banks i.e. 26 have been selected for the study. Period of the study ranged from 2007 to 2012. All the banks were first individually ranked for each ratio on the basis of managerialefficiency and profitability parameter. Then the composite score for each bank has been calculated on the basis of average of the individual score. Friedman rank test has been used to test the hypothesis. At 4 degree of freedom, the hypothesis i.e. H 1 is rejected. Therefore we can
Licensed under Creative Common Page 216 performance as well as various aspects of the company’s financial position. Financial analysts in firms are usually challenged to come up with appropriate strategies to keep improving business fortunes. Businesses must seek and explore veritable means of revitalization when their going concern is being threatened. Financial distress exist where a company is unable to meet its financial obligations as they fall due. The there is a high likelihood that a firm will experience financial distress when a firm’s assets are highly illiquid, non- variable costs are high, or revenues are highly dependent on the economic outlook. In recent times, banks in Nigeria have encountered several challenges that tend to limit or hinder their productivity and efficiency. First, the economic recession that bedeviled the Nigerian economy has led to a high layoff of workers in the banking sector. Secondly, the introduction and implementation of the Treasury Single Account (TSA) has created severe liquidity challenge for Banks in addition to the proliferation of ponzi schemes in Nigeria. This is in addition to the scarcity of foreign exchange, increasing loan default and rising inflation level. There is therefore need to ascertain the effect of the stated economic challenges on the going concern of Nigerian Banks as well as the efficiency of their management. Hence, an examination of management efficiency in selected banks, in response to the stated economic challenges, using the Altman Z score.
Abstract : Human resource management deals with issues related to the efficiency and effectiveness of the organization by strategically focusing upon the optimum utilization of the employees which shall result in profits not only for the organization but for its employees as well. Workforce analytics combines, the need for analyzing the human resource aptly and an adequate software that can provide us with sufficient insights to make fruitful decisions. Proper workforce planning through the usage of workforce analytics can lead to detailed evaluation of the abilities of the human resource, thereby resulting in a productive way of utilizing the abilities. Workforce analytics further enhances the productivity of the firm by identifying occasions, on which the workforce management proves to be inconsistent in terms of its processes, methodology or strategies. Workforce analytics falls under ―People Analytics‖, which is also referred to as HR Analytics. People Analytics combines data related to human resource from different sources, works on its accurate implementation and finding dependable and authentic results. The technology has become more reliable and enlightening in the recent years. Workforce Analytics is an emerging trend in HR. Along with it comes a set of challenges and opportunities, which demand to be understood before the trend could be turned into a fashion. The paper studies various aspects of Workforce Analytics and the need for it. As organizations grow, there HR grows too. The crucial role that the HR plays is being recognized and therefore the need to analyze it to improve the work performance has emerged. The paper also highlights the key elements that must be included for successful functioning of workforce analytics. The various elements include, flexibility, adaptability, usability
Lebanon has diversified water resources compared to close by countries. It is among the countries with the highest total renewable water resources in the region, second only to Iraq and Iran. (Figure 1) Nevertheless, Lebanon faces water shortages during the dry season which extends over four months between July and October due to the following factors: very low water storage capacity, high amount of water lost to the sea, growing demand for water, and deficiency of existing water networks. About 0.7 Billion Cubic Meters (BCM) of runoff rain water is currently lost to the sea every year. It is estimated that the seasonal imbalance of water resources will lead to chronic water shortages by 2020, unless actions are taken to improve efficiency and increase storage capacity (Figure 2)
total equity to total asset ratio. Athanasoglou, Brissimis and Delis (2008) suggested that a well-capitalized bank is predicted to be safer. Abreu and Mendes (2002) posited that a well- capitalized bank with lower risk could bring about improved income. Second, total asset of a bank will be used to measure bank size to determine banks’ profitability. The economies of scale theory outlines that an aggregated bank size is expected to have a positive significant impact on banks’ profitability. A larger bank can potentially earn more, as it strategizes on its cost advantage, by minimizing its average unit cost as services or productions increase (Alper & Anbar, 2011). However, Javaid et al, (2011), are more cautious as they found that total size does not necessarily bring about incremental profit. Third, the net cash flow from operating activities to total assets will be used to represent bank liquidity to determine firm’s profit. Excess liquidity means a bank is holding more cash and lending less money to the public. Therefore, it reduces the bank potential to harness more profit. Certainly, minimum liquid assets must be held for precautionary obligations and contingencies. On another note, low liquidity indicates that the bank has lent out more in order to maximize returns. Third, is the managerialefficiency on managing firms operating expenses in order to achieve a certain level of profit, and the relationship will be observed between usages of operational cost and banks’ profitability. An accounting equation theory regards expenses as an operating asset, which must be spent now to generate future income. However, the impact of expenses on banks’ profitability can be either positive or negative (Wasiuzzaman and Tarmizi, 2010). If a bank is able to transfer its operational cost to their customer, it means that it has positive impat on banks profitability. Other researchers such as Molyneux and Thornton (1992) suggested that higher operating expenditures could bring about improved profitability as expenses have been positively transferred to customers. Finally, is the loan amount, which is either in the form of outright loans or advances given out to customers, in order to earn interest return that will contribute to firm’s profit. Naceur (2003) found that increase in total loan increase banks profitability. This claim had been argued against by Fraser and Rose (1971) suggesting that the relationship between loan amounts and banks’ profitability can either be significantly positive or negative.
