A further aspect is given by the intensification of international competition and the possibility for companies - thanks to lower transport costs and advances in communication and information exchange systems - to transfer abroad some activities of their value chain, exploiting comparative advantages. This, however, requires that decisions related to the supply chain are taken from a market viewpoint, in some cases creating a direct link between the subjects in the supply network with those of the distributions channels. For example, for emerging markets like China, relations with intermediaries at the distribution level may require the provision of products or components sourced locally, rebuilding the supply chains. Thus, the central role of the company in upstream and downstream relationships and the polycentricism of its internationalisation processes tend to fall. New networks emerge whose objectives are not only savings and the optimization of processes (technical perspective), but also the maximisation of market results, starting from an analysis of what the market is demanding and at the same time what competitors are offering (market driven perspective).
Specifically, market ambiguity occurs when a manufac- turer conducts business with a foreign distributor with dif- ferent, seemingly unclear regulations, norms, and culturally distinctive business practices. Thus, the firm is unable to evaluate market-related information such as market trends and partner behavior. For example, Chinese managers may be less confident in interpreting and evaluating market information and predicting future market trends in a host country because they are unclear about how the foreign regulations and laws shape economic transactions (Luo 2005). Similarly, the foreign norms and codes of behaviors in a host market add to market ambiguity and make it diffi- cult for the entrant to judge the local channel member’s market actions and behaviors (Williamson 1985). For example, as mentioned, Western managers may be puzzled by guanxi practices and thus unable to determine the proper relationship behavior in China (Park and Luo 2001). Fur- thermore, foreign cultural-cognitive structures may hinder the managers’ ability to understand local consumer behav- ior and interpret market information. Thus, we propose the following:
India is the second largest producer of vegetables in the world next only to China. The Onion is the major vegetable crop of Rajasthan. The present investigation was carried out to study the price spread and efficiency in marketing of Onion. The study was conducted in Jodhpur and Nagaur which were selected on the basis of highest area and production of Onion. A sample of 50 Onion growing farmers from different land size categories was selected by probability proportion to number of farmers in each size group. Five intermediaries each, from the commission agents, wholesalers and retailers were selected randomly. 19585 quintal of onion was produced by the sample households, of which 19061 quintal was the marketable surplus. There was no difference in marketable and marketed surplus of onion as farmers were hard pressed by cash needs. The marketable surplus was higher on medium farms (9747 quintals) followed by small (6021 quintals) and large (3293 quintals). In channel – I producer’s share was 46.67 per cent. Total marketing cost accounted for 17.47 per cent and marketing margins accounted for 35.86 per cent of consumer’s rupee in Jodhpur mandi. In Nagaur, the producer’s share was 47.50 per cent. Total marketing cost accounted for 18.33 per cent and marketing margins accounted for 34.17 per cent of consumer’s rupee. In channel –II, producer’s share was 42.22 per cent. Total marketing cost accounted for 17.64 per cent and marketing margins accounted for 40.14 per cent of price paid by the consumer in Jodhpur Mandi. In Nagaur, producer’s share was 40.0 per cent. Total marketing cost accounted for 18.73 per cent and marketing margins accounted for 41.27 per cent of price paid by the consumer. Marketing efficiency was 0.88 and 0.73 in Jodhpur mandi and 0.90 and 0.67 in Nagaur mandi for channel –I and channel –II respectively. Hence, channel –I was more efficient for onion marketing. Keywords: Marketing channel, onion, marketing efficiency, rajasthan
The regular supply of households with sheep meat consists of animals slaughtered in rural or urban abattoirs "slaughterhouses", and marketed to consumers, and restaurants, through retail butchers. This category represents 33 and 55% of the annual production. Two sub-channels may be distinguished:
The societal demand for local food has been increased in the last decades. However, small scale producers are facing serious difficulties in getting their products into the conventional marketingchannels. The emergence of new tendency of local and regional food production necessitates the development of new alternative logistics and supply chain management. The main objectives of the current work was to (a) map out the supply and marketingchannels of locally produced food; (b) determine the bottlenecks in the supply chain and to obtain the ideas of possibilities for development of effective logistics solutions.
