In sum, the appropriate consumption of alcohol (in the form of grape wine) and flesh (in the form of transubstantiated wheat bread) lay at the center of the Catholic orthodoxy and sensible self-management that Spanish settlers in the newworld aspired to represent, whereas Amerindians were said to be characterized by their inability to engage appropriately with this solemn activity and these healthful foods. Their defining vices served precisely to differentiate them from their Catholic colonizers. Colonial writers stressed that the coming of colonialism simultaneously brought an end to idolatry and to cannibalism, because the two were viewed as practically synonymous. And after all, as the learned jurist Juan de Solórzano y Pereira noted in a lengthy tome on colonial legislation, it was perfectly justified to conquer people who ate human flesh, were drunkards, and engaged in sodomy. 45
The scope of Halal tourism is not exclusively designed for only Muslims, but inclusively covers the services for all travellers (Muslim and non-Muslim). In addition to the good servicing practices, the core of halal tourism emphasizes on the principles of shariah compliant aspects in both tourism management and services (Jaelani, 2017). Heyer elaborates on the massive and rapid blooms of ―Shariah compliant hotels,‖ a new trend that follow the existing trend of Shariah-compliant banking, insurance, and more to meet the size of the growing Muslim market (Heyer, 2008). In 2016, the first Shariah compliant hotel was opened in Bangkok. New Zealand and Japan, the non- Muslim countries are now focusing on establishing more Halal certified restaurants to cater the demand of Muslim travellers. The website www.halalflight.com (Halal Flight, 2016) features 24 flight companies which serve Halal food and provide Ramadhan service. The global tourism market is changing its direction towards developing a model that meets the Islamic prospect. The development of the concept of Halal tourism in the recent years implies the dynamic growing demand from the Muslim tourist market.
The mental dimension is more or less aimed at the accompaniment of employees and their managers to the new work concept. The Pension & Life division has completed the mental part with the components trust, social cohesion and result-oriented leadership. The division formulated the essence of the mental dimension as follows; from command and control to autonomy and own initiative (based on internal documentation of the Pension & Life division). This requires adaptations in the management style; leadership is not longer based on managing on presence but managing on output. It also requires adaptations based on autonomy; colleagues are not able to see each other everyday which could have an influence on the social cohesion. Finally, the essence has consequences for the relationship between employee and manager and between employees. Employees and managers do not see each other that often due to autonomy and own initiative. The relationship will be more and more based on trust instead of control.
Abstract: Genetic diversity allows a population to adapt genetically to a changing environment or to buffer it against stochastic events such as harsh weather or disease outbreaks. Genetic diversity is therefore an important consideration in the development of management strategies for threatened populations around the world, with the possible exception of New Zealand, where species recovery programmes tend to focus on increasing population size while neglecting the maintenance of genetic diversity. Many of New Zealand’s threatened species have relatively low genetic variation and consequently may still be at risk in the long-term due to reduced resilience even if the effects of introduced predators were eliminated. The three main factors affecting genetic diversity – genetic drift, inbreeding and population subdivision – are processes that potentially impact on many of our locally threatened species, but their effects tend to occur over a considerably broader timescale than ecological effects, and as such are much more difficult to detect and ultimately to justify additional resource spending towards. Our message is that genetic management of New Zealand threatened species should not take priority over other management concerns such as controlling predators or improving habitat quality, but it needs more attention than it currently receives. We recommend that genetic diversity be a fundamental component in long-term management strategies for threatened species, and that such strategies are made explicit within the New Zealand Department of Conservation’s current species recovery plans so that the persistence of biodiversity becomes of key importance, as opposed to current approaches that seek solely to maximise representation.
Aboriginal people have lived in Tasmania for over 35,000 years and Hank provides a passionate voice as one of their more high profile representatives. He is a certified trainer and assessor with National Job-Link teaching business enterprise/management, motor mechanics and cultural arts. As Manager of the Hobart- based Tasmanian Aboriginal Land and Sea Council, he was one of the founder members of AWHIN and one of the two original AWHIN nominees to represent them on AWHAC. He has therefore played a key role in ensuring that AWHIN concerns are strongly represented at a national level. He is a member of both the Tasmanian Wilderness WHA and the National Parks & Wildlife Advisory Councils and the new Aboriginal Heritage Council formed in late 2012 by the Minister for Environment, Parks and Heritage to advise on a wide range of issues associated with the protection and management of Aboriginal heritage in Tasmania.