While the quality of a bank's management is generally acknowledged to be a key contributor to a financial institutional failure, it is usually not calculated for lack of an objectively measure. This paper presents a new paradigm approach for quantifying a bank's managerialefficiency, using a DEA model that combines multiple inputs and outputs to compute a scalar measure of efficiency and management quality. An analysis of the largest 50 Brazilian banks over a twelve-year period shows significant differences in management-quality scores between institutions in this period. Hence this new metric provides an important, yet previously missing, modelling element for the early
Abstract- Every business organization faces a problem which hinders its objective for which it is established. So, like any business organization Nile Insurance Company faces many problems which affects its profitability and the main purpose of this study is to assess factors affecting profitability of Nile Insurance Dire Dawa branch. To do so, a discriptive research design together with primery and secoundray data were applied and data were collected form 319 active customers inaddtion to the interview made with branch manager. The result shows size, leverage, tangibility of asset, loss ratio/ risk, firm growth and managerialefficiency are identified as significant determinants of profitability hence Liquidity and age of the company have medium significant determinants of profitability in addition to brand preference and perceived quality which have high impact on insurance selection process by coustomers.
The article identifies the essential terms related to the Five-Factor Model, depicts the five basic personality traits and eventually recognises them as a significant source of managerial behaviours. It also quotes results of research conducted based on the Big Five theory presented as dependencies established between the particular personality features and the level of professional efficiency. It all makes up a point of reference for the results of own research presented in the article and conducted on a group of professionally active managers. The final part of the article focuses on the analysis and interpretation of the received empirical material against the personality traits of the Big Five and ultimate construction of a manager personality profile. It also includes conclusions embracing discrepancies between the received research findings and the literature’s indications referring to the composition of personality traits desired for managerialefficiency.
The primary objective of the study was to examine the impact of CAMEL rating system on performance of listed commercial banks in Sri Lanka. Random sampling was used to select the sample and data were collected from annual reports of the ten commercial banks for the 6 years period from 2011 to 2016. Capital adequacy ratio, assets quality, managerialefficiency ,earnings and liquidity were the CAMEL factors. Performance was measured by Tobin'q . Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, correlation and regression analysis. Results of the study highlight that there is a significant positive relationship of capital adequacy and managerialefficiency with performance. Assets quality, earnings and liquidity did not show any significant relationship with performance. Findings suggested that using capital adequacy ratio and managerialefficiency ratio banks might try to increase their performance level. Therefore, results of the study may useful for the decision makers in order maximize their wealth.
Two different measurement methods of perquisite consumption were used to test the robustness of our conclusions. One is similar to the method adopted by Li et al.’s (2005) calculation of the ratio of administration expense to prime operating revenue, but we excluded non-perquisite consumption items such as executive compensation, provision for bad debts and provision for decline in value of inventory, amortization of intangible assets. The other method is to calculate the ratio of the sum of administration expenses and operating expenses to prime operating revenue in order to reflect the level of perquisite consumption. Likewise, non-perquisite consumption items were eliminated. Consistent conclusions with the above analyses were achieved, namely managerial power is significantly and positively related to perquisite consumption, and perquisite consumption is significantly and negatively related to firm performance. We also used CEO duality, ownership structure dispersion, and long-term tenure of top executives as indicators of managerial power to re-test the hypotheses. The results show that, except for long-term tenure, both of the other two indicators significantly improve perquisite consumption and lower firm performance. In addition, with the new indicators, the difference between state-controlled companies and non-state-controlled companies remain more or less unchanged.
