Gianinetti et al. (2005) proposed a system of malting quality evaluation based on only a few traits, depending on environmental conditions as little as possible. This system was intended for breeders for line testing in early generations of the selection pro- cess. The same method of discriminant analysis was used for discrimination between barley germplasms suitable for PGI “České pivo” (group C) and for other conventional beers (group E). Several hypotheses were tested in this study: (a) whether there is any difference in the allelic composition of microsatellites between the two groups of barley varieties (C, E); (b) if yes, whether it is possible to use microsatellite analysis to choose breeding lines during the selection process. To address these hypotheses, fifty breeding lines were analysed.
10 Read more
Most of the previous work on S nutrition has focused on oilseed rape and winter wheat. Barley is often grown on light soils, which are most susceptible to S deficiency. There is very limited information available on the S requirement and yield responses of barley. In particular, we know little about the potential effects of S on malting quality. It is possible that S could affect malting quality in several ways. First, a severely deficient crop may produce grain that has low germination energy. Second, S is likely to affect protein composition of barley grain, thus influencing enzyme modification (breakdown) of the starchy endosperm during malting. Third, S may influence packing of protein and starch granules in endosperm, thus affecting the steeliness/mealiness of grain. Finally, many enzymes are involved in the breakdown of starchy endosperm during malting.
16 Read more
respectively. These data confirm those data presented by Ullrich et al. (1997) and Hayes et al. (2003) that reported quantifying the changes in malting quality is a difficult and laborious process due to the complex inheritance of this character. Similarly, Amabile et al. (2013) also report that the magnitude of genetic variation present in cultivars used in breeding programs of barley is controversial and more studies of the genetic diversity of malt quality are essential. For the molecular markers and micromalting genetic diversity, genotypes were evaluated by Euclidean distance and Nei 72, respectively. Both analyzes aimed to identify the diversity among genotypes and to assist the genetic breeding program, especially during the parental selections for crossings and back-crossings. Regarding the diversity of the Brazilian genotypes evaluated, the micromalting data resulted in three main groups (Figure 1) and the molecular markers resulted in five groups (Figure 2). The best performance genotypes for malt quality BRS Cauê and BRS Korbel were classified in the same group and PFC 2007057 grouped separately in the micromalting analysis. Molecular markers, in other hand, grouped all three genotypes separately. MN 610 presented low similarity to others genotypes according the micromalting data, however in the molecular marker data the similarity turns bigger. Genotypes that grouped in same groups for both analyzes are shown in Table 4.
There is a need for fast, cheap and suffi cient accurate methods for prediction of barley grain quality. The determination of Brabender hardness seems to be promising. The aim of this work was to compare three different methods for evaluation of graphic output from Brabender farinograph and subsequently select the most optimal method for routine laboratory work. 108 samples (twelve cultivars from three locali- ties and three years) were analyzed for grain hardness. Simultaneously selected parameters of grain and malt were determined. The correlations among methods for evaluation were estimated as well as among selected technological traits of barley grain and malt.
period 19952001 which created better biological prereq- uisites for higher and stable yields. Our results for yield parameters, and malting quality are in accordance with re- sults in other countries, which did not consider cultiva- tion of winter barley particularly for malting purposes. In Slovak Republic, two row winter barley commenced to be tested and cultivated (Molnarova and Kufelj 2000). In the USA cultivation of winter barley, particularly in the state Oregon begins to be considered (Corey et al. 2000). Ac- cording to Friedt et al. (2000) in addition to different course of growth and development phases like tillering, heading, maturation, particularly breeding progress in increased resistance to lodging, resistance to diseases and winter hardiness contributed to the higher production and qual- ity of winter barley. Presented facts confirm that produc- tion of winter barley can positively contribute to stabilization of barley production and to the reduction of global warming impacts (Deudon et al. 2001).
