As capitalism evolved from the stage of the free competition to the monopoly stage, the scientific managementtheory began to sprout and form in this context. More than a century later, the rapid development of productive forces of capitalism in the early 20th century, major western capitalist countries successively completed the industrial revolution, the industrial production mode from the small cottage into large scale production factory, complex production process instead of the usual simple manual labor. As competition intensifies, the expansion of production scale, the accuracy of division of functions and the resulting labor conflicts are strongly impact the enterprise original organizational structure and management mode, so how to enhance the production efficiency and management means, to become capitalists increasingly concerned issue, the theory of scientific management evolved in this background. In the early 20th century, the theory of scientific management was one of the most common management ideas and theories in western industrialized countries. It includes a series of scientific methods and theoretical bases for the standardization of production operations and the rationalization of production organizations. Frederick Winslow Taylor is the most famous
time studies, as time and motion are two sides of the efficiency improvement coin. The two fields eventually became time and motion study. Thus, in the scientific managementtheory time was treated as the most significant factor, which attracted widespread criticism as saving time meant providing managers the opportunity to exploit workers by forcing them to work at faster paces. However, it is necessary to indicate that scientific management, which brought time-based efficiency into existence, eliminated the problem of limited labor resources in the USA during that particular period. Meanwhile, French scientist Fayol, who is regarded as the founder of the Classical School of Management, emphasized such things as division of labor, discipline, centralization and coordinated order in the arrangement of human and physical resources. Taylor expressed great interest in organizational functions, whereas Fayol was focused on the organization as a whole. In order to enhance the efficiency of activities within the organization, German sociologist Weber proposed bureaucratic management and activity standardization. However, the classical attitude failed to ensure sufficient production effectiveness and consistency in the work place, since an individual is treated as an element whose function is to perform work without the possibility to creative activities. There is still no association between processes and environment that surround the organization.
Knowledge management is an important theme within managementtheory, because the processes of knowledge management are exercised when managers are required to manage intellectual property. This paper examines theoretical models of the management of intellectual property collaborative structures. The role of new knowledge within organisations suggests that, while managers have always been involved in managing explicit knowledge, there are new demands upon managers that require new competencies. These competencies include the ability to lever knowledge strategically and competitively, especially by managers who work in the specialized activities of research and development. An examination of the models for managing intellectual property, offers an opportunity for research to discover relevant management competencies needed by managers, when they attempt to be strategic with knowledge. In the future, a detailed understanding of these competencies may influence the effective development and application of intellectual property, often directed by these managers who are involved in meeting the challenges of working collaboratively.
A detailed description of variables is show in Table 1. Exposure indicators were calculated for EUR/PLN, USD/PLN exchange rates and for WIBOR, EUR LIBOR, and USD LIBOR as betas in a CAPM style rates of return regression, following common practice in the field (e.g. Choi and Prasad, 1995; Bradley and Moles, 2001; Chen and So, 2002; Crabb, 2002). They were later changed to absolute values, as I was interested in the extent, not the direction of exposure. Sales revenue was used as a scaling variable, since all previous studies showed size to be a strong determinant of risk management practices. Industry coding was done in accordance with the general nomenclature of the Warsaw Stock Exchange.
The implementation of the South African Schools Act (SASA) (1996) and similar moves towards self-management in many other countries, have led to an enhanced emphasis on the practice of educational leadership and manage- ment (Huber, 2004). Principals are inundated with advice from politicians, officials, academics and consultants, about how to lead and manage their schools. Many of these prescriptions are atheoretical in the sense that they are not underpinned by explicit values or concepts (Bush, 1999; Bush, 2003). As we shall see later, however, governments may use conceptual language while shifting its meaning to support their own politically inspired intentions. The models discussed in this section should be regarded as alternative ways of portraying events. The existence of several different perspectives creates what Bolman and Deal (1997:11) describe as ‘conceptual pluralism: a jangling discord of multiple voices’. Each theory has something to offer in explaining behaviour and events in educational institutions. The perspectives favoured by managers, explicitly or implicitly, inevitably influence or deter- mine decision-making. Morgan (1997:4-5) uses ‘metaphors’ to explain the complex character of organisational life and notes that ‘any theory or perspec- tive that we bring to the study of organization and management, while capable of creating valuable insights, is also incomplete, biased and potentially mis- leading’.
