“Human moment” is intrinsically interconnected with such notions as intimacy, empathy, helpfulness, tolerance, reciprocity, self-disclosure, compassion, closeness. The researcher is strongly convinced that the need for social connectedness is one of the basic human needs and underpins all of the third-level needs on Maslow’s pyramid (see Figure 1.2.): love, friendship, sexual intimacy. Some scholars even argue that human beings are essentially social creatures and the need to connect, to establish social bonds is as basic as physiological needs (Lieberman, 2012). In his seminal article Hallowell (1999) also supports this argument by saying that people need human contact in order to survive. They need it to maintain their mental acuity and their emotional well-being. If the human moment is absent, it is replaced by worry, distrust, anxiety. It happens because electronic communications remove many of the cues that typically mitigate these pernicious emotions. These cues are: language, tone of voice, and facial expression, posture, appearance, eye contact et cetera. Email, for instance, has very few emotional signals and, compared to an in-person meeting or phone call, is easily misinterpreted. The human brain is a very sophisticated instrument and when it cannot find immediate cues, it tries to make up for it inventing its own interpretations and drawing conclusions. Unfortunately, the brain is wired to be pessimist by nature. Missing human moment the human brain replaces it with worry, suspiciousness, anxiety. Hallowell (1999) calls these emotions “toxic worry”.
The success of agile software development methods such as Scrum or eXtrem Programming provides software developers with an alternative to plan-driven methods. Traditional software development methods – plan-driven methods – are characterized by a ”systematic engineering approach to software that care- fully adheres to specific processes” from requirements to finished code. Agile methods are characterised by short iterative cycles, user involvement, relying on tacit knowledge within a team and self organising teams . A pragmatic view on both plan-driven and agile software development is not exclusive favouring one of the approaches, but rather locking where each approach is suitable. The choice of which approach to use should depend on the characteristics of a soft- ware development project at hand. In  B. Boehm and R. Turner describe five critical factors that describe the suitability of both approaches. These factors are size, criticality, dynamism, personnel and culture. They are used to assess the suitability of each development approach.
Firms accomplish improvements conscientiously because successful change bring considerable benefits to them. Unfortunately, approximately 40% to 70% of transformation efforts failed (Burns, 2000). The main reason for failure is change resistance. Resistance behaviours appear in every change procedure (Zafar, 2016) and they are described as the emotional and behaviaoural refusal stakeholders displayed to accept the transformation ideas. There are manifold reasons of resistance such as change urgency (Kotter, 1979), blurry vision of the change, weak communication among stakeholders, unclear alteration plan or redundant position issues. Literature suggested, four essential factors are vital for diminishing resistance successfully: employees’ commitment for change plan, work involvement, tolerance of uncertainty, and individual motivation. The main purpose of managingchange is to ensure fruitful performances. To achieve successful implementation, leaders are exploring ways to prevent rejection behaviours. They found managers’ managerial style plays a significant role when coping with resistance problems. The relationship between leadership style and people’s change reaction has been studied extensively by investigators in recent years. Researchers have examined the effects of different leader style, such as transformational or transactional approach on people’s change reactions (Lines et al., 2015), finding that transformational (also called empowering) leadership results in better job involvement and job performance. As a new approach to managing people, this leading approach includes ‘broadening and elevating the interests of their employees, when they generate awareness and acceptance of the purposes and mission of the group, and when they stir their employees to look beyond their self-interest for the good of the group’ (Bass, 1990, p. 21). Leaders employing a transformational style can efficiently create more favourable change performances for organisations. Pearce and Sims (2002) demonstrated that transformational leadership is ‘positively related team self-ratings of team effectiveness’ (Pearce and Sims, 2002, p. 184). Herold, Fedor, Caldwell and Liu (2008) declared that ‘transformational leadership and workers’ commitment to change were significantly positively related’ (Herold et al., 2008, p. 353). Moreover, Holten and Brenner (2015) found that transformational leadership positively impacts employees’ appraisals of change in the long term, including their working attitudes (p. 12). These findings indicate that transformational leader behaviours have the potential to overcome resistance to change.
The vignettes not only allow for some insight into the participants life histories they also highlight that as a group of people these mothers in rehabilitation centre have many forgiveness issues. In this respect they are very suitable for qualitative in depth interviews. The psychometric profiles supplement the vignettes and help to give a better picture of the participant. They also aim to support the interview data in the next chapter. For example Beth appears from her psychometric profile as a very angry and unforgiving person. She has a high score on the anger rumination scale and low forgiveness of others. This is confirmed in interview data. The results from each individual’s psychometric testing are compared with the means for women in both student and a general population samples. Although not ideal this gives a score that can be used for meaningful comparisons. It would have been useful to look for differences between addicts and non-addicts as this may have given greater insight into which variables would be most effective as outcome measures in intervention studies with women in rehabilitation. However as the addicts sample was quite small this was not feasible.