Statements on the uncertainty of flood risk analyses are an important input to decision making (Merz et al., 2008). Dif- ferent stakeholders of the flood management process have different perspectives and the provision of a single estimate may not meet the decision needs of all stakeholders (Down- ton et al., 2005). Palmer (1999) shows that probability fore- casts of weather and climate have greater potential economic value than single deterministic forecasts. On the basis of a probabilistic forecast, different users with different cost/loss ratios will take precautionary action at different forecast pro- bability thresholds. A user who would suffer a catastrophic loss if a certain event occurred would take precautionary ac- tion even when a small probability of the event was fore- casted. A user for whom precautionary action was expensive in comparison to the loss would take precautionary action only when a relatively large probability of the event was fore- casted. This example illustrates that decision makers with different context, e.g. different cost/loss ratio, different atti- tude towards risk aversion, may decide differently given in- formation on the uncertainty.
The following portfolio management strategy was used. The portfolio started from the account balance by trading options of the nearest expiration. The plan- ning horizon accorded with the expiration of the options (last day of the current month). The portfolio was optimized every two days. If starting from the 7th day of the month the probability of not reaching the predefined return level was shown as more than 0.001, the planning horizon was shifted to the end of the next month. The portfolio was optimized taking into account options expiring in the next month and the obtained recommendations were realized. This offered the possibility of improving a falling portfolio. Then the strategy was repeated. If the options of the second expiration were not opted for, the portfolio expired at the end of the current month. The following simulation started with the ob- tained sum of money.
It may be argued that the idea of public office is a Western conception. In Africa for instance, the line of distinction between the public and private is thin if at all it exists. Nepotism, patronage and bribery in the form of gift-giving are socially approved. A public officer who denies himself, his kith and kin favours which he could afford to render by virtue of his office may be blame-worthy. However, it is difficult for such arguments to hold in modern day societies. The development of the modern state is not limited to the Western countries. One of the effects of globalizing processes such as colonialism is such that hitherto ‘primitive’ societies have transformed into ‘civilized’ ones with all characteristics of modern states. In Chapter 5, we shall see for instance how formal law brought by the British colonial administration displaced customary law as the dominant law governing state practice in Nigeria. Though the practices of nepotism, patronage and gift-giving may still exist, they are by no means lawful or approved of at least at the level of formal public administration. 13 Theobald (1990: 9-10) is therefore correct when he says that “in the light of the formal acceptance by virtually every government in the world of the desirability of efficient and honest government it seems difficult to avoid using public office as the yardstick against which corruption is measured”.
This paper has described a current research project which aims to develop a conceptual approach to the library collection in the digital world. Three spe cific issues emerging from this study have been dis cussed, including the challenges of developing and managing collections to meet the needs of new in terdisciplinary subjects, locating and identifying the needs of new types of user community, and the continuing challenges posed by the emergence of new web based formats. As well as presenting some initial findings from catalog searches and inter views, it has also summarised responses to ques tions asked of the audience and discussions which took place during the Lively Lunch session.
blocked in most NewWorld monkey cells (14, 15, 32). These species-specific restrictions share several features. First, the block occurs prior to or concurrent with reverse transcription, which occurs in the cytoplasm of the host cell. At most, low levels of early reverse transcripts are made in restricted cells (7, 14, 23, 32). Second, the viral determinant of susceptibility to the block is the capsid protein (7, 11, 19, 25, 26, 39). Other capsid-binding proteins, such as cyclophilin A in the case of HIV-1, can modify the degree of the restriction (25, 27, 41). Third, the restriction is mediated by dominant host factors, the activity of which can be titrated by the introduction of virus- like particles containing proteolytically processed capsid pro- teins of the restricted viruses (3, 7, 10, 23, 25, 40).