The millet seeds ( Panicum Miliaceum ) were obtained from Kadamo in Jengre, Bassa Local Government Area of Plateau State. The feeds were winnowed to remove dust and pebbleds. The seeds were ground into powder and stored in a dessicator for the analysis, but maize seeds were divided into two, one part ground with the chaff and the other part ground after removing the chaff, while some millet seeds were kept aside for water uptake and malting quality analysis.
10 Read more
relative extract at 45°C (r = 0.77), thus indicating that the germination index is a good indicator of the malting potential (Table 4). This points out that with increasing germination index the values of extract and relative extract at 45°C also increase. The correlation analyses showed a low negative significant correlation between the germination index and wort β-glucan content (r = –0.53) (Ta- ble 4). This indicates that with post-harvest rip- ening the wort β-glucan content decreases, but this correlation was not so evident. Reuss et al. (2006) found out in his experiments that malting of dormant barley influenced the values of some malting parameters such as Kolbach index, wort β-glucan content, diastatic power and apparent final attenuation. Similar results were also obtained by Mareček et al. (2000). The studies on non-dor- mant European barley confirmed that storage for one year helped to increase the values of Kolbach index and relative extract (Woonton et al. 2001). An improvement of the malting quality due to the storage time was also observed in the studies on New Zealand barley (Coles et al. 1996). On the contrary, in the studies on Australian barley no significantly increased values of the germination energy and malt quality were observed after a year of storage (Samuro et al. 1980).
Abstract: Pasting properties are important characteristics of barley starch from a processing standpoint. Many studies reported the close relationship between pasting properties and malting quality, especially malt extract. However, most conclusions were derived from the correlation between pasting properties and malting quality using a set of cultivars or breeding lines. In this study, a doubled haploid population of 150 lines from a cross between a Japanese malting barley and a Chinese feed barley was grown in four different environments (two sites × two years). Based on average values from all different environments, 17 significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for pasting properties. The genetic variance explained by these QTL varied from 7.0 to 23.2%. Most QTL controlling pasting properties were located on 1H, 2H, 5H, and 7H. Results confirmed the linkage between pasting properties and malt extract, with most of the QTL for pasting properties becoming nonsignificant when using malt extract as a covariate. Breakdown showed the closest correlation with malt extract. Molecular markers closely linked to the QTL can be used to select desired pasting properties to improve malting quality.
12 Read more
correlated with malting quality indexes, such as Kolbach index, diastatic power, wort viscosity, and malt extract. Passarella et al. (2008) proved increased contents of β-glucans and proteins due to the increased temperature before harvest in the nitrogen treated cultivar. Passarella et al. (2002) reported that with high temperatures during harvest kernel weight lowered, nitrogen content increased, β-glucan content and yield declined. Similarly, Savin et al. (1997) studied the effect of high temperatures in the period of caryopses ripening, claiming that thermal stress reduced starch content (volume and distribution of A- and B-starch granules), increased nitrogen content and reduced β-glucan content and their degradation. Malt yield was not statistically significantly af- fected. Macnicol et al. (1993) studied water stress and reported that water stress led to a decline in β-glucan content and increase in malt yield, it also increased the activity of β-glucanase, α-amylase and β-amylase. Malt quality was not affected by added thermal stress.
It is unclear if the multiple QTL cluster is due to multi-locus clusters, pleiotropic effects or reduced recombination in this region. The present study demonstrated that there was small difference of the closest linked markers for different traits in the traditional QTL region for malting quality (Collins et al. 2003; Li et al. 2003, 2005; Mather et al. 1997; Marquez-cedillo et al. 2000; Panozzo et al. 2007; Von Korff et al. 2008) when more molecular markers were mapped in the chromosome region. The results in Table 3 indicate that there exist multi-locus clusters for different quality traits in this chromosome region. As these markers were so closely linked, the recombinant lines from the mapping populations should be re-evaluated for various malting quality traits under an experiment with multiple replications and sites to understand if there exist multi-locus clusters for malting quality in this region.
