The logistic regression model suggested that place of resi- dence, age, parity, fertility preference, and wealth quintile were shown to be the significant factors for contraceptive discontinuation (Table 2). The analysis suggested that respon- dents from the rural community were about two times more likely to discontinue use relative to respondents from the urban community. However, respondents aged 25–34 years old were more likely to have discontinued compared with respondents aged less than 20 years. The analysis also sug- gested that respondents with no formal education or illiterate were more than 1.5 times more likely to have discontinued use relative to those who had completed higher education (Table 2). Women who did not intend to have other children were less likely to have discontinued contraceptive use. Previous use of the pill, intrauterine device (IUD), and injection were found to be associated with approximately less than one time the discontinuation which was even higher than that recorded by other acting methods (Table 4). Conversely, education, age, parity, fertility preference, place of residence, and wealth quintile were also shown to be the significant predictors for switching of contraceptive method. The analysis suggested that respondents aged 25–34 years old were more likely to have switched compared with respondents aged less than 20 years. Respondents who were secondary level–educated were more likely to have switched contraceptive methods relative to those who had less education. As for fertility preference, respondents who did not intend to have children were more likely to have switched contraceptive methods compared with those who wanted another child. However, the respondents who lived in a rural community were more than 1.6 times more likely to have switched the method com- pared with those living in an urban community (Table 2). The respondents of pill, IUD, and injection users were more likely to have switched the contraceptive method as compared with those using other methods (Table 4).
30% related multiple somatic symptoms to vaginal discharge. One woman related this to sewing clothes on sewing machine. Two women felt that sitting on the soil while cutting the grass causes vaginal discharge.50% of women said that they do not know what happens if their discharge is not treated. 34% felt that it would result in weakness and weight loss. 11% had fear of cancer and only 2% felt that it could be sexually transmitted. Husband was not willing to take treatment in 70% of cases. They felt that if the problem of vaginal discharge is that of a woman then why should man take the treatment. The limitation of our study is that lab investigations were not done to rule out the infectious etiology of vaginal discharge. Deepa LM et al studied the utility of microbiological profile of rural women with symptomatic vaginal discharge. 21 They found that specific diagnosis
In this study women large proportion of women use contraception for child spacing (65%) than permanent limitation for number of children (17%) which the reverse of the what was reported from Nigeria  where, 30% of women contraception for child spacing versus 70% use it for permanent limitation for number of children. This might be related to the fact that large number (61%) of the married women having an interest a child for the future as well as majority of the married women don’t have positive attitude towards permanent methods of the contraception in the study community. The major source to obtain contraceptives for the mar- ried women was a public health facility (83%). This find- ing is consistent with findings of EDHS 2005(80%), Butajira(80.8%) and Jinka (> 80%) [11, Temesgen A: Assessment of the prevalence and factors influencing the utilization of long acting and permanent contracep- tive method in Butajira town, Gurage zone, SNNP, Ethiopia, submitted to Addis Ababa University, Geta- chew M: Assessment of the prevalence and factors affecting use of permanent and long acting contraceptive methods in Jinka town, south Omo Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia, submitted to Addis Ababa University].
Despite of all intervention implemented, fertility remain at higher rate. One of the factors limiting reduction of high fertility rate is unmet need for modern contraceptives. Total unmet need for modern contraceptive use is still high in many African countries. Tanzania modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) is given as 34.9 percent (with confident intervals of 27.3 – 42.3), while unmet need for modern methods was reported to be 27.8 percent (C.I 22.8 – 33.5) and the demand satisfied with modern contraceptive methods was reported to be 55.6 percent (C.I 46.2 – 64.1) in the year 2017 (Cahill et al., 2018). In East Africa, Kenya is doing very good in reducing the unmet need for modern contraceptives. Assessment shows on 2017 contraceptive prevalence was 62.3 percent and unmet need for modern methods was as low as 16.8. Unmet need for modern contraceptive became an important concept in development process as it can have impacted positively to fertility reduction if its level is well known and required measures been implemented. Action is needed to reduce unmet need among women in Tanzania and to empower them to have the families they want. Investments that expand and strengthen family planning services should remain a priority. Helping people afford and access modern contraception, especially during an economic shock, could help reduce unmet need.