Slavery defined the Atlantic world. African forced labour produced the primary materials that drove European mercantile economies. The plantation complex lay at the core of societies from Brazil and the West Indies to the American mainland and West Africa. Philip Curtin and Bernard Bailyn bounded the Atlantic world’s ‘moment’ in world history by slavery’s rise and fall.(1) From the 1640s, skyrocketing European demand for sugar fomented a socioeconomic revolution. Their insatiable appetite for sugar, combined with the crop’s intensely demanding and unforgiving agricultural process, doomed slaves to lifelong physical and psychological abuse.(2) As Sidney Mintz, Simon Smith, Robin Blackburn, and David Eltis amongst many others have demonstrated, slaves’ blood and tears forged complex international trading, social, and political networks. Slaves resisted in any way possible – whether feigning illness to regain a day of rest from the fields or escaping into the mountains and fomenting rebellions.
Recent years have witnessed an unprecedented gain of knowledge from ribonucleic acid (RNA) research. This caused a paradigm shift from the 40-year-old cen- tral dogma that RNA merely serves as a messenger in genetic information transfer to a view that RNA not only plays a role in a multitude of cellular functions, for example in the regulation of gene expression, but also could be the key molecule that led to the origins of life on Earth – the so-called RNA World hypothesis. High expectations and great hype arose from the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi; a mechanism widely employed by eukaryotic cells to inhibit protein production at a post-transcriptional level) which allows gene silencing in experimental settings and has enormous therapeutic potential. RNAi established itself very quickly as a useful molecular biology tool making large-scale functional genomics screens and high-throughput drug target screening possible. There is increasing optimism that RNA-based approaches will bring significant advances to the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of a multitude of human diseases. The exploitation of RNA molecules as diagnostic tools and as therapeutic agents has only begun.
In Lanzhou, China, a fragmentation-based RI-Beam facility called HIRFL-CSR is in operation at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP). Construction of a new facility called HIAF is planned as a future program. The proposed accelerator complex is shown in Fig. 5. It will use 1.2 GeV/nucleon uranium beam (20 kW) for RI production. By constructing several rings for accumulation-acceleration and collecting RI beams with cooling, electron and proton beams for colliding experiments, and elec- tron accelerator for electron-ion collisions, various types of studies can be conducted. The project has been approved, and HIAF will be constructed throughout 2013-2019 at a site independent of the current HIRFL-CSR facility.
Culture here must include spiritual dimensions which are characteristics of human beings, raising them above the concern of everyday life. This is a central theme in a period when civilization is in crisis. All over the world there is search after meaning, for the need to redefine the very aim of life. Spirituality is the force that transcends the materials world and gives it a meaning (Kovel, 2007: p. 18). The sources of spirituality are many and are al- ways to be found within a social context; they cannot exist without a physical and sociological base (Hourtart, 2011: p. 33). The human being is indivisible; spirituality presupposes matter that, on the other hand, has non sense without spirit. Thus a culturalistic understanding of spirituality, ignoring the material aspects of a human being—which for an individual is the body and for the society is the economic and political reality—is a con- ceptual aberration leading to reductionism or alienation. Notably, spirituality, (with or without reference to a su- pernatural), gives a sense of worth to human life on the planet. How this may be expressed as conditioned by the social relation in the society but it can also give direction to these relations. No change of paradigm can be car- ried out without spirituality, which has many paths and multiple expressions.
Here is an example of a real-world cyberstalking case. A female, unmarried clerk was being pursued by an obsessive male network administrator who had access to the company’s computer systems.Though she declined his advances, the network administrator would not leave her alone. Because of his persistent, rude online comments about her and his repeat face-to-face stares at her, he was eventually fired from the company where they both worked—a point that further infuriated him. After his termination from the company, the network administrator cracked into his previous employer’s network, assumed several identities, and sent embarrassing emails about the clerk target to others in the firm in which she was still employed. He stole secret documents from his previous employer and, posing as other company employees, made veiled threats to release confidential information about her to the public.Without the target’s knowing it, at one point he tried to arrange to get the employer to give her a $130,000-a-year-raise—as a result of cracking the company’s computer system. Even more interesting is that the perpetrator sent most of his emails from his new employer’s computer, where, in the end, the logs provided strong evi- dence that eventually led to his arrest and conviction.