20 Read more
INIA breeding program has improved different traits in three steps since 1988. In the first step, cv. Estanzuela Quebracho (selection from Western Australia) was released. This cultivar with im- proved yield and straw strength allowed to use highly productive soils and better crop manage- ment practices. The second step was to increase the level of resistance to diseases, developing lines resistant to leaf rust and net blotch, and some lines resistant to scald and spot blotch. The third step was to improve malting quality. Cv. CLE 202 (Defra × FNCI 22), resistant to net blotch, scald and leaf rust, was released recently. It is a dwarf type (as cv. Defra), but the late maturity associated with this characteristic is balanced with photoperiod response, which determines a relatively short ma- turity and better performance than the European germplasm in late sowing dates. Four new lines are under multiplication by the industry, which has been very successful releasing high-yield and high quality cultivars.
depend on sorghum as staple food. In such situations, sorghum is often the main source of dietary protein. Another nutritional constraint to the use of sorghum in human and animal diets is the poor digestibility of sorghum proteins on cooking . Certain factors that have been implicated to contribute to poor protein digestibility of sorghum include grain organizational structure , possible interaction of sorghum proteins with non-protein components , and possible changes within the sorghum proteins themselves and these are disulphide crosslinking of protein molecules , racemization of amino acids and isopeptide formation . The scientific efforts that have been made to improve sorghum protein digestibility essentially include the use of reducing agents in sorghum cooking , subjecting of sorghum grains to fermentation , the use of extrusion cooking in sorghum processing , and malting of sorghum grains .
Blanching, malting and decortication reduce tannin and phytate content of pearl millet significantly (p<0.05). For improved utilization of pearl millet employing these anti-nutritional factor reduction methods would be mandatory so as to enhance the nutritional status of the society of Amhara region especially Sekota districts. From all these reduction techniques malting reduces tannin more effectively than the rest two reduction techniques which also reported . In all cases the increment of tannin and phytate was not observed during processing which was in contradict with other studies  report on other grains. Sensory attributes and baking quality of food product from pearl millet triggered us not to recommend the reduction techniques which reduced maximum anti-nutritional factor. So in case of malting and blanching are 2day and 15minute at 75 o c were the recommended treatments while in decortications 75% is highly preferable. For weaning food preparation malting at 3 day is much more recommendable than the rest of the reduction techniques.
The positive effect of FDI is a crucial step for Slo- vakia malt and beer sector toward a more efficient use of the apparent comparative advantage they have. In spite of dominant position of the foreign owned brew- eries and their malting divisions in the Slovak market there is no need for state intervention into the matter, because of other important factors influencing the malt production sector like low specificity of assets, export opportunity of malting barley and especially the strict requirements on the side of breweries for the high quality and stability of barley supplies. For these breweries and their malting producers, there is very crucial the close cooperation with their barley suppliers that consequently has a positive effect in farmers´ productivity. In this sense, the spillover ef- fect of FDI in the brewing sector is apparent.
Finger millet is the fourth most important food crop of Nepal. In many countries millet has been used as a major ingredient in the manufacture of malt. Millet malt is extremely used in the preparation of weaning foods, infant foods and beverages. Today there is a growing demand for gluten free food and beverages from people with celiac disease. Information regarding the malting of finger millet in Nepalese context is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the malting characteristics of some Nepalese finger millet varieties. Six finger millet varieties were germinated at 28±1 ºC for 48 to 84 h, kilned at 50±2 ºC and analyzed for amylase and carboxypeptidase activities, total free amino acids and free amino nitrogen contents in the malts. All native millets had negligible α-amylase activity (0.05–0.11 units) while 72 h germinated Juwain millet showed the highest α-amylase activity (22.96 units). Beta amylase activity in native millets were in the range of 0.1–2.4 units and it reached maximum value on 48h of germination in all millet varieties with a highest value of 385 units in Kabre millet. Diastatic activity ranged from 8.3 to 17.3 ºDP (db) in 48 h germinated millet malts. Forty-eight hour germinated Juwain millet exhibited the highest carboxypeptidase activity (242.5 units), total free amino acids (310 mg glycine/100 g dry malt) and free amino nitrogen (57.8 mg glycine/100 g dry malt) contents of all the millet malts. Although Juwain millet variety seemed best for malting, further investigation on malt extract and wort analyses are suggested for their brewing quality assessment.
