From what has been discussed above, firstly, according to the definition, activities and characters of agri-food cold chain logistics, the content of agri-food cold chain logistics management system is classified in three levels of management activities. There are macro management and part of the industry management of the govern- ment-led agricultural cold chain logistics activity, industry management of industry association as the main body, and micro enterprise operation management of enterprise as the main body. Secondly, cold chain logistics man- agement system of agricultural products is a complex system. Its structure includes organizational system of cold chain logistics of agricultural products, supervision system of cold chain logistics of agricultural products, legal standard system of cold chain logistics of agricultural products and industry public service system. In addi- tion, the supervision system includes market access system, testing system and tracing system. The legal stan- dard system includes legal system, technical standards, specifications, application guidelines, etc. The aim is to accurately grasp the internal logic relationship of each part and the operation mechanism through an analysis of internal structure and function of the cold chain logistics management system of agricultural products. Finally, from the experience of international agricultural products cold chain logistics management, the regulatory au- thorities should strengthen the supervision of market behavior and early warning, strict market access, and the key to form a closed loop. Through improving agricultural products cold chain logistics management laws and regulations system, standard system, management system, testing system, certification system, technology sup- porting system, information service system, and establishing emergency mechanism and other agricultural products cold chain logistics security support system, government, industry, consumers, media, education and scientific research institutions and other relevant parties can take many aspects, many angles, many levels mu- tually supporting measures, in order to establish and improve the agricultural products cold chain logistics safety control system, and establish the whole process control system from farm to table, to ensure the safety of agri- cultural products cold chain logistics.
Agriculture Products Cold Chain Services Certification regulators including all levels of government regula- tors and industry associations. China National Certification and Accreditation Administration Commission (Peo- ple’s Republic of China Certification and Accreditation Administration), the State Council decided to set up and authorized to perform administrative functions, unified management, supervision and overall coordination au- thorities nationwide certification and accreditation work 4 . China National Accreditation Committee (English ab- breviation for: CNAS) is in accordance with the provisions of “People’s Republic of China Certification and Accreditation Regulations”, the establishment of national accreditation bodies approved by the National Certifi- cation and Accreditation Administration Committee and authorized certification body responsible for unification, laboratory and inspection bodies and other relevant institutions accreditation. CNCA for enterprises to establish and implement a management system implementation supervision, and certification bodies operational guidance and supervision and inspection. Provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities quality and technology su- pervision department of the State Council that set up by quality supervision, inspection and quarantine depart- ments in the local entry-exit inspection and quarantine authorities, to the extent authorized by the State Council certification and accreditation regulatory department of management system certification activities and services to implement supervision management. Establishment of the National Certification and Accreditation Adminis- tration Committee is to establish a certification and accreditation system of government administration inevita- bly, it is unified supervision, management and overall coordination required certification and accreditation of the country, it is a fundamental solution to the certification and accreditation of overlapping functions, it will play the overall advantage, improving the effectiveness that be verified 5 . Industry Association as the industry enter- prises and government links to the link, responsible for the accreditation and certification in accordance with the relevant oversight standards development work, play a complementary role to government regulation.
Industry associations should have consciousness of active supervision and management of the market order. Establishing restraint mechanism of self-discipline is an important aspect to establish profit-driven mechanism of social middle-tier building industry association. an important starting point of establishing industry associa- tions is to strengthen the industry’s self-regulation. No self-regulatory mechanisms, trade order is chaos, it will reduce the efficiency of the sector, damaging the interests of consumers. Associations are indeed the complex of interests of industry, any industry member must abide by its rules, or the other members will be excluded from the industry. self-regulatory mechanisms of Industry associations plays an important role in the quality safety regulation of agricultural products, but because of the Government’s external intervention and System defects of the association itself, the associations did not form independent and democratic mechanism. Maintaining indus- try overall interests is target and purposes for industry associations to pursuit, so, we should establish series of profit-driven mechanism to inspire self-discipline enthusiasm of Industry Association, guide industry association to comply with specification market order, established sound managed and constraint mechanism of industry self-discipline, improve the self-regulating management system, Develop and implement the code of profession- al ethics of associations, regulating member behavior to coordinate members’ relationships, Earnestly shoulder important responsibilities of industry self-regulation and guarantee the social responsibility of quality and safety.