An object-subject side of the uncertainty nature refers us to the already indisputable fact that the intensity of a side effect of the uncertainty with its different relative and absolute levels differs by its volatility. A power of wave propagation of the uncertainty with an initially high or low pulse push remaining in an area of the entity comfort is seemingly have almost identical results in an organic and almost simultaneous decay of the uncertainty influenced by a weight and a force of self-organization. The emphasized feature in the uncertainty development has at least two points that deserve attention to support the author's position. Firstly, the management faces a barrier in bringing a level of the uncertainty to an acceptable limit, after which an inner capacity for self-organization will be able to eliminate the chaos of free roaming ensuring stable and sustainable economic development. Secondly, it is important that the uncertainty, being nonlinear, has an uneven distribution, hence, quantitative values and their qualitative interpretations are subject to a particular form of gradation (scaling).
2003, p. 291). In this context, the resource based view focuses on the unique internal resources within firms and exploiting firm specific assets to achieve competitive advantage (D. J. Teece, Pisano, & Shuen, 1997, p. 514). Although the resource based view is considered an influential managementtheory it has been criticized to be conceptually vague and redundant, with limited focus on the mechanisms by which resources actually contribute to competitive advantage (Eisenhardt & Martin, 2000, p. 1106). This is supported by D. J. Teece and Pisano (1994, p. 538) who argued that the foundation of the resource based view is not capable of supporting sustained competitive advantage. While the resource based view recognizes the mechanisms that enable competitive advantage, it does not attempt to explain how these mechanisms operate (D. J. Teece et al., 1997, p. 510). Instead it was proposed that competitive advantage would be attributed to those companies that were able react rapidly and flexibly to product innovation, while simultaneously possessing the capacity to manage firm specific capabilities in such a way as to effectively coordinate and redeploy internal and external competences (D. J. Teece et al., 1997, p. 515). This ability to achieve new forms of competitive advantage by being flexible and fast in dealing with changing market environments is what D. J. Teece and Pisano (1994, p. 552) referred to as “DC’s”. The DCT expands on two fundamental issues that were not discussed in other strategy approaches, such as the resource based view; the first being the firm’s ability to renew competences so as to adapt to changes in the business environment and the second being the ability of strategic management to use these competences to match the requirements of the environment (D. J. Teece et al., 1997, p. 515). Thus due to the fact that the resource based view has not been able to adequately explain how and why certain firms have competitive advantage in situations of rapid and unpredictable change (Eisenhardt & Martin, 2000, p. 1106) in which DC’s become the source of sustained competitive advantage (D. J. Teece et al., 1997, p. 511), the DC’s approach is proposed.
Betts and Lansley are less than satisfied with the extent to which this has taken place in the pages of CM&E, suggesting that ‘the discipline is becoming rather inward-looking, self- referential and lacking in its guidance from and contribution to theory’ (ibid). This, they acknowledge, may be compensated for by the empirical nature of the research which is being carried out. They find that ‘seventy percent of the papers [studied] are based on original or nearly original data gathered through case studies or as truly empirical data’ (op cit p.241). In classifying the contribution to theory of published works in construction management, their study adopted a five point scale, starting at ‘Insights. The contribution lies largely in the data […] presented—the papers do not generate new models or theories’. The second level is ‘Model testing or fitting. The testing of statistical or organizational models’, moving to ‘Model building. Developing complex (largely static) new models […] for forecasting and decision making’. The next level is ‘System building. Developing complex (largely dynamic or interactive) systems […] for operations management and decision making’. Finally there is ‘Theory building/modifying. Development or modification of theory, for example whilst application of mainstream managementtheory to construction would fall in [sic] model testing category, developments of that theory to fit construction would fall here’ (op cit p.245).
Of course, stakeholder theory’s foundation on ethics and morality offers a wide range of possibilities as well. The CSR literature has found stakeholder theory especially useful in defending its basic premise that firms should do well from a societal perspective. However, the theory is much broader than this, both as a managementtheory and as an ethical theory. If we accept the stakeholder premise that stakeholders are basically moral, then how does this alter our ideas about people in our complex world? What happens to the widely accepted idea in the business and economics literatures that people tend to be self-serving and opportunistic? If we envision capitalism as a system in which companies create value for stakeholders, how does this change our perspective on the history of capitalism and its usefulness in evoking positive changes in economies and their underlying societies? Finally, how can stakeholder theory influence one of the great international debates of our day – the distribution and/or redistribution of value created by economic enterprises?
