An example of an instance where we discussed gender inequality in the context of my students’ practical experience took place when one of my first year students found a group of five year old boys whispering and laughing in the toilets. When she approached the boys asked her to take off her underwear. My student froze, not knowing how to react and then she left, shocked and upset. During our class discussion we tried to understand the source of her emotional reaction. We asked her what was brought up for her as a result of this event both in her mind and in the minds of the other female students. We found that many female students had memories they associated with harassment: a stranger pushing himself on a young girl in a bus, a group of young men making comments on a woman’s body while she passed by and many more. We then read about sexual harassment and tried to understand feminist theories that view sexual harassment and rape as a mechanism for male control over women. We then discussed the development of perception in five year olds based on their background and environment.
First, we acknowledge the small size of our sample, resulting in limited statistical power. In this context, the fact that a considerable number of hypothesized associations were signiﬁcant is noteworthy. Secondly, our study was conducted in the metropolitan area of Lisbon, a southern and non-interior region of Portugal, predominantly composed of urban and semi-urban areas. This regional, community-based sam- pling approach has consequences for the generalization of ﬁndings. As such, future studies should be conducted in more diverse geographical areas. Comparative cross-country studies are also warranted. Third, participant ECE teachers were exclusively women, which reﬂects the limited male representation in the Portuguese ECE workforce. Fourth, children in this study were aged between 44 and 84 months; therefore, future studies could also investigate younger children’s ideas. Fifth, the same coders were responsible for conducting CLASS and participation practices’ observations, raising issues of potentially shared variance. Sixth, while Emotional Support and Classroom Organization scores were reliable, interrater agreement estimates for Instructional Support scores were less than optimal. Finally, while we used both teacher re- ports and independent observations for assessing participation
Table 2 also reveals that aggressive humor style scores of males outnumbered the mean scores of females. In terms of studies of humor carried out so far, it can be seen that a number of studies have discussed the effect of gender and gender roles on humor styles. Such research has found out that using aggressive humor style was more common among males compared to females (Saroglou & Scariot, 2002; Yerlikaya, 2003; Kazarian & Martin, 2004; Chen & Martin, 2007; Avşar, 2008; Erözkan, 2009; Traş, Arslan & Mentiş-Taş, 2011). Yerlikaya (2007) found out that aggressive and self-defeating humor styles were more common among male students. Führ (2002), in a survey of students aged between 11-14 years old, stated that males used aggressive and sexual humor more often while females use humor just to amuse themselves with an increasing amount accompanying their growth. Likewise, Kazarian and Martin (2006) claimed that males used all four types of humor more than females; commonly aggressive and self-defeating humor. After a short literature analysis, it is obvious that the results of the studies conducted so far are consistent with the findings of this study.
3 teachers on the practicum in Australian secondary schools suggests that racist discourses in schools impact negatively on student teachers’ practicum experience. In one case, it was clear that the pre- service teacher’s ethnicity impinged negatively on the supervising teacher’s assessment. Similarly, Ortlipp (2005) reported on incidents involving earlychildhood pre-service teachers from CALD backgrounds that highlighted the “potential equity issue of assessors basing their judgments of a student’s competence against practicum assessment criteria on their own (often unconscious and unacknowledged) culturally based values” (p.45). Dubetz, Turley, and Erickson’s (1997) analysis of their own reflective stories of assessing pre-service teachers from minority cultural groups showed that university lecturers’ own cultural values and beliefs influence the judgments they make. These findings are consistent with research into performance-based assessment, which indicates that assessor prejudice regarding race, appearance, language, and ethnicity has the potential to affect judgment, particularly in high-inference performance-based assessment (Gillis & Bateman, 1999; Villegas, 1997).
In other words, the concept of pre-service training refers to the process in which student teachers develop professionally, through involvement in practical education, knowledge construction and behaviour acquisition (Mule, 2006). Cochran-Smith (2001) argued that the traditional test outcomes of student teachers and their professional performance, besides their personal abilities and the impact of teacher education on their knowledge, could be the fundamental criteria for the success of the pre-service teacher education programme. However, overall the pre-service practical work and participation in a real classroom serve as the basis for all professional growth of in-service teacher experience. Tang (2003: 483) called this process of learning in pre-service education, “a field experience”. He regarded the field experience (real teaching) as the most important experience regarding the student teacher’s professional learning. Oh et al., (2005) in their study about the impact of pre-service student teaching on teachers’ career goals, found that not only their first year teaching in the classroom, but also their experience during the pre-service training, could be very helpful as a feedback experience. They also found that pre-service teaching experience had a significant impact on job-satisfaction and teachers’ confidence in their teaching. Within this context, Romano (2005) asserted that pre-service teachers’ practice is fundamental for their development as teachers. Pre-service programmes worldwide provide student teachers with basic knowledge for teaching, which has to be kept in mind as a guideline for the field. Jones and Straker (2006) stated that:
The issues associated with the possible recruitment of more men to the child care profession are many and complex. As one stakeholder commented ‘gender bias is a big issue’. Several survey respondents commented that child care may fare better if there were more men in the field. Nursing is a one example of a profession that improved its public perception once more men were employed. Rates of pay increased, along with the profile of nursing as a viable career choice. These potential advantages need to be counterweighed against the potential disadvantages of the ‘glass escalator’ (Williams, 1992) that can see men in traditionally female professions rise quickly to the top, thus creating resentment and exacerbating gender inequities. Men’s fears about the dangers of sexual abuse allegations would need to be addressed if they were to be attracted to the field in large numbers. A study of the views of men enrolled in an earlychildhood teacher education program at a NSW university indicated that all participants were deeply concerned about this possibility (Sumsion and Lubimowski, 1998: Sumsion, 2000).