The situation that agricultural products circulation have to through multiple links and the current regulation sys- tem in our country determine sector segment management in cold chain logistics traceable system for agricultur- al products, which leading to hard coordination and inefficient regulation. Meanwhile, small units, large num- bers and low degree of information are characteristics in agricultural industry enterprises. In the process of im- plementing the traceability of agricultural products quality and safety, enterprises should establish traceable in- formation management system and a database, purchase wireless bar code readers, bar code printers and other hardware devices. They also should train their workers and start to use network, and these costs are generally difficult to bear. Existing cold chain logistics traceable system for agricultural products is mainly led by the Government departments, who promote traceable system’s establishment and promotion in the form of various types of project funding. Besides, under market conditions of lack of traceable system protection and consumers’ lower willingness to pay for traceable agricultural products, so enterprises lack of power and consumers’ securi- ty demands of agricultural products is also difficult to protect. Based on the implementation status about cold chain logistics traceable system for agricultural products around the world and the bottleneck came across in the process of cold chain logistics traceable system implementation in our country, the implementation’s path choice of the massive popularity of traceable system and effective quality supervision must be low cost, high participa- tion and sustainable, namely the construction of ecological system of cold chain logistics traceable system for agricultural products (as shown in the following Figure 5).
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cold-chain performance evaluation indexes is quite difficult because it is a typical multi-input and multi-output system. Jacxsens, Uyttendaele and Devlieghere (2010) developed a set of food safety performance management diagnostic system for strict and specific evaluation, which can yield better performance for the assumption. Joshi, Banwet and Shankar (2011) selected the costs, quality and safety, service levels, traceability, return on assets, innovation and customer relations as the evaluation indexes using Delphi-AHP-TOPSIS method, and constructed a cold-chain performance evaluation system based on benchmarking framework. Summarizing above, we found that there are few special studies on the aquatic products cold- chain logistics performance evaluation in existed literature, and the results of these studies are relatively fragmented. Therefore, according to the characteristics and goals of aquatic products cold-chain logistics, we propose innovatively the SISP (Subjects, Indexes, Standards, Phases of performance evaluation) model for aquatic products cold-chain logistics performance evaluation system and ACSSN (Aquatic products, Customer, Supply chain, Society, Node enterprises of supply chain) model of performance evaluation indexes based on traditional performance evaluation system. Then we use “Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method” to evaluate the operation performance of an enterprise engaged in aquatic products in China, put forward the improvement measure of keeping lower logistics temperature and develop a system dynamics model to simulate the performance. Different from the existing researches, this paper constructs a complete framework for aquatic product cold chain logistics performance evaluation. It highlights the characteristics and the aim of aquatic product cold chain logistics, and has more realistic guidance significance for the development of aquatic product cold chain logistics in China.
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It is necessary to precisely manage the location and information of the cargo. However, the storage place for the domestic refrigeration warehouse is composed of several layers such as 3 and 5 stages. It is difficult to grasp the information of the products stored in each floor by managing the system or the management based on the memory of the worker. The smart refrigeration logistics center, which will be built in Busan New Port in the future, will utilize the RFID / USN for each rack cell in the forklift or warehouse to enhance the productivity of the forklift and to keep the information of the products stored in the cell in real time Information on the products stored in layers from the first layer using the 3D technology is displayed on the touch screen in 3D image, and the information on the inventory status by the expiration date of the product, the progress of the packaging, the inventory status by the number of days stored, It will be possible to manage warehouses more efficiently with the visibility of the inside of the warehouse such as 3D display. Figure 2 shows a conveyor system incorporating RFID technology.
Quantity demanded and order quantity has important influence on inventory. The effective management of inventory can effectively control storage costs and orders, which enables the good operation of the business cycle. Based on the information system software developed relying on cloud computing, it inputs product information, which provides great convenience for enterprise query and modification, promoting online transactions. For logistics enterprises, the cloud platform processes the order according to the inventory data after they receive order information. The warehouse department will deliver the goods if the inventory is sufficient and the replenishment will be done in time if the inventory is insufficient, which ensures the quality of customer service. Cloud computing can also effectively monitor the storage environment conditions, so that the quality and safety of fresh products are guaranteed. At the same time, the timely update of inventory data and statistics of storage products also optimizes the inventory decision and reduces the management costs.
Because cold chain logistics operation and monitoring involves a variety of dis- ciplines, science, technology and safety of professional features, so most of the cold chain logistics professionals, in addition to need to understand supply chain management, food science and other knowledge, you must also have With fro- zen technology, refrigeration technology, mechanical technology and other re- lated knowledge background . In Qiushui Lake, people are often bound by the limitations of the education system and the traditional concepts, and people with cold chain logistics management skills are seriously lacking. For A county, the existing number of aquatic product operators is huge, but their professionalism is not high and their professional skills are not strong. Knowledge can’t be effec- tively translated into practice, so they can only engage in relatively simple logis- tics and distribution work.
