This thesis agrees with O’Shea’s argument that the map of greater Kurdistan is a propaganda map and that it has an unrealistic basis. Building on her argument, this thesis argues that the promotion of the Kurdistan map as the Kurdish homeland has a strong role in the success of Kurdish nationalists in drawing sympathy among would-be nationals and in international society for their ethnically-defined claims to territory and national self-determination. The parallels between the way Kurdish nationalists understand the concept of Kurdistan and its maps, and the way in which some government representatives, scholars, journalists and writers in international society use this notion and map are striking. The ways these two groups conceive Kurdistan are similar, because both groups attribute an ethnic identity to the territory of Kurdistan and its map. One of the reasons for this is the influence of the international political and normative framework – particularly self-determination for ethnic groups, human rights and democratic rights – on both groups’ perceptions. In this framework, self- determination appears to justify the right to autonomy or statehood for groups with distinct ethnic, cultural, linguistic and territorial features. There is an increasing tendency within international society to interpret self-determination in a similar way, especially if the separatist or autonomist group claims that the government of the state in which they reside abuse their human, cultural or democratic rights. Kurdish nationalists effectively use this interpretation of self-determination to further their pursuit for independence, and their claims fit well with the prevalent norms in international society in relation to the territorial and ethnic identity of sub-state nationalist groups and their right to democracy. With this in mind, this thesis offers an analysis that deals with issues, particularly self-determination claims for territorial autonomy or independence, which intersect the fields of IR, Nationalism and Kurdish studies.
I’ve been a member of MAPS since 1993, and Secretary of our organization for the past four years. I was excited to become a MAPS Fellow in 2016. I enjoy attending MAPS conferences to meet up with friends and colleagues. I always walk away from these gatherings with new information and ideas that I can incorporate into my planetarium immediately. Being part of the Executive Committee has allowed me to be part of the inner workings of MAPS. I love being able to help bring us forward as an organization. Our global society is in a state of transition right now. Our professional field is in a state of transition. Temporary (hopefully they are temporary!) closures of our buildings have forced us to become creative in how we
interactions with peers, teachers, community, and family members, and connect those experiences to larger social dynamics of privilege and oppression, they begin to challenge the dominant narrative of their communities as represented in mainstream media. Later in this paper we provide one example of how students can begin to document the diversity of an urban community through GIS, identifying and mapping places that are resources for their personal development as young people (i.e., community centers, parks, and places of historical significance). Scholars within Critical Pedagogy channel the Frankfurt School’s investigation of society by focusing on how the dynamics of power and socialization operate through the institution of schools on a national level, and also how these forces play out in individual classrooms.
All this work has focused, however, on the negative side of urban sounds. Pleasant sounds have been left out from the urban planning literature, yet they have been shown to positively impact city dwellers’ health [14,15]. Only a few researchers have been interested in the whole ‘urban soundscape’. In the World Soundscape Project, 1 for example, composer Raymond Murray Schafer et al. defined soundscape for the first time as an environment of sound (or sonic environment) with emphasis on the way it is perceived and understood by the individual, or by a society . That early work eventually led to a new International Standard, ISO 12913, where soundscape is defined as [the] acoustic environment as perceived or experienced and/or understood by a person or people, in context . Since that work, there remains a number of unsolved challenges though.
5. A.Victor Devadoss and V.Susanna Mystica, The living experience of a diabetic adult in india using fuzzy relational maps (FRM), World-comp.org/P2011/BIC 3157.Pdf July 21,2011(the 2011 world congress in computer science,computer engineering and applied computing Las Vegas, Nevada, USA July 18-21, 2011.
In many practical cases, high-density mapping is as- sociated with another difficult problem: a disproportion between a high number of scored markers and a rela- tively small population size. The number of markers may, by orders of magnitude, exceed the resolution of recom- bination for the given population size, so that only a mi- nority of markers can be actually ordered. The question is how to choose the most informative markers to build a reliable “skeleton” map. If we consider a situation with, for example, k ~ 1000 markers, then for a sample size of N ~ 100, the minimum distance between markers that can be resolved in the map should be 1 cM; hence, the map length for a chromosome should be 1000 cM, which is unrealistic for the vast majority of organisms. How can the appearance of such 1000 cM maps be ex- plained? We believe that the root is in the wrong as- sumption that all markers are different (resolvable by recombination). In fact, for small sample sizes, many markers comprise groups of absolutely linked markers and should be replaced by their “delegates”. But even with this simplification, the number of resulting markers that differ may remain quite large, with the map length by far exceeding the expectations based on the estimates of chiasma frequencies at meiosis [7,8]. Clearly, marker scoring errors generate “false recombinants”: with per- fect scoring most of these recombinants would not have appeared, but after excluding absolutely linked excessive markers (replacing them by delegates), it would be pos- sible to build an “ideal” skeletonap. Another possible complicating factor is negative interference [4,5,9,10] violating the simple principle that “the entire entity is supposed to be larger than its parts” .