Considering the child as one of the most important assets of the nation, every effort should be exerted to promote his welfare and enhance his opportunities for a useful and happy life. The quality of children’s lives before beginning formal education greatly influences the kind of learners they can be. Preschool teachers and Day Care workers are crucial to a successful experience. They perform a combination of basic care and teaching duties. They provide the opportunities for children to learn. Preschool teachers and child care workers play a vital role in preparing children to build the skills they will need in elementary school. Their teaching competencies are important to successful earlychildhood teaching.
Abstract This research was motivated by the importance of human resource management in EarlyChildhood Institutions in achieving Indonesia's national quality standards. A good quality of work life can improve the quality of products and services produced by companies or organizations. Therefore, the quality of work life is an impact on achieving the quality standards of an EarlyChildhood institution. This study used independent variables namely Commitment (X1), Training and Development (X2), and dependent variable namely Quality of Work Life (Y). Data collection in this study was a questionnaire method distributed to 55 EarlyChildhoodteachers by using purposive sampling. While the analysis was done by processing data using SPSS version 16.0 for windows.The results of regression analysis showed that the commitment variable, the training and development variable have effect on the quality of work life. Based on the results, a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.290 obtained, which means that the influence of commitment, training and development on the quality of work life is 29%. The remaining of 71% is influenced by other variables.
The listening song. The kindergarten classroom lends itself naturally to a busy
environment, with activities that move quickly and often include movement or peer interaction. Because of this, transition or redirecting routines are essential teaching tools. All of the four participating teachers utilized their own transition routines as part of the progression of their classes, such as songs, rhymes, or chants. In each case, the students knew exactly what to do when they heard the song or chant. Some examples that I observed were Brynna and Carol’s use of the melody “If You’re Happy and You Know It”, substituting the words “Put your finger on your lips, on your lips. Put your hand on your hip on your hip. Put your finger on your lip and your hand on your hip. Put your finger on your lip, on your lip.” Brynna had many other redirecting songs, each used for a very specific purpose, such as the popular Jackson 5 song “A-B-C” and replaced the lyrics with “1-2-3, please put your eyes on me.” Each time, the students were quiet and attentive when they heard the song. Brynna chose to also integrate the listening song from the website into her repertoire, using it repeatedly in all three observations. She used it to engage the children, combining movement and patterns such as “let everyone move hands like this” touching shoulders to waist quickly in rhythm with the song. She also used it to practice consonant sounds, like “let everyone say this sound twice – ch, ch.” Her use of this song was more for specific language outcomes than a teaching tool to redirect the energy of the classroom.
The presentations were held twice, first presentation is done in front of peers of earlychildhood education teachers and it is scored by researcher as an English lecturer. The second presentation is in front of the students of earlychildhood education and it is scored by teacher’s colleague in the school. Both researcher and teacher who scoring the presenter teacher have the same scoring rubric, it is related to some points such as: the suitability of the story content with earlychildhood age, the creativity of properties/media used, teachers ability to use the media effectively and efficiently, teachers ability in teaching English vocabulary based on the story, the variety of vocabulary taught, engaging students to be active in learning, submitting moral values based on the stories presented, teacher’s English language skills (vocabulary and pronunciation), teacher’s confidence, suitability of how to deliver to the earlychildhood age, and the benefits of the activities for earlychildhood education students. The instrument used for scoring the implementation of the story telling method in teaching English vocabulary was a questionnaire.
managers’ responsibility. It can also be considered to be an important professional skill of the ECE teachers (Fonsén, 2014; Heikka, 2014), as teachers are the leaders of the pedagogy at the level of the child group. In addition, Finnish ECE teachers are the pedagogical leaders of a multi-professional working team in ECE centres. Therefore, the teachers themselves need to have certain leadership skills. However, previously, the basic training has not included leadership studies (Fonsén, 2014; Heikka, Halttunen, and Waniganyake, 2016). In the current study, pedagogical leadership is approached through the aspect of shared leadership (Harris 2004; Heikka 2014), which implies that all those in the community should have the human capital that is needed for leadership so that the responsibility for the quality and development of the pedagogy is divided among all members of the working community (Fonsén, 2013; Hujala & Fonsén, 2011). At times when challenges are created by increasingly limited financial resources, we contend that it is especially important to pay attention to and invest in the support and development of human capital to ensure pedagogical quality , particularly as the quality of pedagogy depends more deeply on a teacher’s pedagogical competence than it does on physical resources alone.