ABSTRACT :-The Internet of Things (IoT) is a new evolution in technological advancement taking place in the world today. This paradigm allows physical world objects in our surroundings to be connected to the Internet. This idea comes to life by utilizing two architecture; the sensing entity in the environment that collects data and connects itself to the cloud and the Cloud Service that hosts the data from the environment. The combination of wireless sensor networks and cloud computing is becoming a popular strategy for the IoT era. The cold chain requires controlled environment for sensitive products in order for them to be fit for use. The monitoring process is the only assurance which tells if a certain process has been carried out successfully. Taking advantage of IoT and its benefits to monitor cold chain logistics will result in better management and product handling. This project comprises a system of Arduino, sensor and Xively sensor cloud which can be an ideal system to monitor temperature of cold chain logistics.
This logistic performance leads to the differentiation in terms of cost, quality and deadlines; what establishes a competitive advantage to the actors and especially in a domain where the participants are multiple and the interests in several cases are divergent; such as ports . Port of Agadir subdued, in the constraints of seasonality and the massifs of influxes of the perishable products in period of citrus fruits and scoops, it faces difficulties of organization and flow of flux characterized agro-exporters the peer of the irregularities, which impose in the port of counter performances at the level quality of residual and especially on export of plan of the fruits and vegetables. Of this fact; management of the main processes (stopover of the ship, chain of cold and information system) which cross chains the harbour logistics; constituent let us mesh of a sensibility significant of any chain the logistics. The link harbour passage is not only considered a point of entrance and exit, but also a place grouping a number of participants public and deprived; requiring a good management of the effective processes, the organization of the bilateral and multilateral relations and the preservation of the quality and the healthiness of exported products while assuring the adaptability of the service offered to the expected service.
The quality of vaccines is also one of the important factors for success of immunization program which in turn depends on proper storage and handling of vaccines. If vaccines are stored outside the recommended temperature for considerable time, its potency will be adversely effected thereby reducing protection from vaccine preventable diseases. The loss of potency depends upon the temperature and duration of exposure. 9 All the health facilities which provide health services and have cold chain facilities for storage of vaccines such as hospital, immunization clinics, postpartum centres, community health centres, district hospital, medical college are designated fixed sites for immunization under UIP. Vaccination services should be provided every day or once a week on fixed day. These centres provide quality immunization services, maintain good records and ensure high level of satisfaction. Fixed sessions mainly provide services in urban area or bigger village where the community health centres are located. Fixed sessions do not have area responsibility. People come to fixed centers voluntarily. Hence the coverage of fixed centres is limited, slum population is left out and fixed sessions are not accessible to most of rural population therefore it is essential to provide immunization trough “outreach sessions”. Under UIP; outreach sessions are organized on fixed day. Health workers organize at least one session per month for every one thousand population. 1 With this back ground the study was carried out to assess the availability of vaccine and logistics, Cold chain practices, Vaccination practices and safety issues at Routine Immunization session sites of Damoh District of Madhya Pradesh.
In the contemporary environment of globalization, it is important for ports to be considered as integral parts of supply chains that have an important role to play in supply chain integration by serving and facilitating multi-modal transport intersection, operating as a logistics centre, adding value, linking flows, and creating supply chain patterns and processes of their own. (Bichou and Gray, 2005) This paper provides a theoretical analysis of the new strategic role of seaports in maritime logistics and supply chain management. The importance of the supply chain orientation for seaports and the consequent maximization of maritime logistics value are examined by means of a literature review. A conceptual framework highlighting the different stages of integration of seaports in the supply chain is discussed and finally the implications thereof for maritime logistics are inferred.
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Academia continuously struggles with the content identification of logistics courses, wishing to support industry's needs. As expressed by Gravier and Farris (2008), articles about logistics education had progressed from asking, "Who are we?" in the 1960s and 1970s, to asking "What are we teaching?" from the 1980s. They also point out that two-thirds of the way into the first decade of the 2000s, the number of published articles that address logistics education, is greater than in any two consecutive previous decades, evidence for its growing importance. The debate concerning the content of a logistics course will always be around since practitioners' needs are dynamic.
