The diagnosis of PES is so important, since it is a major risk factor for complications during cataract surgery and the most frequent cause of secondary glaucoma. In addition to ocular complications, it is known that PXM can be found in various extraocular tissues and is related to numerous sys- temic abnormalities, for which the list is growing steadily. As such, management and monitoring of patients with PES are crucial, in particular for the conditions outlined in the following section.
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compliance of the results thereof with the established tasks and plans. The MSUs were supposed to bear the responsibility for the organization and maintenance of internal ﬁ nancial control and audit at their subordinate institutions. External con- trol and audit of ﬁ nancial and economic activities, as well as analysis of budget funds utilization efﬁ ciency, must be carried out by the Accounting Chamber and by KRU in the part of controlling usage of funds of the state budget of Ukraine. MoF was assigned the responsibility of controlling the compliance of budgeting procedures at all stages with the budgetary legislation, which referred to BPs as well. It is worth mentioning that this Budget Code version reﬂ ected the obsolete “procedural” approach to accountability and budget management; so that it did not even refer to “monitoring” (operating instead with terms like “control”) and “eva- luation” (“audit”). Further developments in public management towards PBB de- manded corresponding changes in legislation, which were enacted in 2010. The current version of the Budget Code (2010) operates with more advanced in- struments and directly assigned responsibility for performing BP evaluation and monitoring to MSUs. This evaluation must be based on PIs presented in BP docu- mentation. The results of BP evaluation could be used for changing budgetary appropriations in the ongoing and sequential years. MoF became responsible for elaboration of PIs in different ﬁ elds of public bodies’ activity.
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Telehealth is the delivery of health care from a distance, indicating a shift from the traditional clinical contexts towards patients and where they live (Burrows, Coyle & Gooberman-Hill, 2018). It can be cost effective and promote self-management especially to people with chronic illness (Trajkovik et al., 2014). Tele-monitoring systems allow active monitoring of patients’ health parameters, provide health recommendations and educational materials, as well as clinical interventions in emergency situations. These systems can be used as a viable mechanism supporting more independent life and reducing the mortality and hospitalization for patients with heart failure (Ware, Seto & Ross, 2018). There are other telehealth systems such as teleconsultation between healthcare providers and teleconsultations between patients and healthcare providers (Maarop & Win 2012). The scope of this study is on telehealth systems between heart failure patients and the healthcare providers.
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challenge of illiteracy among members, which contributes to inefficiency in the way they do their work. In relation to illiteracy, Van Wyk (2004) found that many school governing bodies, especially in rural areas, do not have the knowledge and skills required to perform their roles effectively. That is the reason why educators have blamed the school governing bodies for failure to execute their roles and responsibilities in schools due to their low levels of education, which has resulted in wrong decisions being made in the governance of schools (Xaba, 2011).SMCs are faced with the challenge of undertaking technical roles for which they lack expertise in areas such as budgeting, expenditure planning and infrastructure development planning as well as lack of information on the roles of head teachers and teachers in schools (Pushpanadham, 2000). A study by Obonyo (2012) on the factors influencing the effectiveness of school management in public primary schools in Karemo division, Siaya County, in Kenya established that lack of managerial and budgetary development skills has affected the SMCs’ role in the management of schools. SMCs are supposed to oversee the management of the schools on behalf of the government as well as representing the parents’ interest in schools (MoES, 1998, 2007). Their monitoring role is intended to ensure the efficient delivery of UPE (MoES, 1998). However, SMCs find it difficult to effect their mandate of contributing to the development of schools in terms of advising on how the school resources should be used, how teachers should carry out their workand how a better learning environment for pupils is created owing to lack of expertise (Ayeni and Olusola, 2013).
Abstract: Largely due to the childhood obesity epidemic, there has been an increase in the prevalence of hypertension in children and adolescents. Obesity associated hypertension is the most common hypertension phenotype among adolescents. Approximately 30% of obese adolescents have elevated blood pressure (BP) or hypertension. Updated definitions of elevated BP and hypertension in adolescents are now similar to definitions of BP status in adults. For adolescents ≥13 years of age, elevated BP is 120 to 129/<80 mm Hg. Hypertension, stage 1, is ≥130 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg, and hypertension, stage 2, is ≥140/90 mm Hg. BP measurements over separate clinic visits are necessary to verify the diagnosis of elevated BP or hypertension. Ambulatory BP monitoring, when available, provides confirmatory data on BP status. Causal mechanisms for obesity associated hypertension include increased sympathetic nervous system activity, increased renal sodium retention secondary to insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia, and obesity mediated inflammation. The primary treatment for obesity associated hypertension is weight reduction with lifestyle changes in diet and physical activity. Although difficult to achieve, even modest weight reduction can be beneficial. The diet should be rich in fruits, vegetables, fiber, and low-fat dairy with reduction in salt intake. When lifestyle changes are insufficient to achieve BP control, pharmacologic therapy is indicated to achieve a goal BP of <130/80 mm Hg or <90th percentile, whichever is lower. Regular BP monitoring is necessary for ongoing management of obesity associated hypertension in adolescents.