In-service learning offered in a variety of learning contexts. In-service learning was also offered in a variety of contexts, from large group formal courses to one-on-one mentoring, to individual reading. Gail, who thrived on small group “real life” contextualized learning, was most fortunate in being hired by an independent school that provided year-long internships for its new teachers. Gail was able to work alongside an experienced teacher for a full school year, participating in all aspects of planning, teaching, assessment, and communicating with parents. When she began to teach her own class the next year, she felt much more prepared than the other participants. In a similar way, Mike, who described himself as always having been a “book person,” continued his professional learning in a way that suited his learning style. Over his first three years of teaching, he read a great deal of professional books on his own and with a school- based teacher book club, but very little that related to literacy.
140 | http://journal.unj.ac.id/unj/index.php/jpud
Huber, 2016). This evaluation uses a quantitative descriptive design that is supported by qualita- tive data as explanatory, with a focus on quantitative picture studies of the implementation of expertise practice programs. This evaluation design is expected to be able to see the facts that occur in all components of the implementation of the expertise practice program, which will then be objectively described (Roegman, Goodwin, & Reed, 2016). The objects in this evaluation de- sign are lecturers and students involved in the expertise practice program and all existing stake- holders. Acting as an evaluator in the EPPK is a lecturer or facilitator of the expertise practice program. In its application, the EPPK model is used to measure two dimensions of evaluation, namely the dimensions of the process, and the product. The process dimensions include, namely planning, implementation and assessment. The product dimensions in the EPPK model include four types, namely the ability of dance, musical ability, storytelling ability and artistic ability. Overall, the EPPK model meets the standards as a tool that can be used to evaluate, because in trials carried out in the expertise practice program of the EarlyChildhood Islamic Education De- partment, FITK, IAIN Surkarta and rated "good" by reviewers to be used to evaluate the program expertise practice at the Surakarta IIT FITK PIAUD Department and able to provide a compre- hensive overview and criteria regarding the implementation of a expertise practice program. The next stage is the deployment stage of the EPPK model instrument which covers the scope of processes and products, while the EPPK model kits are instruments, scoring guidelines and crite- ria for good or not good, and guidelines for implementing evaluation.
My Time, Our Place represents Australia’s first national framework for school age care to be used by school age care educators. It aims to extend the principles, practices and outcomes of the EYLF to the contexts and age range of the children and young people who attend school age care settings. The National Quality Standard supports the implementation of My Time, Our Place by ensuring that necessary environments, facilities, staffing arrangements, resources and management structures are in place. The National Quality Agenda in EarlyChildhood Education and Care presents a range of challenges and opportunities for improving the quality of teaching. The challenges relate to ensuring that the intent of the EYLF and NQS are fully realised including ensuring that an adequate supply of quality teachers is available to put the initiatives in place. On the other hand, the initiatives provide opportunities to capitalise on the broad support for quality improvement focused reform across the sector and to professionalise and increase the status and standing of teachers working in the sector. Most importantly, the initiatives provide opportunities to enable a better future for the youngest and most vulnerable in our society.
inquiry-based curriculum are provided, teachers can be effective in explicitly teaching NOS elements. Pre-service teachers, then, could share their experiences about the difficulties of teaching NOS aspects.
Another important finding of this study was that religious devotion might be influencing pre-
NOS views. Science educators need to be aware of this and, though challenging, they should help students realize that science and religion are not against each other and one is not superior to the other (Abd-El-Khalick & Akerson, 2004). Instead, they are different sources of knowledge, such as art, philosophy, etc. As Abd-El-Khalick and Akerson put, for learners who fail to discriminate between scientific and religious knowledge, it might be very difficult to embrace valid NOS views, even through explicit instruction.
For teachers, the problems of teaching an increasingly diverse population, and developing an appreciation and understanding of the nature of this diversity in order to teach and incorporate different cultural values and beliefs effectively can be difficult. There is a need for teachers to appreciate and to be aware of “cultural mores”, while avoiding stereotypical attitudes that fail to recognise individual differences between cultures (Souto-Manning & Dice, 2007). Potentially, conflict arises between teacher and student when cultural ideologies clash, such as if a student comes from a culture that accepts “corporal punishment” (Charlesworth, 2011) as a response to misbehaviour to one that does not, such as in western society. In such situations, how does a teacher respect cultural values? MacBeath and Galton (2008) suggest that differing student abilities, language and economic variations, family dysfunction, and student transience “all bring their own, often formidable, challenges” (p. 11), which for EC classroom teachers may be accentuated when class sizes are large (see class size in Section 2.6).