Thanks to VMI it was possible to increase the efficiency of the flow of goods, services and information in the supply chain as a result of customer’s inventory management by the supplier. The supplier is responsible for the recipient’s stocks. Using EDI messages, they receive from the client data over the Internet related to: sales volume and production, states inventory and needs of completion them. Basing on the received information the supplier can create the optimal delivery schedules for both parties, because the amount and type of products ordered are not generated by the consumer, but created on the basis of their needs by the supplier.
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This paper analyses food safety problem in food supply chain of our country firstly, then points out food safety difference between food supply chain in our country and foreign countries. Compared with foreign countries, there are potential safety hazard in food production, food logistics and the whole supply chain in food supply chain of our country. On the basis of using foreign advanced food supply chain, this paper combines the reality of our country, attempts to adopt food safety purchase, food safety cold chain logistics, food safety trace back to ensure food safety in supply chain, and constructs food safety credit administrative system to promote enterprises to implement food safety ensuring measure. Food safety purchase, food safety cold chain logistics, food safety trace back and food safety credit administrative system compose food safety ensuring system of food supply chain.
The current financial crisis makes it difficult for businesses, especially for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), to get financing from banks to finance their future manufacturing activities and business development. In recent years, warehouse financing as an effective means for SMEs from large banks and large companies began to appear. Yin, Luo andFei (2009) identify and analyze the risks of the entire warehouse financing process and give measures to assess these risks.Most of the research proportion is given to risk management theories in supply chain finance research which confirm the opinions made by some scholars that risk management is an important factor in SCF. Yi-Xue(2012) proposed a conceptual framework concerning the discern of the risk sources. He divided these into two categories: system risks (SC, macro-economy and industry) and non-system risks (credit, liquidity and operation). Chen et al. (2007) runs a sensitive analysis and found out that when valuing risk in stock financing, loan- to-value ratios are more sensitive than interest rates. This, all things considered, originates from the price risk and liquidity risk of the collateral. Busch (2008) survey shows that supply chain finance is a revolutionary financing program. Its emergence, greatly improving the company's interest in the supply chain system. Deferred accounts receivable, prepaid accounts, inventories, etc. are wasted in inefficient operations. The flexibility and ease of implementation of supply chain finance often complement the shortcomings of existing receivables and coping schemes. Supply Chain Finance Mode of Operation: Normally, the supplier sells the goods to the buyer according to the terms of trade, such as 30 days. In the traditional business model, the supplier sometimes waits at least 30 days to receive the money, and the buyer may unilaterally extend his payment. Then during this period, the supplier can finance receivables through securitization, asset-backed securities, factoring or other mechanisms. The benefit of this supplier is that suppliers can determine their cash flow, improve their cash forecasting capabilities, and eliminate credit risk.
In the case of large and established builders who are in the field for more than 4 to 5 decades, they always believe in a sound Supply Chain Management System. In order not to take risk, however quality oriented and sound the supplier is, they have more than one source of supply in their chain. Their off take is assured and the suppliers are also confirmed of business dealings with the builders.
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In 2018, the "Proposal on Accelerating the Commercialization of Fruit and Vegetable Production and the Innovation of Cold Chain Logistics to Promote the Development of Modern Fruit and Vegetable Industry" proposed strengthening the construction of scientific and technological teams and supporting conditions, and improving the technological innovation capability of commercialization of fruit and vegetable production and cold chain logistics. This shows that China attaches importance to accelerating cold chain logistics.
Abstract — In order to develop the transshipment and processing capacity of port nodes in the container port service network and meet the increasing demand for cold chain logistics transportation, container flow quantity should be reasonably distributed in port nodes which undertake functions of transportation and transfer in the cold chain. Through the study of refrigerated container service network, this paper establishes an optimization model for port service network of refrigerated container with minimizing the total cost as the objective, transportation time reliability and storage capacity of the refrigerated container in port nodes as constraints to achieve the optimal container flow allocation in transshipment ports under different supply and demand quantity.
The cold chain involves the transportation of temperature sensitive products along a supply chain through thermal and refrigerated packaging methods and the logistical planning to protect the integrity of these shipments. There are several means in which cold chain products can be transported, including refrigerated trucks and railcars, refrigerated cargo ships as well as by air cargo. Though, improvements in insulation are increasing but onboard fleet management systems may deliver even bigger savings. As there would be less responsibility on drivers for setting up of the temperatures. There would be no need for the drivers to turn off the reefer to save fuel, so fuel utilization would be improved and conditions can be controlled remotely. The system would now decrease claims and issues such for the lost of the sales.
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