Their service output demands can be easier met as multichannel shoppers choose the most appropriate and convenient channel for each transaction
2. Multichannel shoppers spend more money
They see advertisements more frequently through various channels
The average expenditures incurred on per quintal of paddy was ` 14.62 in the study area. Marginal farmers were at lowest position while medium farmers ranked at the top in case of expenditure incurred in marketing of their paddy produce. Marginal farmers spent ` 10.54 per quintal of paddy while medium farmers spent ` 16.90 for marketing of their paddy produce. It is clear from the data that major part of expenditure was shared by transportation charges and commission charges. As per data the commission charges paid by the farmers on per quintal was ` 4.09, which is very depressing and ridiculous for the farmers as well as administration also. Due to this high rate of commission charges and prevailing activities of middlemen in the marketing channel farmers of the study area were not getting the accrual value
Respondents were given six categories into which they were asked to classify themselves. Only those who classified their businesses as either wholesale or retail were used in the analysis reported in this study. Finally, since size of business operation has been shown to be an important variable in nursery industry studies (e.g., Brooker and Witte, 1997; Haydu and Meerow, 1994), this study investigated size effects on marketing channel selected and reasons for attending trade shows. The analysis was conducted using gross sales (as a proxy for size) for the immed- iately preceding year. This variable served as a control variable, which was assigned a value of zero for small companies with gross sales of less than $1 million, and a value of one for large companies with sales of over $1 million.
najprije se mora istražiti tržište te staviti u odnos obilježja proizvoda, proizvođača, konkurencije i okoline u kojoj proizvođač djeluje.
Jedna od glavnih uloga marketinških kanala je od potencijalnih kupaca dobiti profitabilne narudžbe, pa zato marketinški kanali uz to što služe tržištu moraju ga i stvarati. Iako proizvođač može uspostaviti vlastiti kanal, može ostvariti i veću dobit jer ulaže u svoju primarnu djelatnost. No posrednici, kao bitna karika kanala, imaju iskustva i mnogo poznanstava te mogu ponuditi proizvođaču puno više nego što on sam može postići. Širinu marketinških kanala određuje broj posrednika i institucija koji se nalaze na različitim razinama kanala kao posljedica odluke o pokrivenosti tržišta proizvodima i uslugama. Širina kanala ovisi i o intenzitetu strategije kojeg je poduzeće izabralo te se kao rezultat ove odluke marketinški kanali mogu se podijeliti na uske, s malim brojem posrednika, ili široke, u kojima proizvode ili usluge nudi najveći mogući broj posrednika na svakoj razini. Kanali distribucije ili marketinški kanali predstavljaju jedan od četiri temeljnih elementa marketinga te odluke vezane uz kanal distribucije često iziskuju velike investicije i dugoročno vezivanje, stoga ih nije moguće lako i brzo mijenjati kao neke druge elemente Porast konkurentnosti tržišta, posljedica je ulaska inozemnih poduzeća te su tehnološke inovacije u elektronici i telekomunikacijama omogućile su razvoj i implementaciju novih marketinških kanala. Iako se u zadnje vrijeme često posrednici uklanjaju iz marketinških kanala, to dovodi do različitih problema. Kako bi tvrtke izbjegle sukobe u kanalu distribucije moraju probati pronaći način da pređu na izravni marketing koji će koristiti i tvrtki i njezinim partnerima.
at the 95% confidence level.