Abstract: Research and historical development showed that market economy with social orientation is more eﬀective than without it. Emerging from these facts, the paper is focused on the need of monitoring the social information in managerial accounting and in managerial information systems in enterprises. Since the social situation and the living standard of ag- riculture in the Slovak Republic are lagging behind, the above mentioned issues are documented in comparison with other branches of national economy. The method of Balanced Scorecard is characterized in brief as well as a new model of econo- my, called the Economy of Communion that draw attention towards the social aspect of entrepreneuring. The main spheres of social information are mentioned that are necessary for operating at the level of an enterprise and at a broader level. Me- asures in the ﬁeld of operating and its information assurance are oﬀered in order to improve the social situation and living standard in agriculture.
This study examined the efficiency and productivity growth of Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) of firms listed on Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) Pakistan from 2000 to 2012 by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) in three stages. The analysis and comparison of the efficiency and productivity growth of IPOs on sectoral basis in the pre and post period of IPOs was also investigated. This is first ever study to measure the pre IPO efficiency across the globe in the field of IPOs. The overall efficiency scores of IPO firms are dismal as the percentage of optimum level of IPO firm’s remained between 5 to 20 percent in all three stages in pre and post IPOs. In the analysis of broader categories of sectors: private, state-owned enterprises (SOEs), manufacturing, financial and other services sectors, the results of DEA model in three stages suggest that all the sectors were neither found to be Constant Returns to Scale (CRS) efficient nor Variable Returns to Scale (VRS) efficient in pre and post IPOs. Even the efficiency scores decreased in post IPO after one year. However, in detail sector-wise analysis, only Oil and Gas sector showed optimal level under VRS in stage 2. Also, SOEs showed slightly better efficiency than private IPO firms. On average, declining trends in total productivity growth of IPOs after the three years period were observed. The overall results suggest that, after acquiring additional resources, IPO firms did not show improved efficiency level and productivity growth after the period of three years of IPOs.
Question: Many companies today are growing out of their accounting systems. In the old days, accounting systems were designed primarily to track daily transactions and provide reports to external users on a monthly, quarterly, or annual basis. But times have changed, and companies now need more information internally to make good decisions. Accounting systems are currently used for both external reporting (financial accounting) and internal reporting (managerial accounting). Even relatively small accounting packages, such as QuickBooks and Peachtree, provide features that are important for managerial accounting. However, most agree that no single accounting system will meet the needs of every organization and that two important factors must be considered when choosing a system. What are the two factors that must be considered when deciding on an accounting system?
Huff (1982) was one of the pioneers of cognitively oriented research in strategy. She and others who followed him argued that socially constructed beliefs (as opposed to pure economic efficiency) influence the actions of organizations. But it was Porac, Thomas, and Baden-Fuller (1989)’s study of competition in the Scottish knitwear industry that started an interesting and fruitful body of literature which attempted to explore and examine the role of managerial cognition in strategic outcomes and processes (Kaplan, 2011). Porac et al. (1989) and subsequently Porac, Thomas, Wilson, Paton, and Kanfer (1995) argue that transactions among rivals usually take place at two distinct levels. First is the material level where actual resources are exchanged and the traditional economic concepts such as barriers to entry, mobility and elasticity are relevant. But the second level is cognitive where competition needs to be considered through the mental models of decision-makers and the interpretations that follow. They have also pointed to four assumptions that are necessary in the study of cognition and competition. These assumptions are also significant in my study.
Table 5 shows that quantitatively, the value of limited test principal managerial competence experiences an improvement that is significant after conducted a clinical approach-based supervision model. This is shown simultaneously managerial competence of the Head of Banyuwangi Junior High School 1 for 78,82, State Junior High School 1 Genteng for 77,35, and Bustanul Makmur Junior High School Genteng for 76,18 before conduct a model action. And after the action of supervision models based on clinical approaches rose to 87.94, 87.06, and 84.41. Likewise, the average managerial competence of principals before the action of the supervision model was based on a clinical approach of 77.45, and after the action the supervision model was based on a clinical approach increasing to 86.47. This proves that the final score of the principal managerial competence achievement (86.47) is higher than the initial score (77.45) so that the implementation of a clinical approach-based supervision model can improve the managerial competence of the principal. Thus, the supervision model based on the relevant clinical approach is used to improve the managerial competence of the principal.