The following experiment continues the quest of investigating the nature of some of the parameters of the experimental situation examining contrast effects in judgments of attractiveness of others that may be relevant to the applicability of the phenomenon to real life situations. One of those parameters that was examined in the previous experiment was the size of the stimulus set. Experiment 1 provided us with partial answers as to the relationship between the size of the priming set and the size of the emerging contrast effect. Although an increase from a single prime to five primes was parallelled by a decrease in the target's attractiveness ratings, a further increase to ten stimuli had no additional effect. One of the goals of the present experiment was to test whether the situation operated under a 'diminishing returns' law, a possibility that was put forward in the previous experiment. As it was suggested, as the number of primes of the stimulus set goes up, progressively greater-and-greater increases of it may be required in order to obtain any additional increments in the size of the obtained contrast effect. In the current study the increment step was from 6 to 142 stimuli. In line with experiment 1, the experimental hypothesis remained that the greater the number of the attractive stimuli Ss are exposed to, the lower their ratings of attractiveness of others.
4. Recognize that change must be clearly and strongly sanctioned by sponsors. 5. Perceive that the rhetoric of change is consistent with meaningful consequences.
Chapter 8: Resistance to Change
Conner states that resistance is a natural part of the change process; it is the force that opposes any significant shift in the status quo. A persons perception of a change situation determines whether resistance occurs. This perception is called ones frame of reference. Conner states that people can only change when they have the capacity to do so. A person must have the ability and willingness to adapt to change. Resistance to change can be expressed both overtly (memos and meetings) or covertly (hidden resistance). Both forms are damag- ing, however covert resistance can not be easily seen and therefore multiplies exponentially until it sabotages the change effort. Covert resistance is usually the result of low trust and inadequate participation. Overt resis- tance on the other hand can be dealt with directly. Conner provides two charts which explain the possible responses to change. The first is the ―Negative Response to Change‖, the second is the ―Positive Response to Change‖. Each response has a series of phases which people go through before the change process is com- pleted.
35. Spilka, B.; Addison, J. & Rosensohn, M. Parents, self, and God: A test of competing individual-religion relationships. Review of Religious Research.1975؛ 16(3): 154-165. 36. Slater, T (2005). The develops of children’s concept of God. Retrieved April10,2005,from http://www.ijot.com/papers/slater-children-god- concept.pdf.
Gig-economy platform like Uber, Lyft, Postmates, and Instacart have created markets in which independent service providers provide on-demand service to consumers. A hallmark of this arrangement is that providers decide for themselves when, where, and how much to work. In other words, the platform does not set its capacity's schedule; instead its capacity "self-schedules." This decentralization of decision making can create value for providers. The platform's challenge is then to devise a contract with its capacity that allows it to capture some of this value. I study the platform's contracting problem in three chapters. In the first, I show that the platform can benefit from allowing its providers to self-schedule. In the second, I study the platform's strategy when coordinating supply and demand across multiple states of the world. I show that the resulting dynamic pricing policy can be beneficial to consumers, despite widespread dislike of the real-world practice. I also show that, in many cases, the platform need not independently vary payments to providers to achieve near-optimal profit. Instead the platform may pay its providers a fixed percent commission on the price paid by consumers per completed service. In the final chapter, I argue that the findings above are distinct from the traditional two-sided markets literature. Though a classic two-sided market model experiences near-optimal performance of the fixed commission in many cases, the market conditions that produce poor fixed
Labor and employee are the other issue of challenging while top management decides for change. Scarcity of support in changing is barrier, and also in some case they have not sufficient confidence for changing and unclear process is also confusing for personnel. They also confuse with courses and goals and lack of human resource department is also important. This factor also put evidence that how important is the data and the knowledge that director managers and strategist should have. The position and knowing the weakness and the threat that the firm is face to besides understanding the situation, considering the employee competencies and ability and also the scarcity of supply could are the issues that not knowing them will encounter the firms to the really harsh occasion.
intertwined. For example, the transfer of a firm’s IT staff to a service provider is related to Human Resource (HR) as agreements need to be made about employment conditions and fringe benefits like pension plans. Also, the
outsourcing of a firm’s IT function affects the boundaries of a firm and thus their organizational structure. Therefore, firms have to pay attention to manage the coherence of an outsourcing arrangement instead of strictly managing individual disciplines. Due to the importance of these disciplines, contracting out an IT function will result in a major organizational change process. Examples of related risks comprise business interruptions, an increased time-to-market and a growth of resource inflexibility. As market research illustrates, the average outsourcing contract length is stabilizing at three to five years (Gartner, 2008). Hence, switching providers during the contract period result in high switching cost that often could form an unbridgeable barrier (Whitten and Wakefield, 2006). Considering these various disciplines firms are facing both internal and external developments that lead to a number of more general challenges (Oshri et al., 2009, Willcocks and Lacity, 2009) affecting their organization. To illustrate some general challenges we included some examples.