We also evaluate the coefficients from the BFG model. Acreage (ACRES) and labor (LABR) have significant positive impacts in each marketing channel, as expanded input levels are associated with higher incomes from organic production. In the log-linear model for farm income, the coefficients on acreage and labor represent elasticities. The output elasticities measure the change in the producer’s income as the input changes. For producers marketing through a single outlet, the output elasticities indicate a 1% increase in labor used increases the value of organic production by 0.47%, while expanding the acreage farmed by 1% increases this value by 0.46%. The elasticities for producers who have developed a diversified marketing plan reveal a slightly different pattern because labor has a stronger impact in expanding organic income (0.78) than acreage (0.35). The number of years as a certified organic producer (YRCRTOR) has a positive effect on income earned from the choice of a single market and for producers who use all three marketing outlets.
Depending on the industry, the aspect of new technologies in marketing will have a stronger or weaker role in creating competitive advantage and better competitive position in the market. Marketing Managers are increasingly directing company's communication towards modern channels such as mobile and online. At the same time mainstream media are slowly being put in second place, mostly because new channels are relatively cost-effective compared to traditional ones (SAS Software, 2014) which are often too expensive and too complicated for an average (small or medium-sized) company. However, even more evident reason for moving away from traditional marketingchannels is the decrease in their effectiveness while new mobile marketing campaign methods are becoming more and more effective. In digital environment, marketing mix consists of five elements (so called “5 P”) - besides product, price, place and promotion, the fifth element refers to people. People are an immensely important factor which drives digital marketing strategy (be it online or mobile), which is why it is essential for companies to take into account everything related to their consumers, the existing one or the potential ones. After conducting market segmentation and detailed analysis of consumer segments, a company will find out which segments recognize and use technology more and which technologies in marketing they value the most. Mobile channel is becoming the leading channel because it allows companies to get through to consumers directly, providing them benefits such as unique brand experience and greater real- time interaction, which will subsequently result in greater brand recognition and higher brand loyalty on consumer side. In 2012, 65% of consumers had a digital experience affect a change in their opinion about the brand. (Conversation, LLC, 2012) In 2014, 30% of consumers were communicating with brands through their social media profiles (Digital Marketing Institute, 2016) In 2016, 77% of world population owned at least one mobile phone and most of the users habitually check their mobile phones 150 times a day in average. (Digital Marketing Institute, 2016) In 2017, 74% of shoppers made a purchase based on a mobile phone search, and at the same time 79% of top advertisers didn’t have a mobile optimized site. (Prismaxel, 2017) With advanced technology allowing mass usage of smart communication devices, a change in traditional consumer purchasing behaviour is affecting the society in a drastic way. Today, over 6 billion people use mobile phones daily and mobile devices are changing purchasing patterns and buyer behaviour which existed over the last century.
Traditional Marketing Structures
Wholesale marketing of exotic vegetables, which are produced in peri-urban areas, takes place at certain distribution points on specific days during the week. In Kumasi, for example, traders from the city and distant traders from Accra, Cape Coast, Obuasi and Takoradi- Sekondi come for business. The presence of traders from outside Kumasi can influence market prices as they usually make better offers (Cornish and Aidoo 2000). Urban and growing numbers of peri-urban farmers who are not selling to traders on farm, send their produce to various distribution points relatively early in the morning (normally by 5.30 am), where wholesalers, retailers and hawkers converge to purchase the vegetables. In addition to the main markets there are other small sale points located at strategic places within the city.
