSS software showed the following results. Our study showed that female teen athletes are more likely to adopt coping strategies aimed at disengagement. However, male teen athletes use a task and distraction repertoire of coping. On the other hand, adult female athletes are moving more towards the coping of disengagement and distraction. However, adult male athletes use more task-based coping. Age and gender are therefore variables that directly influence the repertoire of coping among Tunisian athletes in team sport.
to a human stimulus at a controlled approach velocity. Schreurs et al.  found male athletes displayed faster COD completion times (45 ◦ , 90 ◦ , 135 ◦ , and 180 ◦ ) compared to females which could be partially attributed to the greater approach velocities demonstrated by the male athletes; a key determinant of faster COD performance [62,63]. Moreover, Condello et al.  found male athletes displayed greater vertical (p = 0.051, ES = 0.67) and medio-lateral (p = 0.005, ES = 1.05) ground reaction forces compared to female athletes during a 60 ◦ cut. This finding is noteworthy because greater ground reaction forces are associated with faster performance [53,60,61]; however, Condello et al.  failed to compare completion times. Unfortunately, to the best of our knowledge, no other biomechanical research has comprehensively compared COD biomechanics between sexes from a performance perspective, with most studies focusing on injury risk biomechanics between sexes [65–72]. Nevertheless, although strength characteristics and COD biomechanics were not examined in this study, males, in general, may display greater strength and rapid force production characteristics [56,73,74], thus enabling them to apply greater braking and propulsive forces, which may explain the generally superior 505 and COD deficit performances compared to female sports observed in this study. Further research is required comparing strength and biomechanical differences between sexes in relation to COD speed performance.
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In summary, obtained results can serve as a basis for an anthropometrical model for elite male and female sambo athletes. A typical somatotype in male sambo athletes was endomorphic meso- morph with indicating a predominance of mus- culoskeletal tissue, while female athletes were classified as endomorphic mesomorph and meso- morphic endomorph in relation with weight divi- sion. This information provides reference values of anthropometric characteristics, body compo- sition and somatotype of elite male and female junior sambo athletes. Concerning this fact, understanding the characteristics of sambo ath- letes will be helpful for athletes and coaches to control the training process and reduce the risk of extreme dieting. However, there is a need for future research to investigate sambo athletes in relation to age and different competitive level in an aim to generalise results.
preparation . Russian experts  suggested that their classification of combat sports allowed, at the stage of initial sports specialization, for choosing the best-suit- ed sport for an athlete. Based on the analysis of com- petitive history of the athletes, these authors found that fencing and judo were dominated by the development of special endurance, which is based on optimum devel- opment of physical and technical/tactical preparation. Boxing was characterized by a dominant development of speed and strength motor abilities, which are based on an optimum level of special endurance. Furthermore, wrestling necessitates a relatively even development of all physical characteristics, with emphasis on the in- dividual abilities of each athlete and high demands of movement technique. The theory that has been devel- oped in recent years stresses, among other things, the criteria which determine the forms of direct encounters of the competitors, which include using weapons, hits, throws and grappling actions that restrict the opponent’s movements. It is also essential to provide information about the effect of the somatic factor on the choice of a sport and future achievements in the sport. It is em- phasized that the athletes with potential for success in sport should be found by means of “a careful elimina- tion’ in direct “back-up” groups in national teams . The authors who classified combat sports did not suffi- ciently consider the age of starting regular training re- gimes and the somatic type [8,9], which, according to Carter and Heath , provides important information on the chances of success in a particular sport. Age and basic characteristics of physical development typical of elite athletes might be considered as a reference for achievement of success in a particular sport. Therefore, they are included in the characterization of a ‘champi- on model’ . It can be assumed that there is an age range which is conducive to achievement of success in combat sports. The age characteristics of basic indices of many outstanding athletes have been provided in other studies. The comparative studies are very rare with re- spect to male elite athletes [7,11–14], and particularly female athletes that meet high requirements of compet- ing in different combat sports [7,12,15–17].
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The tendency for the heterozygous state in three: ACE (I/D), BDKRB2 (+9/−9) and LEP (G/A), out of the four gene polymorphic sites studied was shown, but not proved by the statistical analysis in male athletes. Among female athletes, the co-existence of ACE (D/D) with BDKRB2 (+9/−9) or LEP (G/A) genotypes and the reduction of I allele frequency and of both IG+9A and IG−9A allelic combinations were proved to be signifi- cant, compared to the female control group. Probably, a broader and more homogeneous sampling of athletes would demonstrate how strong the results highlighted in this study are and examine the effects of multiple gen- etic variants and allele combinations in superior physical performance.