Ask groups to focus on old mode of behaviour /functioning in their organisation and the transition to different modes of functioning to achieve the new goals. Ask them to highlight the process of change and the things they will do differently. Group presentations followed with in-depth discussions.
Globalization is most successful when fear is removed from the workplace. W. Edwards Deming makes the point that “an organizational culture dominated by fear is incapable of serious change.” Fear will make employees inflexible. They will resist sharing their ideas that may be relevant for the globalization initiative and they may find ways to ensure failure rather than participating in making offshoring a success. Successful services globalization depends on creating trust and empowerment of people at all levels. The project team should have employees from different levels. Ideally these project team members should be the high-potential resources that are not only able to drive and implement the offshore initiative but also have the courage to communicate relentlessly and make change happen. The following are guidelines to empower people who will work on the globalization change initiative:
The Impact Analysis Tool is intended to help you clarify exactly what will change and what will not as the result of the introduction, implementation and integration of Umoja. Your assessment of the impact Umoja has on you personally is likely to change over time as you learn more about it and become more familiar with its capabilities. Much remains constant in even the most sweeping changes; however, we often think change is more threatening than it actually is because we focus only on what is going to be different as opposed to what will remain the same.
In order to determine how individuals perceive the body proportions of others, we adapted the paradigm developed by Linkenauger and colleagues (2015); however, instead of estimating one’s own body, participants estimated the extent of another person’s body parts using either the other person’s hand or a non-corporal object as a metric. We compared their estimates to estimates made when individuals estimated their own bodily proportions. Interestingly, people perceive the bodies of other individuals to be distorted to a similar magnitude as one’s own body. Body perception distortions also appear to be modulated by inter-personal similarity, as overestimations were greater when the other individual was of the gender as the participant.
At this point the best bet for proponents of ASYMMETRY would be to insist that even if knowledge of our standing attitudes is inferential this leaves it open that knowledge of our occurrent thoughts is non-inferential. So perhaps the lesson of the discussion so far is that ASYMMETRY needs to be read with narrow scope, as a thesis about knowledge of occurrent thoughts rather than standing attitudes. However, even this is debatable. For example, in The Opacity of Mind, Carruthers makes a strong case that knowledge of one’s own occurrent thoughts is ‘almost always interpretive (and often confabulatory), utilizing the same kinds of inferences (and many of the same sorts of data) that are employed when attributing attitudes to other people’ (2011: 162). If Carruthers is right about this then there is a problem with the first half of ASYMMETRY even if it is read as a claim about self- knowledge of occurrent thoughts. Anyway, even if knowledge of one’s occurrent thoughts is normally direct, this is a much more limited claim than the one we started out with. When philosophers such as Boghossian, Davidson and Moran claim that knowledge of our own thoughts is normally direct they mean that knowledge of our standing attitudes, as well as our occurrent thoughts, is normally direct. This is the ‘wide scope’ reading of the first half of ASYMMETRY and the inferentialist challenge shows that a healthy dose of scepticism is the appropriate reaction to this component of ASYMMETRY.