Malting barley grains are essential components in the beer production. Fusarium infection can have severe effects on malt and beer, because it may inhibit the enzymatic activity in malt and may induce the occurrence of gushing and changes in the colour and flavour of the finished beer. We examined the growth of the filamentous fungi Fusarium culmorum in artificially infected and non-infected barley malting grains during the first steps of the malting process and under the effects of fungicide pretreatment (Hutton and Prosaro 250 EC) of barley plants. Our study focused on the fungi growth in two distinct barley malting cultivars Bojos and Malz. Fusarium growth was investigated by quan- titative real-time PCR using TagMan MGB probes. Furthermore, we focused on the Tri5 and Tri6 genes because they play the most important roles in trichothecene biosynthesis. Surprisingly, the higher transcription activity of the Tri genes was found in the fungicide-treated cultivar Malz as compared with untreated cultivars.
Barley is the third most common crop in the Czech Republic and is grown primarily for human food (beer and food products) and animal feeding purposes. Spring barley is grown on ca 250,000 ha, which is 17.5 % of the total area sown to cereals (1,428,171 ha; Ministry of Agriculture, 2015). Grain yield and quality is affected not only by numerous agro-environmental factors (weather, preceding crop, flowering period) but also by pathogens and pests (Mesterházy, 2003; Paul et al., 2005; Šafránková et al. 2010; Kumar et al., 2015). Of these latter, the greatest attention over the long term has been dedicated to fungi from the genus Fusarium, and in particular species producing mycotoxins (Semaškienė et al., 2006; Kulík, 2008). Seventeen Fusarium species are known to have been recorded worldwide to date on barley (Bottalico and Perrone, 2002; Barreto et al., 2004; Stenglein, 2009; Malachová et al., 2013; Gilbert and Tekauz,
11 Read more
Table 2 further shows the result on the protein content carried out on the samples where sample Otili, Pakala and Mucuna had a significantly values 31.50 ± 0.012, 30.09 ± 0.015 and 30.70 ± 0.014 respectively but with a slight reduction to 29.90 ± 0.01, 28.80 ± 0.08 and 29.15 ± 0.01 after malting (Table 3). The protein content is comparable with those in other legumes  -. This shows that the seeds have a great potential in alle- viating chronic protein deficiency syndromes that are widespread in developing countries such as Nigeria. Table 2 and Table 3 show the result of carbohydrate content before and after malting the results show Feregede as the only wild bean that compete favourably with other edible beans in carbohydrate content.
For malting, two different varieties of barley were used EBYT88-17 and EBYT88-20. The results obtained in the experiment (malting yield, proficiency of hot water extract and β-Glucanase enzyme activity) (Table 1) showed that the EBYT88-20 barley type is the most appropriate type for malt production. It was observed, in all the examined parameters, that there are significant differences between the two varieties of barely with a confidence level of 99%. The results showed that all parameters of barley variety EBYT88-20, including malting yield, the efficiency of hot water extract as well as β-Glucanase enzyme activity is considerably higher than in barley variety EBYT88-17.
With more than 70% carbohydrate as indicated in this study, the potentials of African breadfruit seeds as source of fermentable sugar could be efficiently utilized as an adjunct in brewing. Moreover, defatting the seeds prior to malting will enhance better sugar utilization and hence ethanol yields. Thus, it can be concluded that African breadfruit seed can be used as an adjunct in brewing methods, helping in the development of new products as well as in obtaining concentrated worts.