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between 60m sprint results and reaction times in athletes who took part in the World Indoor Athletics Championships. The reaction times and 60m sprint results were compiled for 483 sprinters (253 male, 230 female) who performed 60m sprint event. Corresponding data were obtained from archives of the official website of the International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF). The relationship between reaction time and 60m sprint results were calculated using Pearson correlation coefficient. Additionally, the Independent Samples T-Test was used to compare athletes’ reaction times and 60m sprint results. Positive moderate correlation was found between mean values of all 60m sprint results and reaction times, which were analyzed together in all categories (r=.436, p<0.01). Moreover, significant differences were also found between male and female finalists based on the 60m sprint times and reaction times respectively (t=-27.98, p<0.01; t=-3.26, p<0.01). As a result, it can be concluded that reaction time has great importance on 60 m performance. The best reaction time is related to the higher performance of 60m sprint in both male and female athletes. Moreover, this is also similar for round 1, semifinal and final categories. Coaches and athletes may consider improving reaction time to achieve better 60m performance.
The results of the study showed that Delta frequency activity was not significantly different between male and female athletes who were interested in before, during and after the advert, but the average activity of these waves in the male uninterested athlete group after viewing advertisement was higher than before and during advertisement. The results of this part of the study are consistent with the findings of Depp and colleagues (2005). Findings of Depp and colleagues research showed that, Delta frequency activity is higher in uninterested groups than interested ones during viewing advertisements. In the present study, among male and female athletes of the Nike brand, Delta frequency activity has increased after broadcasting ads. Delta is the slowest brain wave that a person has in a delta state, involuntary, unattractive, has a small amount of arousal; it seems that the activity of this wave in uninterested athletes (male and female) should be more than interested athletes (male and female). As the neglect and stimulation of broadcasting ads (distribution of Nike brand advertising in this research) was higher in uninterested athletes than interested athletes, which increasing this wave activity is foreseen in a group of athletes who are not interested in the Nike brand. The results of the study also showed that theta frequency activity was not significant in the male uninterested athlete, female interested athlete, and female uninterested athlete before, during and after viewing advertisements. But these waves activity in male interested athlete group was higher before viewing advertisements than during viewing ads. Part of the research results from the viewpoint that theta frequency activity was not significant in the male uninterested athlete, female interested athlete, and female uninterested athlete viewing advertisements, are consistent with the findings of Patrícia and colleagues (2010). The results of research by Patrícia and colleagues showed that there was no significant difference in the activity of theta waves during and after the viewing of advertisements among interested and uninterested and this difference was not significant in the present study as well. Theta's position is mainly caused in the temporal and sore region of the brain and excellent learning, mind reprogramming, creative thinking are of theta wave functions. Since usually theta frequency activity is associated with low anxiety and increasing behavioral attitude as well as active memory; it seems that low activity of this wave in male interested athlete, to Nike's sports ads that are waiting for favorite ads or brand, is lower during viewing ads. Songs and pictures are very slow and usually at a slow pace, it can create this position in the brain .
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Male long jumpers executed the last three steps of the long jump with faster velocity than female athletes. Additionally, male jumpers exhibited larger take-off velocities and take-off angle compared to women. Analysis revealed that the key step for examining the gender differences and the impact on long jump bio- mechanics is the penultimate step. It is concluded that female jumpers should improve the transition from the sprinting gait to the preparation for take-off. Further studies should be conducted concerning the techni- cal execution of the penultimate step of the long jump approach, aiming for the determination of the contri- bution of the support and swing limbs action on the process of the take-off leg placement on the board and their combined effect on take-off parameters.
The findings of the study indicated that majority of athletes and non athletes were in a state of optimum health with respect to anthropometry, biochemical and biophysical tests. Majority of male athletes and non athletes and female athletes had normal BMI while most female non athletes were overweight. However, clinical symptoms of nutritional deficiencies such as dental caries, mild anaemia, bleeding gums, pale tongue, angular stomatitis etc, were seen among all of them. Diet of athletes also lacked in major foods and nutrients and non athletes was high in fats and sugar. None of the athletes and non athletes consumed suggested quantity of fluids per day. Commonly consumed fluids among all subjects were water, milk, orange juice and lemon juice. Total plate count test indicated that there were no contaminating microbes present in the fluids consumed by the subjects. Majority of athletes showed average to excellent performance in all four physical fitness tests. Knowledge pertaining to sports nutrition and hydration was very low before nutrition education (4.56- 5.4). Education on sports nutrition and hydration imparted to the athletes and non athletes showed an appreciable increase in the knowledge scores (11.24-11.56).
When the perception of risk assessment for sportsmen and coaches according to personal information was examined, financial management perception varies according to sex and marital status (p <0.05); it was found that there was no statistically significant relationship between other sub-dimensions and personal information (p> 0.05).In financial management perception, the perception of men (26,66 ± 2,10) is higher than that of females (25,34 ± 2,52). Again, the perception of married people (26,57 ± 2,31) is higher than that of cigarettes (25,31 ± 2,32). According to female athletes of male athletes, marital athletes have higher financial management risk perceptions than single athletes.