Die Online-Werbung ist wohl das älteste Online-Marketing-Instrument. In seinen An- fangszeiten rund um das Jahr 1994 beschränkte sich die Online-Werbung vorerst auf die Banner-Werbung. Aufgrund dessen wird die Online-Werbung heutzutage oftmals als ausschließliche Banner-Werbung abgestempelt. Im klassischen Sinne ist die Ban- ner-Werbung das Platzieren von Werbeanzeigen auf dritten Webseiten. Die Vergütung erfolgt dort, nach wie vor, über den CPM (siehe Kapitel 4) oder Cost per Click (siehe Kapitel 4). Die Online-Werbung ist seit ihrem Ursprung eine Konstante im Allgemeinge- füge des Online-Marketings. Besonders aufgrund der Bandbreitenentwicklung des In- ternets und den damit verbundenen neuen Werbemöglichkeiten bedient sich die Online-Werbung noch immer eines großen Stückes vom Kuchen des Online- Marketings. Einen besonderen Boom erlebt hierbei die Werbung über und durch Vi- deos. Einer Studie des Wall Street Journals nach gaben Unternehmen schon 2008 bis zu 20 Prozent des gesamten Werbebudgets für diese Form der Werbung aus. 45 Fun- dierend auf der hohen Akzeptanz durch die im WWW surfenden potenziellen Kunden ist die Video-Werbung ein gern gesehenes Medium. 70 Prozent der Internet-Nutzer tolerieren die Video-Werbung und gar 20 Prozent sehen diese gerne. Eine weitere Studie belegt in diesem Zusammenhang ebenfalls, dass Online-Video-Werbung die Markenbekanntheit und Markenerinnerung im Vergleich zu Zeitschriften oder TV- Werbung steigert. 46 Resultierend aus diesen Fakten liegt es offen, dass die Online- Werbung noch immer ein großes Potenzial bietet und Hand in Hand mit der innovati- ven Entwicklung des Internets gehen wird. Neue Technologien, wachsende Bandbrei- ten, folgende Generationen großflächiger Werbeformate und der direkte Dialog der Online-Werbung mit den Konsumenten ohne Medienbruch werden ihren Beitrag dazu leisten. 47
Economic Analysis of the MarketingChannels in Citrus Industry in Brazil 105
Source: Elaborated by the authors.
Figure 3. Channel of Citrus marketing – Montenegro Association of Fruit farmers
Unlike Ecocitrus, these producers need to find means to deliver the production into the cold storage of the association. Based on a productive planning, the association receives an average of 30% of the total production of the associates. The remaining production, 70%, stays under the responsibility of each producer to sell on the local or regional market. Producers travel approximately 181 km to reach the final buyer. In these cases the data shows that the producers receive lower prices and are vulnerable to market forces (such as individual uncertified producers). 25% of the producers have already faced problems with payment receipt from particular intermediaries with whom they used to realize marketing, but they have never had problems of ordering and delivery of the products.
same time, react to certain elements of communication policy. As expected in the theoretical assumptions, it was possible to identify six interest dimensions which are composed of a specific combination of the theme content and information channel. All the highly correlating variables of theme contents and information channel within the established interest dimensions show a positive sign. This allows us to assume that the customers of the company can be influenced in their consumer behavior by specifically addressing theme contents and information channels simultaneously. Translated into practice, this means that now the company disposes of the concrete in- formation on the combination of single elements of the communication mix and that for all customers an efficient communication is achieved by the “suit- able” bundling of elements. it is imperative to make advantage of this efficient bundling by the means of the marketing communication of the company.
During the case study research, Ohio direct marketing team collected valuable information about business/ market situations, product and services, people who were involved in product marketing, place, promotion, and positioning in Ohio MarketMaker. There were six case studies in six business areas including producer and retail farm market, processor and retail farm market, processor and retailer, farmers market, processor and retailer (including restaurant), distributor were used for the research. Research team collected information by interviews of owner or manager of the business to explore the marketing practices, marketing challenges and market access in Ohio’s food chain. The case study survey shows that locally grown foods, new technology, quality improvements and the attracting new customers were common strategy themes from respondents (Fox et al., 2009). The value of quality products has been identified by all the cases as the most effective marketing strategy. Respondents indicated that locally grown foods and specialty crop products have increased demand and educating consumers on benefits of local food could be the most effective step for the direct marketing. In addition, new technology usage such as websites for business, social media and emails are the most effective strategies seen by respondents. Furthermore, the study shows that most effective direct marketing tactics used in 2009 were road signs and billboards 54 percent, websites for business 51 percent, listings in web directories 45 percent, newspaper advertising 42 percent, email 36 percent, samples 35 percent, and special events 31 percent.