Among retina surgeons, no agreement has yet been reached on the management of patients with LMHs. It is debated whether these entities should be treated or just observed. Currently, the procedure proposed by most vitreoretinal surgeons is pars plana vitrectomy with ERM and internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. The goal is to reestablish the typical foveal pro ﬁ le, remove tractional forces, and allow resolution of the intraretinal edema. 31 The utility of vitreous tamponade (air or gases) at the end of surgery is debated. Vitrectomy without tamponade seems to be as effective as using air or gas. 32,33 Sato et al recently investigated the surgical outcomes of vitrect- omy for LMHs with or without air tamponade (23 vs 18 eyes). BCVA improved in both groups after surgery, with no signi ﬁ cant differences between the two groups, sug- gesting that air –ﬂ uid exchange is not required for LMH surgery. 34
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risk of cardiotoxicity for dasatinib and lapatinib. An analysis of guidelines and professional recommendations identifies routine monitoring of heart function during therapy and iden- tification of at risk patients before therapy to be the key steps in preventing cardiovascular events, regardless of the agent used. Off-target tyrosine kinase binding is thought to have a role in the toxicities seen in dasatinib and sorafenib. A com- plete understanding of their mechanisms of cardiotoxicity will therefore require further investigation to identify which of several possible kinases is at fault. On-target binding side effects have been implicated for each of the discussed drugs as well; targets such as Bcr-Abl, VEGFR, and ErbB2 are all thought to have a role in proper cardiovascular function. In addition, specific pro-survival or pro-apoptotic pathways are thought to be affected with each of the drugs. The result is that cardiotoxicity is likely explained as a combination of mechanisms specific to each TKI.
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Intrapartum complications are largely avoidable through appropriate midwifery care such as adequate fetal and maternal monitoring, timely medical inter- vention, reducing prolonged labor, and timely referral during and immediately after childbirth [6, 7, 10, 11]. Although Tanzanian midwives are also required to diagnose, manage, and provide early referral for com- plications to save mother and newborn , most likely there have been delays in providing timely and necessary obstetric interventions due to the lack of proper monitoring during labor . Supporting those findings were several studies noting Tanzanian mid- wives’ critically low ability to recall the danger signs of labor complications and to provide appropriate monitoring during labor and after delivery [13, 14]. However, Tanzania also has a serious shortage of hu- man resources in the domain of perinatal care, and that might be another factor associated with the poor performance and outcomes .
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According to the structure of wireless sensor network along the railway, the location of sink nodes and sensing nodes in wireless sensor network is determined, which is deployed in accordance with the actual monitoring re- quirements and relevant regulations along the railway line. The deployment of relay nodes in wireless sensor networks is directly related to the lifetime of wireless sensor networks. In general, a uniform deployment strat- egy is adopted by relay nodes, that is to say, all relay nodes located in all perceptual nodes are deployed with the same spacing. Under this deployment strategy, the distance between all relay nodes is equal, and the amount of energy consumed by single forwarding unit data is equal, but the nodes with close distance from the sink node need more data forwarding than those with far distance, therefore, it is easy to form an energy hot zone, resulting in the “energy hole” problem, which makes the wireless sensor network premature early to die.
d -glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is superior to conventional modalities for the diagnosis of lung cancer and the evaluation of the extent of the disease. However, the efficacy of PET/CT in a follow-up surveillance setting following curative-intent treatments for lung cancer has not yet been established. We reviewed previous papers and evaluated the potential efficacy of PET-CT in the setting of follow-up surveillance. The following are our findings: 1) PET/CT is considered to be superior or equivalent to con- ventional modalities for the detection of local recurrence. However, inflammatory changes and fibrosis after treatments in local areas often result in false-positive findings; 2) the detection of asymptomatic distant metastasis is considered to be an advantage of PET/CT in a follow-up setting. However, it should be noted that detection of brain metastasis with PET/CT has some limitation, similar to its use in pretreatment staging; 3) additional radiation exposure and higher medical cost arising from the use of PET/CT should be taken into consideration, particularly in patients who might not have cancer after curative-intent treatment and are expected to have a long lifespan. The absence of any data regarding survival benefits and/or improvements in quality of life is another critical issue. In summary, PET/CT is considered to be more accurate and sensitive than conventional modalities for the detection of asymptomatic recurrence after curative-intent treatments. These advantages could modify subsequent management in patients with suspected recurrence and might contribute to the selection of appropriate treatments for recurrence. Therefore, PET/CT may be an alternative to conventional follow-up modalities. However, several important issues remain to be solved. PET/CT in a follow-up surveillance setting is generally not recommended in clinical practice at the moment.
Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Bearman, C., Rainbird, S., Brooks, B.P., Owen, C. and Curnin, S. (2018) ‘A literature review of methods for providing enhanced operational oversight of teams in emergency management’, Int. J. Emergency Management, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp.254–274. Biographical notes: Chris Bearman is a Research Fellow at the Appleton Institute of Central Queensland University. His research interests are in applied cognitive psychology and human factors. This research involves conducting industry focused studies in laboratory and field settings with the aim of creating results that have both a strong theoretical underpinning and a robust application to industry. This involves working closely with industry partners and government organisations around the world. He is currently leading the Australian Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC project on decision making, team monitoring and organisational learning.
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The system software architecture is shown in Figure 3, which is divided into support layer, data layer, application layer and system display layer. The support layer, on the one hand, obtains the real-time data of the integrated corridor monitoring and monitoring through the communication protocol. It is written into the monitoring and monitoring real-time database and the historical database after processing. On the other hand, through the data interface, it gets GIS, BIM and other software to provide the integrated pipe gallery basic data. Through the message queue, it pushes information to the upper level application. The data layer includes BIM database, GIS database, SCADA database system and into the corridor pipeline database, realize the comprehensive pipe gallery running the unified storage, data lifecycle analysis, judgment, and provide decision support to the application layer. The application layer includes integrated corridor operation and management system, corridor pipeline management system, integrated corridor emergency rescue system and administrative energy efficiency system, which provides integrated monitoring and early warning, linkage control, operation and maintenance, emergency management rescue and administration of the full range of application functions. The system presentation layer includes both the WEB application and the desktop application, providing users with an intuitive and easy-to-use interface, and simplifying the use of the user and saving time. The software architecture of the system is shown in Figure 3.
In assessing contracting experiences and comparing them against other approaches, performance in terms of coverage and quality is important, but the cost implica- tions of the approach also need to be considered. It is often claimed that contracting will improve the technical efficiency of service delivery, although such gains may be partially offset by increases in administrative and trans- action costs. However, evidence on these dimensions of contracting experiences if often scant, as is also the case for these two Brazilian cases. There is some limited evi- dence that the productivity of health providers has in- creased due to performance incentives and new forms of management. In both models, personnel costs have, however, increased, although this would perhaps have been required in the alternative models as well in order to attract staff. Although there is currently very little in- formation on administrative costs associated with the re- spective models, it is clear that both the FESF and the OS incur nontrivial administrative costs and there are also transaction costs to be considered in state and mu- nicipal administration related to monitoring and over- sight of contracts.
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Atkinson R (1999) cites Oisen R.P (1971) who makes reference to the views from the 1950's, defines Project Management as the application of a collection of tools and techniques (such as the Critical Path Method and matrix organisation) in utilizing the resources to accomplish (from conception to completion) a unique, complex, one-time task within time, cost and quality constraints. The British Standard for project management BS6079 (1996) defines project management as “The planning, monitoring and control of all aspects of a project and the motivation of all those involved in it to achieve the project objectives on time and to the specified cost, quality and performance”. The UK Association of Project Management (APM) also provides a similar definition for project management as “The planning, organisation, monitoring and control of all aspects of a project and the motivation of all involved to achieve the project objectives safely and within agreed time, cost and performance criteria.” It goes on to add that the single point responsibility to ensure these requirements is met fall on the shoulder of the project manager. Atkinson R (1999) notes that while there may be differences in their suggestions on the definitions of project management, these authors are similar in the inclusion for the achievement or accomplishment of the project objectives of Cost, Time and Quality in their definitions.
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In today’s world sensors are playing realm in every field. Internet of Things (IOT) represents the interconnection and exchange of data between the sensors and the users through internet. This paper highlights implementation of Smart Home automation for monitoring and management of power using IOT technology. A set of Wireless sensor nodes used for monitoring, controlling of home power systems and communicates the data to the users through internet over Amazon cloud.