Following the large-scale dissemination of guided SH in countries like England, Australia and Canada, practice-based studies have generated new insights about its effectiveness and limitations in routine care. Despite the standardised nature of guided SH, the effectiveness of treatment is partly influenced by the facilitator, 10 with some attaining exceptional results even if
Large Scale Industries are now forced to start with Talent Management Processes due to Global Competitions & Technology Changes. Medium Scale Industries are still in dilemma, whether to adapt the concept of Talent management and execute the same? In Small Scale Industries, due to its scope and working nature, as well as the size of human resources along with the Time & Cost invested for Talent management Processes; they are not at all in favor of it. As per the 2006 report by the Boston Consulting Group there are a number of challenges for Management for the 21st Century over the next 15 years. It also says that over the next 30 – 50 years, large-scale shifts in workforce demographics, both locally and globally, as well as shifting global economics will lead to changes that affect the future Metropolitan workforce. While the exact timing of anticipated changes is uncertain, there are many changes predicted in the literature for the future workforce. These changes have a number of practical implications for Metropolitan. Some of these changes are:
ideal of human unity may be attained in future. This requires tremendous efforts in the fields of social, economic, educational, political and other types of unification. This unity finds a due place for diversity. It will not only admit but even encourage small distinctions. For this mankind will have to develop relationship between the individuals, societies and mankind. All these three are natural units. None of these can be eliminated. Only the self assertive designs of nationalistic imperialism and national egoism, which constitute a danger to human unity and peace, are required to be replaced by cosmopolitanism and world union. In the first stage which is the process of national unification and solidification, the dominant interests of the national unit can preponderate over other local and sectional loyalties and obligations. In the second stage when the nation has become organized and powerful it should minimize its parochial and territorial claims and should preserve itself in a cosmopolitan organization without destroying its existence as a unit, just as the individual preserves himself in the family, the family in the class and the class in the nation. It is essential to solidify the moral and psychological bonds of internationalism. This is the need of the hour. Aurobindo never considers nationalism and patriotism to be narrow fanatical jingoism or chauvinism but envisages “the ultimate unity of mankind” 11
Some of the compositional concerns and traits in Spiral are clearly audible on the new disc, not least in that two works have similar titles: Spiral VI (1992), a beguiling single-movement quartet for violin, cello, clarinet and piano, and the orchestral Grand Spiral (‘Desert Flowers Bloom’) from 1991. Ung has remarked: ‘If East is yellow and West is blue, then my music is green’. Spiral VI is positively emerald, in that case: its soulful Asian melodies merge seamlessly into an evocative, mid-European sound world that recalls a wealth of musics from the early decades of the last century. Indeed, there is much about Ung’s music that suggests what Western Classical music from a Cambodian might have sounded like in, say, the 1910s and 1920s. Yet there is nothing archaic or backward-looking in Ung’s musical persona; the harmonies are piquantly late-20th-century and the fantasia-like internal processes are modern and effortlessly developmental. There is also a very clear expressive focus throughout each of the compositions here, from the initial gesture – often a held chord and a set of repeated notes followed by the primary intervals the piece is constructed from – to the usually gentle close. What occurs between, however, is very different from work to work.
points of conflict and tension that had emerged about heritage management practices and interpretations of the heritage since the Blaenavon Industrial Landscape was nominated as a World Heritage Site in the late 1990s. This was achieved through introducing the same themes of discussion and prompts in each interview while encouraging the interviewee to highlight the issues that they felt were important (see Rubin and Rubin 1995, King and Horrocks 2010). The value of the semi-structured interview as a methodology for exploring the complexity of issues related to heritage has been rarely discussed but the main advantage is to allow for issues relevant to the interviewees to emerge spontaneously (see Jones 2004, Sørensen 2009). This is opposed to interviewing in a highly structured manner merely to collect data to fit an existing theory or hypothesis. In this research, the information gained through interviews was contextualised using numerous documentary sources, primarily management plans and local government reports. Big Pit: National Coal Museum