As a teacher, this writer attests that many part-time students in business management, who are practicing managers, experience difficulties in managerial intellectual learning. Based on the literature review of the writer, the factors that are vital for driving effective managerial intellectual learning are identified and synthesized into a theoretical notion called the managerial intellectual learning capability-building mechanism (MILCBM). The writer asserts that the main managerial intellectual learning difficulties can be explained as a malfunctioning of this very MILCBM. To redress this malfunctioning, the writer recommends practicing managers to make use of this notion of intellectual learning capability-building mechanism as a diagnosis tool to tackle their own managerial intellectual learning problems. The notion also contributes to the theoretical development of the concept of managerial intellectual learning and the Multi-perspective, Systems-based (MPSB) Research, reflecting the academic value of MILCBM as a result.
Organizational culture should be used as a framework and daily behavior guidance in working and reaching goals. Managerial competencies become crucial in making the Branch Offices of Bank Central Asia as a corporate entrepreneurship oriented company by improving the managerial ability of Branch Offices, as explained by Hsu et al., (2014) that entrepreneurial leadership has an impact to innovative behavior. By possessing the ability as entrepreneur, the Branch Offices managerial persons of Bank Central Asia are able to see opportunities and improve their performance which then influences the company competitiveness.
the MNCs and the family-controlled enterprises, have formed their associations. The industries in which managerial unions formed in the MNCs include pharmaceuticals, engineering, chemicals, and consumer products (Glaxo, Guest Keen Williams, General Electric). Among the indigenously owned companies which have officers' associations are: Grasim, Tata Electric, Mafatlal Group, Kamanis, etc.
Sustainability Accounting (also known as social accounting, social and environmental accounting, corporate social reporting, corporate social responsibility reporting, or non- financial reporting) was originated about 20 years ago and is considered a subcategory of financial accounting that focus on the disclosure of non-financial information about a firm’s performance to external parties such as capital holders, mainly to stakeholders, creditors and other authorities. These represent the activities that have a direct impact on society, environment and economic performance of an organisation. Sustainability accounting in managerial accounting contrast with financial accounting in that managerial accounting is used for internal decision making and the creation of new policies that will have an effect on the organisation's performance at economical, ecological and social (known as the triple bottom lineor Triple-P’s; People, Planet, Profit) level.
DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.74029 375 Open Journal of Social Sciences underinvestment group managers’ self-serving attribution and free cash flow on the non-efficiency investment. From the regression result, it can be seen that the regression coefficient of the interaction term with free cash flow and manager’s self-serving attribution is 0.2306, which is positive at the 1% significance level, indicating that the higher the free cash flow, the promotion effect of the manag- er’s self-serving attribution on the excessive investment behavior of the enter- prise is stronger. It can be seen from the regression results of underinvestment and non-efficiency investment behavior that the regression coefficient of the in- teraction term between managerial self-serving attribution and free cash flow is 0.0145, which is positive at the 10% significance level, indicating that if the free cash flow is lower, the managers’ self-serving attribution will have a stronger in- hibitory effect on the company’s underinvestment behavior. The above model 4 reports the regression results of the self-serving attribution of the overinvest- ment and underinvestment group managers and the influence of the executive gender on the non-efficiency investment. The regression coefficient of the inte- raction term with free gender and managers’ self-serving attribution is 0.1104, which is positive at the level of significance of 1%, indicating that compared with women, in enterprises with male executives, and managers’ self-serving attribu- tion plays a stronger role in promoting the excessive investment behavior of en- terprises. As can be seen from the regression results of under-investment and non-efficiency investment behaviors, the regression coefficient of the interaction term between the self-serving attribution of managers and the gender of execu- tives is −0.0001, which has not passed the significance level test, indicating that there is no significant difference between the influence of the self-serving attri- bution of managers on the underinvestment in the case that the executives are male and the executives are female.