Pesticides are frequently sprayed over the apple cultivated area to control pest and to fulfill its growing demand. As a result, pesticide residue levels (PRL) are high in apple fruit, which is a matter of health concern. Acharya Charaka has grouped ten Vishaghna Dravyas and named them as Vishaghna Dashemani, one of them is Haridra (Curcuma longa Linn.) hence it was selected for the present study. The main aim and objectives of this study is to assess the reduction in PRL on Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) before and after washing with Ushna Jala (lukewarm distilled water), Lavana Jala (5% NaCl solution) and Haridra Jala and to ascertain the best washing media for apple. Procurement of raw drug viz. apple was done form three different sources of Pune market followed by its authentication. Standardization of Haridra Jala and experiments were carried out at State Public Health Laboratory, Pune. Results showed organophosphates group of pesticides viz. Malathion was mainly found in apple. The mean value of PRL on Apple before washing was found to be 0.047 ppm and after its wash with Ushna Jala (distilled water) was 0.027 ppm whereas no pesticide residue was detected after Dhavana with Lavana Jala (NaCl solution) and Haridra Jala. The result of reduction in the pesticide residue level after washing with Lavana Jala (5% NaCl solution) and Haridra Jala were highly significant. Lavana Jala and Haridra Jala are more efficient washing media for reducing pesticide residue in apples.
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Phenolic compounds are commonly used as subject of many researches. Phenolic compounds were produced by plant as defense mechanism against different stress condition. Phenolic compounds included flavonoid compounds have various effects such as antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotector [1-4]. Antioxidant can prevent the excessive of free radical in oxidative stress condition which can cause many degenerative diseases. Fruits and vegetables are natural antioxidant because they contain phenolic and flavonoid compounds which have antioxidant capacity [5,6]. Simana lagi apple ([Malus domestica Borkh.] “Simana lagi”) is one apple variety from Malang-East Java, Indonesia. The previous researches presented that apple contained many phenolic compounds such as quercetin, quercetin-3- galactoside, quercetin-3-glucoside, catechin, epicatechin, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and phloridzin [7,8] which can act as antioxidant .
The FUL and SHP genes have been shown to be involved in development and ‘ripening’ in the dry fruits of Arabidopsis (Dinneny and Yanofsky 2005). Related sequences are also found to be expressed in fleshy fruits including tomato and peach (Seymour et al., 2008). In this study we identified genomic sequences of two FUL-like genes, MdMADS2.1 and MdMADS2.2, present in the Malus genome. These two paralogous genes are highly similar in their predicted coding sequences (Fig. 1a) but show divergence in their non-coding regions (Fig. 1b). In a previous study (Sung et al. 1999) expression analysis revealed that MdMADS2 (corresponding to MdMADS2.1) was transcribed through all stages of flower development and, its transcription could be detected in the four floral organs. In our study, gene specific primers were used to identify the expression patterns of MdMADS2.1 and MdMADS2.2 in developing apple fruit cortex. Both MdMADS2.1 and MdMADS2.2 transcripts could be detected in 4 week-old, mature green and ripe apple fruits, with MdMADS2.1 being more highly expressed than MdMADS2.2 (data not shown). We also identified MdMADS14 as a likely apple SHP orthologue based on sequence homology.
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Experiments with abscission of leaf petioles were performed after the removal of laminae on annual shoots of apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh., cv. Juno) and privet (Ligustrum ovalifo- lium Hassk.) that were cut off and immersed with bases into containers with water. Experiments with apple shoots were performed under natural light conditions in laboratory in August, those with privet in September. The growth of pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Oskar) epicotyls was observed after seeding water-soaked seeds into boxes containing garden substrate that were kept in darkness. Laboratory experiments with flax (Linum usitatissimum L., cv. Venica) seed- lings were performed in daylight during July and August. All experiments were performed at the temperature of 20 ± 2°C. A detailed description of these experiments is presented in the chap- ter Results. Growth regulators, i.e. IAA, TIBA and Q (all manufactured in LACHEMA, Czech Republic), were 0.5% (w/v) applied in the form of lanolin pastes. Averages and their standard errors are presented in the graphs.
Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) occupies a place of pride amongst temperate fruit crops of India. In India, apple is grown largely because it is liked very much by the consumers and fetches very good price in the market. It matures by mid August or early September in mid-hill conditions of India, which often results in the glut of fruits in the market (Chadha and Awasthi 2005; Wijewardane and Guleria 2009). As the demand of good quality fruits increased, the growers are forced to produce good quality fruits with minimum quality losses during transportation and storage in order to fetch remunerative prices for their produce (Sharma, 2010). There are many techniques which are used to extend the storage life, but refrigeration coupled with Controlled Atmosphere Storage (CAS) are most preferred ones. However, these facilities are very expensive and are mostly available in plains, the producers have to bring the fruits to plains for storage, which results not only high postharvest losses but also lands in higher costs (Sharma and Singh, 2010). Further, extension of shelf life of apple fruits can be achieved to some extent by using waxes, chemical treatments, i.e. GA, Calcium Chloride, fungicides, storage in perforated polythenes films accomplished in ZECC can be done.
aBstract: The performance of the apple (Malus domestica Borkh) cultivar Imperial Double Red Delicious (Imperial D.R.D.) grafted on the following 5 rootstocks: (i) seedling, (ii) M 7, (iii) MM 104, (iv) MM 106, and (v) MM 109 was investigated. The highest yield per tree was recorded for trees on seedling rootstock, while the lowest for the cultivar grafted on M 7. Production efficiency of Imperial D.R.D. was higher when grafted on MM 106 and M 7, intermediate on seedling and MM 104, and the lowest on MM 109. The highest leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn) was measured for scions grafted on seedling although it was not significantly different from MM 109. Nitrogen concentrations of leaves of the cv. Imperial D.R.D. grafted on M 7 and MM 106 were significantly lower in comparison to the seedling variant. Flesh firmness at harvest, pH of juice at harvest, soluble solids content and titratable acidity at harvest and after four months of storage were not significantly different among the rootstocks.
Although UA and BA are secondary metabolites that occur widely on surfaces such as cuticle waxes and stem barks of many plants, apple peel has been frequently recommended as an important source to obtain triterpene compounds (up to 50% of dry weight) (Mazumder et al., 2013; Thilakarathna et al., 2013). For apples, besides differences in appearance, texture, and flavor, there are significant variations between different cultivars in the concentration and composition of these bioactive compounds (McGhie et al., 2012). In Brazil, apples (Malus × domestica) are among the main species of national fruticulture, where the Gala and Fuji cultivars predominate. Genetic alterations, spontaneous and selected for some agronomic advantage, such as the color of apple peel gave rise to “clones”. Currently, the main mutant clones of these varieties are: ‘Baigent’ (‘Brookfield’), ‘Maxi Gala’, ‘Fuji Supreme’, ‘Fuji Select’ and ‘Fuji Mishima’, whose production is concentrated in the south of the country (Paraná, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul) (EMBRAPA, 2013) (Figure 1).
Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) is the most important temperate fruits of the world. Several varieties are grown commercially but “Royal Delicious” dominates others in almost every country . In India, apple accounts for about 75% area among temperate fruits. However, pro- ductivity of apple in India is dismally low in comparison to other countries of the world primarily because it is mainly cultivated under rainfed conditions . Apples can be stored for about 6 months in cold stores main- tained at 0˚C - 1˚C and 90% - 95% RH and under con- trolled atmospheric conditions for about 8 months. Dur- ing prolonged storage, there is softening of fruits, devel- opment of several postharvest physiological disorders,
we easily draw following conclusions that the Malus domestic is rich in nutrition, less sour more suitable fruit for processing juice and wine making industries as compared to Malussylvestris. If farmers of Balochistan cultivate Malusdomestica then, they will get full reward of their efforts in terms of money. We also come to know that apples of both genus is according to the permissible limit of W.H.O standard. All nutritional values are below the threshold level.
(1995) obtained RAPD markers facilitating detection of part Malus floribunda genome that was found in hybrid genotypes and provided their resistance. Gianfranceschi et al. (1996) obtained two RAPD markers for resistance genes against the scab. One of these markers allowed the detection of the main gene of resistance – majorgene Vf. This gene was presented in all of the analysed resistant apple varieties. Tartarini et al. developed co-dominant PCR (Polymerase chain reaction) marker unequivo- cally differencing the dominant and the recessive allele of Vf gene. Vejl et al. (2003) published the presence of dominant Vf allele in Czech apple varieties genotype as the first.
Sabah Bashir1, Navdeep Sharma paper titled Remote Area Plant Disease Detection Using Image Processing  presents an effective method for detection of diseases in Malus Domestica using methods like K-meanclustering, color and texture analysis. In this paper an effective image segmentation algorithm has been implemented for color and texture analysis. The following steps are implemented in the algorithm for plant disease detection: 1. Images for detection the samples of Malus Domestica both healthy and affected are collected using a digital camera. 2. Separation of RGB Components The format for color images is the RGB. Each matrix corresponds to one segment of the red color, green color or blue and gives an indication of how much of each of these colors a certain pixel should use. A histogram is a chart that expresses the intensity variations in an indexed or a grayscale image. The information in a histogram can be used to choose appropriate enhancement operation. The process of manipulating intensity values can be done automatically by the histeq function. Histogram equalization can be performed by histeq function which involves transforming the intensity values so that the histogram of the output image approximately matches a specified histogram.