(Coleman, 1988, p. 117; Onyx & Bullen, 2000, p. 24; R. Putnam, 1993, p. 2). Regarding the external consistency one has to say that social capital is embedded into several theoretical traditions (Onyx & Bullen, 2000, p. 24). Among these one can find from the early beginning in the work of Jacobs (1965) (NAHAPIET, 1998, p. 243) different concepts like human capital as in the work of Coleman (1988) or cultural capital in the work of Bourdieu (1986). Speaking of the conservatism virtue, social capital is definitely ahead of many predecessors, since it is constantly evolving through scholars which increasingly begin to quantify the phenomenon to extract connection towards economic value. The latter one is the biggest motivator nowadays to consciously prosper from social resources in order to create real benefits in terms of profit (Portes, 2000, pp. 2-3). Nevertheless there are also weaknesses of the theory in several criteria where it lacks quality. In the case of social capital these points begin with the verifiability and operationality which is not necessarily given due to its distinguishable effects and outcomes for different individuals (Coleman, 1988, p. 101) and few empirical studies to quantify and assess the theory in detail. As Onyx and Bullen (2000) phrased it: “As is usual with such research, we have some tantalizing answers but even more tantalizing questions to pursue.” (Onyx & Bullen, 2000, p. 39). Furthermore regarding the fruitfulness, the heuristics and practical importance are of ambiguous character. On the one side the efforts conducted in order to further relate this topic towards the business sector are of increasing manner e.g. by Seibert and Kraimer (2001) through the already stated economical motivation by Portes (2000) but on the other side the problem of the quantitative assessment of the effects and variables of social capital significantly slows the progress of further development down as observed in the literature. Nevertheless Onyx and Bullen (2000) set the corner stones for the further quantification and empirical motivated papers in the field.
). In the findings it can be seen that there is a difference of strategic decisions and prior experiences in regard to genders. Is seems that he results for male respondents are rather straightforward and corresponded with the researchers’ forecasts. Male attendees are likely to aggregate past outcomes with future payoffs and therefore confirm social projections (Schade et al., 2010, p. 434). Female attendees were characterised as less predictable in regards to different prior outcome. These differences in the application of the game theory might be justified by females being uncertain about what to expect from their opposites or by a different way of interpreting prior gains or losses (Schade et al., 2010, p. 435). Sharma and Bhattacharya (2013) furthermore analysed the knowledge flow in common organisational situation in regard to the optimal solution (Sharma & Bhattacharya, 2013, p. 100). As a final result they stated the imperfection of the game theoretical approach due to assumptions like perfect rationality or risk neutrality the game theory implies (Sharma & Bhattacharya, 2013, p. 111). They also advise to use the game theory as a means to frame decision possibilities and not to predict an interest (Sharma & Bhattacharya, 2013, p. 112).
construct goal interdependence (Wong et al., 2005; Yang, Wang, Wong, & Lai, 2008). (Wong et al., 2005) is a explorative study finding out if social interdependence theory holds up in supply chain relations in China. There was no conclusive evidence that it is applicable however the research showed promising signs. (Yang et al., 2008) is a study uses the construct from social interdependence theory and combines it with social exchange theory to determine why firms enter into cooperation. Goal interdependence being one of the reasons. The effect goal interdependence has on trust is particularly interesting as trust is an important part in effective and efficient supply chain relations (Brinkhoff, Özer, & Sargut, 2015; Thomas & Skinner, 2010; van Weele & van Raaij, 2014).
The main actors involved in developing this new management model were managers, management theorists, and management consultants associated with the automobile industry and other industries in the core of this technological revolution (see ill , 1994). Managers such as Alfred Sloan at General Motors recognized the inadequacy of the inherited organizational paradigm, and they searched for solutions within their companies. Sloan's search for a solution was based on the expectation that the diffusion of automobiles was cr ati g a w tra sportatio syst m Sloa : 43), one that would involve many more, and more diverse, consumers. His solution, developed in the 1920s, was a radically new management model in which differentiated market segments would be assigned to distinct, more or less self-contained, business divisions the Strategy-and- structure model. This management model allowed General Motors to pursue a strategy of product differentiation a c ar for v ry p rs a d p rpos (Sloan, 1964: 438)) and shared parts, and thereby to overtake Ford as the preeminent firm in the automobile industry (Chandler, 1962). It also inaugurated a new organizational paradigm: the multi-divisional Corporation replaced the unitary Factory as the paradigmatic frame of reference.