As Beckett’s trilogy of novels unfolds, the reduction of human properties is only exacerbated so that ‘[b]y the end of the trilogy Beckett hovers over the ruins of modernism, the exhaustion of a certain view of what it is to be human and rational’ (Miller 18). Nevertheless, Molloy is undeterred in his attempt at least to relate his own past and make sense of the events of his life. The problem is that as Molloy attempts to scrutinise himself, he inevitably adopts an outside vantage, dividing an already perplexing life into two and then reconstructing it through a doubly mystified lens. In this way, Molloy is practicing what the trilogy as a whole performs: the movement from ‘I’ to the fallibility of ‘I’ to the third person implied in every ‘I’. Beckett’s 1958 novel The Unnamable, the third text in the trilogy, claims to have abandoned ‘I’ altogether, precisely owing to its duplicity: ‘I shall not say I again, ever again, it’s too farcical’ (Beckett 358). In response to the inability to reconcile the pronoun with the self, Simon Critchley proposes that ‘the voice is attempting to move from the first person to the third person, from ‘I’ to ‘s/he/it’ (A Beckettian pun of questionable taste offer itself here, but I will resist)’ (Critchley 173). In Beckett’s hands, the conviction in ‘I’ as a complete identification with the whole self perishes and returns to the execrable condition of third person self-reflection, which evokes shades of Kafka in the damning scatological judgment. Beckett is aware that ‘the very act of trying to perceive oneself separates the self into subject and object’ (Barry 123), that ‘seeing is an asymmetric action’ and ‘listening to oneself is almost always
There is ample evidence of biases in interpersonal comparison involving self-enhancement (Chambers & Windschitl, 2004). Peo- ple commonly report that they are above average on favorable characteristics, below average on unfavorable characteristics, more likely than other people to experience desirable outcomes, and less likely to suffer adversity. In a similar vein, we hypothesized that people believe themselves to have higher levels of humanness than others, where this humanness is understood as an essentialized human nature. Previous work by Haslam et al. (2004) has indicated that essentialized personality characteristics are particularly central to personal identity, so it might be expected that people ascribe such characteristics preferentially to themselves. Similarly, given that Study 1 found that human nature traits are normative (i.e., desirable and prevalent), people should be motivated to attribute these traits to themselves and thereby see themselves as embody- ing core features of humanity. Thus, we predicted that people selectively self-attribute not only those personality characteristics that are desirable (self-enhancement), but also those that they believe to be aspects of human nature. No such effect was pre- dicted for personality characteristics believed to be uniquely hu- man, as these are not understood to be central to identity, funda- mental, or normative.
Outside/inside; insider/outsider are complex terms that invite us to explore through metaphorical, philosophical and geographical concepts (see for example, Bachelard, 1958/1994). Here we are going to accept the everyday usage of Liz. Like many people (young and old) Liz spends much of his time indoors, either in his foster home, on the train or at college; he also volunteers at a local charity shop; you could say that his life is full of indoor learning. There are numerous studies, theoretical and empirical that highlight our concerns about how little time westernised children and young people spend outside (see for example: Louv, 2005; White and Stoecklin, 2008; Ridgers, Knowles and Sayers, 2012). As explained in detail by Palmer (2006), this is one element of what is seen by many as an alarming deterioration in children/young people’s understanding and appreciation of the world they live in. In her book she urges us (people who facilitate learning, whatever our defined role may be) to enable children and young people to play outside more. This viewpoint is substantiated by research; for example, in 2012 Sigman reported some alarming statistics which highlighted that by the age of seven, the average westernised child will have spent the equivalent of one whole year of 24 hour-days watching screen media; by 18, Liz’s age, this increases to the equivalent of three years’ worth (Sigman, 2012: 8-9). Having spent time with him, he does not appear to conform to this; he has an old style phone, which, unlike others within the group, tends to stay out of sight (perhaps he may be embarrassed by it?), however he demonstrably enjoys spending time with people, engaging in conversation and eye-contact. He actively seeks out opportunities to participate in activities – both indoors and outdoors.
• Deming, W. Edwards. Out of the Crisis. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1986. • Gladwell, Malcolm. The Tipping Point. Boston: Little, Brown, 2000.
• Hiatt, Jeff. ADKAR: A Model for Change in Business, Government, and Our Community. Loveland, Colorado: Prosci Learning Center Publications, 2006.
2. Conversations, Heuristics and the Literature on ManagingChange In the face of questions raised about the contribution of organisational studies, and internal and external demands for relevance, a number of leading scholars have argued strongly for ‘fruitful dialogues’ (Reed and Hughes, 1992); constructive ‘conversations’ (Van Maanen, 1995); enriching ‘bricolages’ (Bolman and Deal, 1997) and a focused wrestling with key ‘anomalies’ (Willmott, 1993) and ‘paradoxes’ (Lewis and Kelemen, 2002). From the perspectives of a phronetic approach to knowledge, a valuable approach to generating such a conversation is the suggestive creation of relatively open and flexible heuristics in the sense of those described in Schon's reflection-on-action (1983, 1987). The term heuristics derives from the Greek, 'heuriskein', to find or discover. It describes the "discovery of meaning and essence in significant human experience" in intrapersonal, interpersonal or, possibly more appropriately named, ‘transpersonal’ research (Douglass & Moustakas, 1985, p.40) mechanisms to deal with complexity, limited time and inadequate mental resources in decision making (Kahneman, 2003; Simon, 1957); and phrases, models or metaphors which enable understanding, particularly of human responses to problems in the social environment or ecology (Marsh, 2002; Schön, 1983, 1987). Drawing on experiences and understandings generated through reflection on previous social actions, the explicit creation of performance heuristics, has value as logic of knowledge development and presentation for this conversation and lays a foundation for supporting reflective practice.