A descriptive analysis examined the distribution of the sample of married women per demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as per their knowledge, practices, and exposure to media. Chi- squared tests with p < 0.05 were conducted to deter- mine whether there was an association between an independent variable and an outcome. The univariate analysis allowed to assess the likelihood of total unmet need, unmet need for spacing and unmet need for limiting among women with certain characteristics using logistic regression to calculate unadjusted odds ratios with their 95% CI. A multivariate analysis, using logistic regression, examined the independent effect of each factor after controlling for confounders. Statistical significance was claimed if p was < 0.05 and CI did not span the unity. All p -values presented were based on two-tailed hypothesis.
13 Read more
There is regional variation in modern contraceptive utilization in Ethiopia [4, 9]. Studies conducted in Gon- dar town, northwest Ethiopia and North Showa zone, central Ethiopia reported contraceptive utilization of 48.4 and 46.9% respectively [8, 10]. However, studies ad- dressing the proportion of women utilizing modern contraceptive and its associated factors are limited in the study area. Further, determining the prevalence and as- sociated factors in the actual local setting are important to take appropriate and tailored interventions. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence and associated factors of modern contraceptive utilization among married women of reproductive age group in Dabat demographic and health surveillance system (DHSS) site, northwest Ethiopia.
After adjusting all the other variables in the mul- tivariable logistic regression model household food insecurity, delivery place of the last child, religion of the respondent, media exposure, antenatal care (ANC) follow up and discussion with husband about modern contraceptive methods (MCM) of the respondents were independently associated with modern contraceptive use. Women from food secure households were 1.7 times more likely to use MCM compared to women from food inse- cure households [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.69, (confi- dence interval (CI): 1.03, 2.66). Mothers who had at least one ANC follow up were nearly five times more likely to use MCM when compared to women who have no any ANC visit [AOR: 4.56, (CI: 2.45, 7.05)]. Conce- rning place of delivery, the likelihood of using MCM decrease by 92 % for those women who delivered their last child at home compared to institutional delivery,
10 Read more
Methods: Our cross-sectional descriptive study investigated 25 districts representing all five administrative regions, three ecological zones, and urban and rural settings. We used structured questionnaires to interview 4,693 married women aged 15–49 years. We assessed UP knowledge by asking women whether they had ever heard about UP, followed by specific questions about symptoms and preventive measures. Descriptive statistics characterized the study population regarding socioeconomic status, assessed how many participants had ever heard about UP, and determined UP knowledge level among participants who had heard about the condition. Simple regression analysis identified a possible association between socioeconomic characteristics, ever heard about UP, and level of UP knowledge.
A total of 122 married women of reproductive age group were interviewed, the analysis of the demographic profile revealed that more than half of the women (54.09%) were in the age group of 25-34 years. About 40.16% of the respondents were graduates followed by 43.44% and 16.40% who were educated upto high school and primary school. Majority of the women (80.33%) were homemaker. Almost 97.54% of them were Hindus. The marital age of 64.75% of the women was found to be early and late twenties. 65.57% of the women had 2 living child. 66.39% of the women were belonging to nuclear family (Table1).
Barriers may also exist in terms of poor access. Distance can be prohibitive, and the time it takes to undertake and recover from the procedure (depending on the type) can be longer than families are willing to accommodate (16) . Among respondents, 89.6% were aware of the nearest health center that can provide the service. Geographical barriers in this study do not hinder the use of LACM (P=0.221). In order to prevent this barrier, the government decided to construct ”secondary posts” not far from religious-affiliated health facilities to meet the needs of clients of those areas (3) . A total of 31 secondary posts were constructed between 2006 and 2009. To serve other regions that had been without services, five new hospitals and 15 new health centers were built between 2005 and 2011. When asked if they were aware that LACM are available 75% of them reported that they were. Among women who participated in the study 6 of them reported being refused LACM. The reasons were lack of menstruation as reported by 3 women, 1 reported lack of husband consent, 1 reported that the service was not available and 1 was too young to start the methods. Being refused the use LACM does not affect the use of LACM (P=0.388). Those reasons were classified as medical barriers in some studies. Results from this study are different from the study conducted in Egypt by Eltomy Saboula and Hussein (15 ) in 2013. In their study regarding medical barriers, about one-third of the non-users and more than three-quarters of the women who abandoned after they had been told to come back at a later date once they had menstruation. These findings from that study are supported by evidence from Ghana, Kenya, Cameroon, Jamaica, and Senegal indicating that non menstruating women are commonly told they must return
Background: In developing countries reproductive tract infections (RTI) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) continue to present a major public health problem. Women in India had very low knowledge in sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS. It is found that many of the RTI/STI is preventable and curable. The occurrence of STI/RTI among married women is quite high. Hence, this study will be carried out to assess prevalence of STI/RTI in the married women of reproductive age group in an urban slum.