A total of 65 salad vegetables and 63 fruits were collected from the traditional market, grocery stores, and street vendors in several areas in Jakarta between January to June 2013. For vegetables samples we collected (Solanum nigrum, Brassica oleracea, Daucus carota Coriandrum sativum, Cucumis sativus, Ocimum citriodorum, Lactuca sativa, Vigna radiate, Solanum melongena, Cosmos cau- datus, Vigna unguiculata). With the number of samples per area: 14 samples from North, 18 from South, 9 from East, 10 from West, and 14 from Central Jakarta). While for fruits we collected (Averrhoa carambola, Solanum lycopersicum, Psidium guajava, Syzygium jambos, Malus domestica, Pyrus L., Vitis vinifera) with the number of samples per area: 12 samples from North, 12 from South, 13 from East, 11 from West and 14 samples from Central of Jakarta. Samples were transported to the laboratory on the same day after purchasing from vendors. The selection of samples based on criteria, fruits could be eaten directly without peeling and vegetables that often are eaten raw.
Rosa canina, cherry plum Prunus cerasifera, buck- thorn Rhamnus catharicus, rowan Sorbus aucu- paria, black elder Sambucus nigra, single-seeded hawthorn Crataegus monogyna, common hazel Corylus avellana, wild apple Malus domestica, common pear Pyrus communis. The proposed tree and bush species are characterised by low environmental requirements, they are mainly pho- tophilous, grow well in dry or moderately moist clay, stone or sandy soils; they are also resistant to droughts and frost. The main body of the research included the assessment of the suitability of plant- ings and the condition of trees and bushes after 1, 2, 3 and 5 months from the planting date.
Notwithstanding existing literature (Xue et al. 2015), still little is known about the successful cre- ation and morphological alterations of artificially induced polyploid apple plants. This study aims at inducing genome doubling in several genotypes to investigate the potential role of polyploidy in the response of Malus × domestica to biotic and abi- otic stress. In a later phase, the tetraploids will be used as breeding material to create triploid varie- ties. The work presented here focuses on the poly- ploidization event of two different diploid Malus × domestica genotypes and compares morphological and physiological characteristics of the newly cre- ated tetraploids to their diploid predecessors.
More often the disease was observed on the species Populus tremula L., Populus pyramidalis Salisb. and Populus balsamifera L., which grow along roads, in small squares and intra-quarter plantings. Trees of young age were more damaged. In order to prevent the development of the disease, it is necessary to carry out preventive and therapeutic measures related to the removal of the pathogen intermediate hosts. One of the most common groups of diseases is powdery mildew. It affects many species of woody, shrubby and herbaceous plants, but parasitic fungi are specific to a host plant, although the symptoms of the disease are very similar. Strong lesions were observed among Acer platanoides L. (Uncinula aceris Sacc.), Populus balsamifera L. (Erysiphe adunca (Wallr.) Fr., Ulmus laevis Pall. (Phyllactinia guttata Wallr.), Quercus robur L. (Erysiphe quercina Schwein.), Betula pendula Roth. (Erysiphe ornate U. Braun & S. Takam.), Malus domestica Borkh. (Erysiphe mali Duby.), Syringa vulgaris L., Syringa josikaea J. Jacq. еx Rchb. (Erysiphe syringae Schwein.), Rosa rugosa Thunb. (Erysiphe pannosa (Wallr.) Link.), Tilia cоrdata Mill., Tilia europaea L., Crataegus oxyacantha L., Sorbus aucuparia L., Сornus stolonifera Michx. (Podosphaera oxyacanthae de Bary.).
Recent studies have reported the presence of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in Malus domestica (apple), a fruit of great economic importance, nutrimental value and broad consumption  -. For the above mentioned, it is important to continuously monitor the levels of these metals in Malus domestica , in order to ensure that its consumption does not represent a risk to the health of consumers. The intake of heavy metals, such as Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn can cause the dep- letion of some essential elements for the optimal functioning of the human or- ganism , while the ingestion of food contaminated with Cd and Pb has been associated with toxic and adverse health effects, such as intrauterine growth re- tardation, decreased immune defenses, psychosocial behavioral disabilities asso- ciated with malnutrition and upper gastrointestinal cancer , hence the im- portance of estimating dietary exposure to a determined food or food matrix to assess the potential risk to human health from exposure to heavy metals through the intake of certain types of food.
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