The Italian NHS is publicly oriented both in terms of financing and providers, with a universalistic approach. All patients have the right to be treated without any co-payment for oncologic drugs, hospitalizations, and outpatient activi- ties. The costs considered were direct medical costs related to ADT, drugs used for mCRPC as described earlier, adverse events management, management of SREs, monitoring activities in terms of drugs, hospitalizations, and outpatient activities. A bottom-up approach was used to estimate the resource consumption: through national guidelines and expert opinions, the mean cost per patient was estimated and then multiplied by the total number of patients diagnosed with mCRPC. This approach is consistent with previously published COI studies in Italy, for the estimation of direct medical costs, as in Marcellusi et al. 40
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The present garbage management system is not efficient enough to take care of the large amount of waste matter that is generated everyday because the garbage bins are overflowing. This causes air and water pollution. This also increases number of diseases as large number of insects and mosquitoes breed on this waste. Solid waste management is a big challenge in urban areas for most of the countries throughout the world. So a waste management system that can take good care of the waste and the resulting problem of pollution is the need of the hour. Hence „Garbage Monitoring
In order to achieve the goals of primary schools, the schools need to be properly managed. The term “management” is defined as the search for the best use of resources, i.e. men, money, materials, and methodologies (Aliyu, 2001). It is also defined as the utilization of physical Abstract: The study investigated the supervision and partnership challenges confronting the management of primary schools in Yola South Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Two purposes were identified, two research questions answered and two hypotheses tested. Descriptive survey research design was employed in which a structured questionnaire, consisting of 13 items, was administered on 110 primary school administrators and 202 teachers. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the data for answering the research questions. The Z-test statistic was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Findings of the study revealed that supervision challenges in primary school management in Yola South Local Government Area of Adamawa State were enforcement of discipline, monitoring students’ progress, monitoring staff progress, supervising school records, supervising the school environment and supervision of extra-curricular activities. Partnership challenges were poor support from community leaders, inadequate support from the PTA, inadequate support from financial institutions, poor support from religious organizations and poor support from industries. The study found that there was no significant difference between the mean scores of the responses of administrators and teachers on the supervision challenges encountered by administrators in the management of primary schools in Yola South Local Government Area of Adamawa State. Similarly, no significant difference was found between the mean scores of the responses of administrators and teachers on the partnership challenges encountered by administrators in the management of primary schools in the study area. Both null hypotheses were therefore, upheld. The study recommended that administrators needed to conscientiously supervise both staff and students’ work which would go a long way in curbing truancy and other disciplinary problems. The study also recommended that communities (industries, non-governmental organization, community leaders) in which the primary schools were located should join hands with administrators to better manage the primary schools.
trators use software applications to analyze the data collected from the field-sampling devices from the different environmental systems monitoring air and water quality and noise levels so they can adjust the mitigation pro- grams and policies to limit unsafe exposures as necessary. For example, computer software applications such as the Brüel & Kjær Airport Noise and Operations Management System (ANOMS) identify and track active noise, patterns, and specific areas of unhealthy noise levels. Computer-based simulation models can be run to deter- mine projected noise levels based on aircraft activity, wind direction, and distance from runways, taxiways, maintenance facilities, and terminal buildings. Information generated from simulations help airport administra- tors determine the potential need to purchase surrounding properties under the airport’s noise abatement pro- gram to use for activities conducive to airport operations. Key users of the Environmental Management System include airport environmental engineers, noise abatement officers, airport property appraisers and real estate agents, airport airside employees, and FAA personnel. Indirect users include occupants of businesses and homes located around airport property, and especially those in the direct flight paths of takeoffs and landings. EMS management information connections utilize software modules for airport noise and environmental monitoring in addition to separate applications dedicated to specific systems. Software applications developed by various equipment manufacturers for monitoring environmental compliance include COTS programs as well as custo- mized software specifically developed to suit a particular airport’s needs. Some of these software programs al- low the airport to run a complete suite of applications within the program while others target a single environ- mental issue such as air quality. For example, Adaptive Data Modular Systems (ADMS) measures air quality and emission levels around an airport and collects data on the different sources of air pollutants from aircraft, ground vehicles, and commercial industries surrounding the airport.
(1, School of Mechatronics, Zhengzhou University of Aeronautics, Zhengzhou, 450015 China 2, School of Computer Science, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG81BB, UK 3, Institute of Aerospace Technology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG81BB, UK) ABSTRACT : Electrostatic monitoring technology is a useful tool for monitoring and detecting component faults and degradation, which is necessary for system health management. It encompasses three key research areas: sensor technology; signal detection, processing and feature extraction; and verification experimentation. It has received considerable recent attention for condition monitoring due to its ability to provide warning information and non-obstructive measurements on-line. A number of papers in recent years have covered specific aspects of the technology, including sensor design optimization, sensor characteristic analysis, signal de-noising and practical applications of the technology. This paper provides a review of the recent research and of the development of electrostatic monitoring technology, with a primary emphasis on its application for the aero-engine gas path. The paper also presents a summary of some of the current applications of electrostatic monitoring technology in other industries, before concluding with a brief discussion of the current research situation and possible future challenges and research gaps in this field. The aim of this paper is to promote further research into this promising technology by increasing awareness of both the potential benefits of the technology and the current research gaps.
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