Abstract: Background: Ethiopia is one of the most populous countries in Africa where only 27% of women in the reproductive age group are currently using modern family planning methods. As a result, Low family planning use remains a major public health problem in the country especially in pastoralist communities in which it was not properly utilized due to limited physical access of the population to health facilities and shortages of staffs. Only few studies assessed the situation of family planning use in pastoralist communities of Ethiopia. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of family planning used and its determinants in pastoralist communities of Ethiopia. Methods: The study used women’s dataset from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. The survey sampling was designed to provide national, urban/rural, and regional representative estimates of key health and demographic indicators. This study used 2,724 married women of reproductive age group in rural pastoralist communities of Afar, Somali, Gambella and Benishangul Gumuz regions of Ethiopia. The sample was selected using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling procedure. Odds ratio along with 95% confidence interval in binary logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with family planning use. Results: Around one in ten (11%) of married women used any methods of family planning during the survey time. Unmet needs was 22.6% while 427 (15.7%) was attributed for spacing and 187 (6.9%) was for limiting. The total demand for family planning was only 33.6% among pastoralist women in Ethiopia. Women in the richest wealth quintile (AOR=24.28: 95% CI (13.43 - 43.90), and Muslims (AOR=0.39: 95% CI (0.27 - 0.56), residents of Gambela region (AOR=5.31:95%CI (2.81 - 10.04) and living in female headed households (AOR= 0.48: 95%CI (0.30 - 0.78) were found to be associated with family planning used. Conclusion: The prevalence of family planning use was low with only a third of women having the demand for family planning. Sex of household head, wealth quintile and religion and study region, were associated with family planning use. Targeted interventions should be put in place to enhance contraception.
Bongaarts proposed the proximate determinants of fertility model at a time when it was assumed there was very little intercourse outside of marriage. Hence, all of the calculations he proposed were based only on currently married women of reproductive age. Bongaarts initially proposed the proximate determinants framework; social and cultural mores have been shifting to greater or lesser degrees across the world and girls and women are now having sexual intercourse before and outside marriage. Stover proposed updating the framework to account for the fact women are having sex before and outside mar- riage and these same women may use contraceptives and seek induced abortions . This study was based on Bon- gaarts’ model because in most societies of the region births out of wedlock were not accepted and virginity was a prerequisite for marriage. In addition, the median age at first marriage of women of reproductive age in 2000, 2005, and 2011 was about 14.5, 14.4, and 15.1 years, re- spectively, while the median age at first sexual intercourse of the 2000, 2005, and 2011 was about 14.5, 14.7, and 15.3 years, respectively. That is, age at first marriage is synonymous with age of entry into sexual relations in the region [14–16]. For these reasons, we opted to conduct the proximate determinants analysis using currently married women of reproductive age.
11 Read more
This study was a community based cross sectional descriptivestudy that aimed at conducting an epidemiological survey among married women in the age group of 15-49 years, in a migrant population in a rural area of North India, to find out the current contraceptive practices. The reference population was migrant women who weremarried and in the reproductive age group (aged 15-49years) residing a rural area of North India. The study was conducted from February to September 2014, when majority of this population migrates to North India from other states, for employment for agricultural purpose. Inclusion criteria were - all the migrant women who were married and in the reproductive age group (aged 15-49) residing in this area during the period of the study. Theexclusion criteria kept in mind were all women who were divorced,separated, widowed, infertile, who had attainedmenopause, who had undergone hysterectomy andwomen who werenot migrants but were permanent residentsof this area. However, in the actual studypopulation there were no women in this age group who were divorced, separated, infertile, or who had undergone hysterectomy; although there were two women who had attained menopause, one of which was also widowed. There were a total of 114 women in this age group, out of which 112 met with the inclusion criteria and were, therefore, included in the study. Aserial list of allthe married women in the reproductive age group of15 – 49 years who fulfilled the inclusion criteria was made. The youngest respondent was 16 years old while the oldest one was 42 years of age. House to house visitswere carried out and the eligible women wereinterviewed using a pre-tested standardizedquestionnaire. Verbal consent of the respondents as well as the husbands wastaken before the questionnaire was administered. Consent of the respective employers was also taken before
occupation, type of family, socioeconomic status and age at marriage in married women in reproductive age group in the village Chanai, Beed district. 17 In study of Nazmul et al religion and income are not found significantly associated with contraceptive use similar as the finding of present study. 18 Changing trends in influencing factors is observed in present study as minimum or low association of religion or socioeconomic status on the contraceptive use and main associated factors are literacy, occupation The study had its limitation in the form that controversial findings, negative associations found in the study need further en-mass and in-depth epidemiological inquiries and studies, also the scope of present study fixes the limits of time period, as the information collected today may be outdated later which emphasized need for frequent such surveys.