Improving practice requires design, implementation and deployment. TFV (Koskela 2000), the theory of variation (Deming 1986), factory physics (Hopp & Spearman ) and principles such as shielding production (Ballard & Howell 1998) are examples of theoretical resources available for the design of better production systems. No doubt there are others and no doubt there is further valuable work to be done. The V element of TFV provides one clear answer to what constitutes improvement? Thus, value is seen in terms of customer satisfaction (and customers, of course, can be identified at every point in the process of design, production and delivery. It has long been recognised that uni-polar concepts of value are inadequate to the understanding of production (Marx 1976; Durkheim 1933; Weber 1930). Sociology's founding theoretical debates continue to have deep relevance to the question of production today, unfortunately finding only faint echo in the contemporary sociological concerns of post-modernists and structuralists. Nonetheless, the foundational theoretical works of Marx, Weber and Durkheim remain a valuable resource for our studies.
economic life). The denominator is the L-image of realization of its resources r (descriptor other facts of an economic life) . The estimation of conditions "lifting", "crisis" and others should be authentic, well-founded on a registration interval of time. We have not found a substantiation of such size of a registration interval. Such substantiation is an unresolved problem of the economic theory.
Abstract: Efficient management of supply chains consists in particular in ensuring possibly highest quality of customer service and striving for minimization of the costs generated by flow between the links. Typical cause of constantly increasing costs is excessive inventory levels throughout the chain. The reason for this situation is maladjustment of the level of supply to the level of demand in the market, which results in surplus stock. The starting point for reduction in inventory levels is forecasting of demand in the market through market prognoses in cooperation with all the links in the supply chain. Therefore, in the aspect of demand forecasting, the character of data flow and the type of cooperation between the links is essential.
Gordon and Narayanan (1984) investigated the impact of contextual variables on the design and perceived usefulness of management accounting systems (MAS) in organisations. Contextual variables used in this study are PEU and organisation structure. Using a cross-sectional study from 34 profit- oriented, medium-size, Midwestern domiciled firms in the major cities of the states of Kansas and Missouri, they examined the relationships between an organisation’s PEU, its structure and its information system. They found that a higher PEU is associated with organic types of organisational structure, and with higher perceived importance attached to information characterised as being external, non-financial and ex-ante. In contrast, a lower PEU is associated with mechanistic types of organisational structure, with lower perceived importance attached to external, non-financial and ex-ante information. In other words, when greater environmental uncertainty is perceived, decision makers tend to seek external, non-financial and ex-ante information in addition to other types of information and increasingly move towards an organic form of organisation. The results of the study indicate that the environment is an important factor in designing accounting systems. Characteristics of information that are useful will depend on the type of environment. Managers facing high environmental uncertainty use more information for decision making.
Telecommunication Engineering (1995) by the University of Vigo (Spain). He also holds a MBA degree (2005), a master’s degree in Project Management from the George Washington University (2005), and the Project Management Professional (PMP) ® credential (2009). He has developed most of his professional career at Motorola, having joined the company as radio systems engineer in 1996. Since 2001, he has worked as project manager in charge of different projects related to field trials, new products introduction, support provided to Motorola customers, and quality or definition of metrics included in the company balance scorecard. Since 2006, he has worked as senior project manager in charge of the turnkey projects carried out by the Motorola Spanish Local Office, and in this capacity has been responsible for the planning and control of several projects.
Objectives: To systematically review the literature on the current data in managing accidental hypothermia vic- tims in the pre-hospital and hospital settings. Methods: We identified studies published from 1 January 1977 through 31 May 2012 by searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL and database of the National Library of Medicine. Initial search terms were 'definition of hypothermia', 'prehospital management', 'hospital management', and 'rewarming techniques'. Findings: Accidental hypothermia occurs due to body heat redis- tribution between core and peripheral tissues as well as imbalance between heat loss and production. Hypo- thermia may develop within a few minutes after immer- sion in cold water or exposure to cold weather. The prognosis in accidental hypothermia depends to great extent on the degree and duration of the hypothermia, patient's premorbid condition, and the degree of ex- haustion and metabolic derangement that result from the physiologic attempts to compensate for the heat loss. Interpretations and implications: Management of deep hypothermia require rapid internal re-warming in order to support body core organs but all possible pre- cautions should be undertaken to minimize the risk of "rewarming shock". Such care require a medical team with very well understanding of the pathophysiologic that accompanied hypothermia and the implications of various treatment strategies.