Eligibility Teachers, principals, paraprofessionals employees who are currently employed and placed in a Victorian government school and paid from the central payroll. (Codes in 4.2). eLearning Plan The plan for maximising the impact and effectiveness of ICT
TSU Special Edition
Question N M SD Sig*
1. I believe children need to be directed by an adult in the classroom 82 2.05 0.72 .043* 2. I spend a majority of my time in the classroom on behaviors 90 2.04 0.76 .314 3. I feel most of my students need to be externally motivation 85 2.19 0.84 .009* 4. I notice a few of my students have difficulty finishing a task 89 2.39 0.70 .585 5. I see a gap in what students might achieve/actual achievement 88 2.43 0.64 .863 6. I notice a few students have difficulty initiating task themselves 91 2.21 0.66 .519 7. I feel difficulty as a teacher from controlling behavior problem 87 2.30 0.84 .863 8. I encourage my students to gain the ability to initiate tasks 92 1.74 0.53 .873 9. I would prefer to spend more time teaching children social skills 80 2.11 0.68 .673 10. I find activities for my students to work on in groups 88 1.70 0.53 .675 11. I feel it is more important to teach social-emotional content 87 2.01 0.76 .625 12. I feel most of my students have the ability to self-motivate 88 2.27 0.66 .254 13. I am often times interrupted while teaching to address behavior 87 2.39 0.84 .988 14. 1 often feel significantly stressed as a teacher. 87 2.54 0.93 .587 Analysis of the 14 items in the Likert-style section of the survey (see table 3) showed that knowledge did not significantly predict teachers’ attitudes and beliefs (p > .05), except, on item one (M = 2.05, SD = 0.72) and item three (M = 2.19, SD = 0.84), which both reveal statistically significant negative weak correlations (r = -.219, p = .043; r = -.282, p = .009). Null hypothesis 3 was rejected for both items (one and three). No significance was found for item two and items four to fourteen (4 – 14, Table 4). Hence, null hypothesis 3 was retained (items 2, 4-14).
Strategies to work with diverse immigrant families
In order for multiple voices to be heard and legitimized in a transformative curriculum, Banks suggests including in the curriculum “positive and personalized stories and narratives” (2006, p. 609) and also content regarding the differing cultural and language characteristics, values and ideologies, historical and current social development and problems of different ethnic groups (Banks, 2009). Family members with diverse language and cultural repertoires can be invited to share their personal experiences and social problems or new initiatives of other countries with which most children and teachers from the host country are unfamiliar. They will, however, only be willing to be involved if they feel that their values and practices are respected and share equal status with the ‘mainstream’ values. Hence, children who are reluctant to participate in play or display different styles of learning should not be considered as less capable or be deprived of any learning opportunity. Parents who prefer indirect participation in their children’s education and do not feel confident enough to be actively involved in earlychildhood centres should not be dismissed as uninterested (Harper & Pelletier, 2010). Teaching strategies that entail more than a play-based pedagogy and go beyond a singular understanding of parental involvement should be applied to break down differences and to accommodate diverse needs of immigrant families. Furthermore, while most centres have resources like books and posters that reflect diverse cultures, these culturally inclusive strategies need to be ongoing and integrated into the curriculum, not as an ad hoc approach during festive celebrations, or as a dormant and permanent display on the wall with contents that are not discussed with children. Critical multicultural educators need to connect with people who are oppressed by issues of power, and make sure that supports are provided to those who are marginalised (McLaren, 1995). Therefore earlychildhoodteachers should consider providing extra support for immigrant families and
Parental awareness regarding the importance of pro- viding learning opportunities that support the devel- opment of children in stimulating, structured, and developmentally appropriate environments in the early years has been raised recently (Argon & Akkaya, 2008; Tokuç & Tuğrul, 2007). In parallel with this in- crease in parental awareness, although still below the rate in other developed countries, the rate of enroll- ments in preschool programs in Turkey has also risen in recent years (Bekman, 2005; Çiftçi, 2011; Derman & Başal, 2010). Curriculum development efforts are another indicator of the increase in the rate and qual- ity of the educational services targeting early child- hood years in Turkey. The initial academic-oriented earlychildhood curriculum of 1989 subsequently has been turned into a developmental curriculum in the years of 1994, 2002 and 2006 (Güler-Öztürk, 2010a). The earlychildhood curriculum launched in 2006