News Online’s failure to accord females competing in Olympic team sports coverage consistent with their success has wider social and practical implications. Women’s sport in Australia suffers from low participation and high dropout rates. Only 245 300 women and girls play basketball, hockey, soccer, softball and volleyball. The sporting and social reality is that these Olympic team sports are not fashionable, especially when compared with the 319 500 females who play netball (ABS, 2000), a non-Olympic team sport. Nor is the popularity of women’s Olympic team sports likely to increase while the media define them as unworthy or less worthy of coverage than individual contests for both genders or male team sports. The relative absence of women’s team sports from News Online Olympic sports coverage could compound the ‘symbolic annihilation’ of these female athletes (Kane and Greendorfer, 1994). A positive slant is that female individual and team sports across sex-types were highlighted, rather than socially acceptable sports. Ironically, News Online’s coverage is out of synchrony both with popularised Australian sports and with the structure of the Olympic Games.
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highly trained judokas . Moreover, the mean- ing of the obtained results could be limited by the small sample size, especially among female athletes. A higher number of participants among each sub- group, possibly representing all weight divisions, would be advantageous for the statistical analysis, even if we are aware of the difficulties in recruiting a sufficient number of judokas, especially female ones. Furthermore, it would be also interesting to investi- gate differences between male and female judo ath- letes belonging to different age classes. Nevertheless, this study represents a first step in assessing sex- related differences in juveniles’ body composition and performance indicators by means of simple, spe- cific ergometric tests for upper and lower body per- formance designed for judo athletes.
Creating (based on forecasts) a program and plan for a long-term training and later, plans for athletes’ individual development, should involve specifying an aim to be achieved. This aim is the champion model, that is, a hypothetical system that imitates selected (the most important and the best) traits of the origi- nal, that is, a future champion of a given sports dis- cipline . Researchers have for years been working on creating such somatic, morphological, and motor champion models that would be derived from the level of physical fitness and body build traits that determine high performance in individual sport disciplines [10,11]. The successful creation of such models would result in a more efficient selection of athletes as well as a more efficient process for spotting and developing young talents. A number of sources state that sports potential and chances of success can be determined with high reliability based on an ath- lete’s body build and somatic type . In Australia, an attempt was made to prove that a good method of sport talent selection results in high effectiveness
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Prospective studies on Taekwondo injuries sustained at single tournaments have been conducted before [1-3]. For instance, Zemper and Pieter  found injury rates for American elite male Taekwondo athletes to be 127.4/ 1,000 athlete-exposures and for females, 90.1/1,000 ath- lete-exposures. One athlete-exposure (A-E) refers to one athlete being exposed to the possibility of being injured. Since there are always two athletes competing during any one bout, there are two athlete-exposures per bout [2,3]. In a later study, Pieter et al.  reported injury rates of 139.5/1,000 A-E and 96.5/1,000 A-E for European men and women, respectively. In neither study were the differ- ences tested for statistical significance. However, at a rec- reational tournament in the United Kingdom, the men (51.3/1,000 A-E) sustained statistically significantly more injuries than the women (47.6/1,000 A-E) .
and Darrall-Jones, J and Stokes, K and Till, K (2017) Between-Day Reliability and Usefulness of a Fitness Testing Battery in Youth Sport Athletes: Reference Data for Practitioners. Mea- surement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 22 (1). pp. 1-8. ISSN 1091-367X DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1091367X.2017.1360304
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In broad terms, the sexual differentiation of animals occurs as follows: The default sex at least for mammals, is female, meaning that males are a genetic variant on the female sex [6-9]. Early in the gestation process of nearly all males, the would-be ovaries are made to begin differentiating into testes instead by genes located on the Y-chromosome . As this occurs in humans during the first five months of gestation, the genitals of males gradually take on a masculine rather than a feminine appearance [11-12].
Taekwondo is a complex striking combat sport that requires highly developed physical, physiolog- ical, technical, tactical and psychological charac- teristics of athletes for their successful competitive performance (Bridge, Santos, Chaabène, Pieter, & Franchini, 2014). In the Olympic Games, male and female taekwondo athletes compete in four weight divisions (males: -58 kg, -68 kg, -80 kg and +80 kg; females: -49 kg, -57 kg, -67 kg and +67 kg). Match simulation investigations reported a predom- inance of oxidative pathway, followed by ATP-PCr and glycolytic energy systems, while the main high- intensity actions were supplied by ATP-PCr energy system (Campos, Bertuzzi, Dourado, Santos, &