Background: A modern contraceptive method is a product or medical procedure that interferes with reproduction following sexual intercourse; however, contraceptive services remain out of reach for many women of reproductive age worldwide, resulting in millions of unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions each year. In addition to limiting the number of children, family planning is essential to promoting the well-being and autonomy of women, their families, and their communities. Factors influencing modern contraceptive utilization are multifaceted and challenging, therefore; this study aimed to assess modern contraceptive utilization and associated factors among mid to late reproductive age, married women in Finote Selam town, northwest Ethiopia.
The entire urban slums of the city along the river banks were taken to be the universe. A list of slums locations along the selected rivers was prepared and 6 such slum locations were selected from the list of 18 slums by the method of Simple Random Sampling at the first stage. At the second stage, all the households within 50 m. from the river banks were considered as study population. All the married women in the reproductive age group, not currently pregnant, were the study subject. Cent per cent (100%) enumeration of house-holds / settlements or Census was done (Natural sample pyramid) and all the households within 50m from the river banks were visited. In a household where there were no eligible subject the subsequent household with eligible subject was taken up. Operational definitions for unmet need for spacing, limiting and unfelt need used in the study were as per NFHS. 4 Further , the following categories of women were excluded from unmet need for FP:
This was a community based longitudinal and educational intervention study conducted in tribal area, Bairluti in Kurnool division of Kurnool district. The study subjects were married women of reproductive age group. 168 married women of reproductive age group between 15-45 years were selected using simple random technique. Data was obtained by personal interview using predesigned pretested semi structured questionnaire. House to house visit was done for the data collection. Informed verbal consent was taken from each participant. Group communication approach was followed for educational intervention. For reinforcement of their knowledge, educational intervention was conducted in three sessions with an interval of one month between the sessions by using flip charts, video shows, role plays, demonstrations. Each session lasted for three hours. Pretest & Posttest was done to assess their knowledge. The study period was 6 months, January to June 2014. The data entry and analysis was done using spss version 17 software. Results were presented as percentage of number of study subjects with correct responses. Chi- square test was used for comparison between the groups and p values were calculated.
In our presenting study we consider reproductive age of women 15 to 45 year. Prevalence of unnatural death among reproductive aged females significantly affects community. Study data included in our study are not sufficient and like tip of iceberg because only unnatural by presenting study to aware about status of prevalence of unnatural death in reproductive aged group of women to upgrade autopsy center, improve education in rural area, health The present retrospective study has been conducted for the period of 5 consecutive years i.e. 2009 to 2013 based on autopsy record of the unnatural death cases resulting n deaths. During study period total no. of unnatural Death cases were 10195 and deaths among reproductive age were 2268.These cases were brought to the Department of Forensic wise distribution of deaths in women of reproductive age shows an increasing trend from 2009 to 2012 i.e. 19.23%, 21.90%, 23.04%, 24.17% respectively and in 2013 little decreases hat 79.6% are married, 15.4% are unmarried. Most of the death victims are in 15 to 25 year age group. Predominant method of accidental death were caused by road traffic accident (67%). rural habitat are most common locality
Hence, diabetes and hypertension are diseases with severe complications. The problems are even more pronounced among reproductive women than in nonreproductive women. Women with diabetes and hypertension are at increased risk of pregnancy complications, including those from surgi- cal delivery, and their offspring are at risk of congenital anomalies. Thus, diabetic and hypertensive women of reproductive age must use valid contraceptive methods for reducing unwanted pregnancy and its complications. Effec- tive family planning used in conjunction with hypertension and glucose management may reduce the risk to both the mother and the fetus. In spite of family planning benefits to these categories of the population, practice of using contraceptive among these segments of the population in Ethiopia was not previously assessed. Therefore, this study was conducted with the purpose of assessing contraceptive practice by diabetic and hypertensive married women of reproductive age group on follow-up at the chronic illness care center, with the hope of bringing information to support and guide further development and accomplishment of spe- cific intervention program targeted to women of reproductive age group with diabetes and hypertension. Besides, it could serve as a baseline data for planning future studies.