Sketch maps in history have long been used to recall, visualize, and communicate spatial knowledge about spatial scenes. People have associations with the environment they live in or have visited. People can have direct access to their surrounding spaces from what they perceive, experience, and memorize. Most people are able to draw maps to convey their spatial knowledge (e.g., ). These sketch maps are usually incomplete, distorted, and schematized due to cognitive impacts [9, 29, 31]. In spatial cognition, sketch maps have been used to measure cognitive maps (or mental maps). There have been plenty of studies focusing on inaccuracy or errors in spatial knowledge, which originate from cognitive maps reflected in sketch maps. For example, geometric properties such as angles are usually rectangularized . Spatial relations, such as distances, are judged differently between locations due to the effect that a location is judged closer to a reference-point, like a landmark, than vice versa . However, so far hardly any studies have tackled the spatial information that is preserved in sketch maps, termed invariant spatial information in this paper. Existing spatial analysis methods developed for conventional metric maps are not applicable to sketch maps, because we require an analysis that captures solely the spatial aspects preserved in sketch maps. These issues all point to the need for a new study that investigates the invariant spatial information in sketch maps and develops a corresponding spatial analysis method.
Recently, Tapi and Navalakhe 4,5 have introduced and studied the concept of fuzzy biclosure spaces. In this paper the conceptof fuzzy biclosed (fuzzy biopen) maps and pairwise fuzzy biclosed (pairwise fuzzy biopen) maps in fuzzy biclosure spaces has been introduced and study their properties.
Among smooth foliated maps ϕ between two Riemannian foliated manifolds, one can define the transversal energy and derive the Euler-Lagrange equation, and trans- versally harmonic map as its critical points which are by definition the transversal ten- sion field vanishes, τ ϕ = b ( ) 0 . The transverse bienergy can be also defined as
Early researchers pointed out the similarity of choropleth and topographic maps. Jenks and Caspall (1971, 218) stressed the impression a choropleth map will have on the map reader: ―First, he may seek an overview of the statistical distribution from the choropleth map, much as he obtains the ‗lay of the land‘ from a topographic map.‖ Monmonier (1972) endorsed symbology that helps to display choropleth maps simply and clearly. He drew analogies to the varying contour intervals and classes of hypsometric tints used to create topographic maps that appear spatially organized. Tobler (1973) drew an analogy between selecting larger class intervals to generalizing a topographic surface by, for example, choosing a large contour interval.
Most of the results in this paper are not new and are actually special cases of established facts. The n-valued maps belong to a class of multivalued functions called weighted maps, and these have been extensively studied . Our goal is to furnish a person interested in the topic of n-valued maps with arguments for their basic topological properties that are as simple and elementary as possible, without any dependence on a more general theory.
It is significant that we use the phrase ‘I see’ when what we mean is ‘I understand’. This is the primary principle behind visualisation tech- niques – we often need to ‘see’ the data graphically before we can under- stand it. The development of methods and techniques for exploring and displaying spatial data in the humanities disciplines, as dynamic maps or otherwise, offers many opportunities for original and creative thought and discovery of new knowledge. The case studies described in this paper have shown some of the strengths of dynamic mapping and highlighted some of the challenges and opportunities facing workers in this field. The limiting factors, such as lack of historical digital map data, are gradually being overcome as digital resources are produced which benefit subse- quent, sometimes unrelated, projects. Even where a project does not produce a digital resource that can be utilised by others, it may still produce methodologies or concepts that advance the development of dy- namic mapping in the emerging discipline of humanities computing.
sources. For the base maps, existing shapefiles were combined with data available via the Thessaloniki GIS Municipality portal and via OpenStreetMap (the latter was useful for the inset maps in smaller scale, showing areas peripheral to the city). The thematic data were initially inserted as locations in Google Maps; also additional kml files with point information were provided by the Literacy Lab. All these data were processed and brought in a common reference system for mapping, with the help of a GIS software package (namely ArcGIS). The final maps were compiled in the GGRS87 (Greek Geodetic Reference System 87).
Several authors working in the field of general topology have shown more interest in studying the concepts of generalizations of continuous maps. A weak form of continuous maps called g-continuous maps were introduced by Balachandran et al. Recently Sheik John introduced and studied another form of generalized continuous maps called -continuous maps respectively. We first introduce ͌g(1,2)*-continuous maps and study their relations with various generalized (1,2)*-continuous maps . We also discuss some properties of ͌ g(1,2)*-continuous maps. We then introduce a new class of ͌g(1,2)*-open sets in bitopological spaces.
Theorem 3.1. Let T and I be self-maps on a compact subset M of a metric linear space (X,d) with translation invariant and strictly monotone metric d. Assume that M is q-starshaped, cl(T(M)) ⊂ I (M ), q ∈ F (I), and I is aﬃne (or M has the property (N) with q ∈ F(I ), I satis- fies the condition (C), and M = I(M)). Suppose that T and I are continuous, C q -commuting
Therefore, if (G, d) is a group object in Lip, then ˜ Π(G, d) = (G, [d]) is a group object in LIP, and if f : (G, d) → (G ′ , d ′ ) is morphism of groups, then ˜ Π(f) = f : (G, [d]) → (G ′ , [d ′ ]) also is a morphism of groups. Moreover ˜ Π is readily surjective on objects, full and faithful, so the equivalence between Lip and LIP also lifts to an equivalence of categories between LipGrp and LIPGrp. In conclusion there is no much advantage to choose one or the other category as that of Lipschitz maps, and for a matter of taste one chooses the former.