communications scholars found few academic papers referenced framing theory before advent of the 21 st Century. One major journal, the American Political Science Review, for example had not published a single paper with “framing or frame theory” in its title before 2002 (Berenger, 2002b). And few theory books, in either political science or mass communication, gave framing theory more than a passing reference prior to 2000. That has changed. Communication journals were a little more active in the mid to late 1990s, but the millennium seemed to embrace the popularity of framing theory, and it seems particularly well suited for propaganda and public relations studies (Hallahan, 1999) because it mixes mass audience behavior (which is measurable) with persuasive message dissemination. Some have even suggested framing theory might be an umbrella-like meta theory under which other theories are subsumed. That is debatable. What is not debatable is that to adequately understand how and why reporters, editors and audiences “frame” a concept in a cultural setting, one must also understand other recognized communication theories such as agenda setting; selective perception; cultivation theory; cue theory, and socialization-learning theory; etc.
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Mass Communication under which audiences or American voters reacted to media messages through their perceptions, opinions, behaviour, likes and dislikes. Though, in the same year Griffin and McQuail conducted election research studies in 1944 and 1968 respectively entitled “The People’s Choice” and moreover introduced the idea of the Two-Step flow Theory of communication. They also rejected that there is no impression of this theory on audiences neither it was produced by political campaign of American presidential election, however, one linear media of that time was in favor of one political party’s campaign but in spite of it could not attain the mandate of the people. Even in the earlier age of one linear media, people used their opinions, decisions and reactions to messages as per their uses and gratifications and social, economic, political behaviour. The present research study comes back to the drawing room to throw light on the relevance of Magic Bullet Theory of Communication again within the context of the social media age/digital media age mustered by the advancement in the information and communication technologies. However, the advent of new information and communication technologies have altered the face of communication process as result these new information technologies have embellished communication patterns and influenced fallouts in diverse ways. It means that early theories like media effects of Magic Bullet Theory of Communication which existed prior to the emergence of new information and communication technologies were rejected by some other theories proposed by the communication thinkers so it require reassessment and research in the modern age to ascertain their relevance as history recalls the same phenomenon sometimes in the present world as well as in the case of India it recalled among various groups and Indian societies as it depends upon the media literacy and gratification of the audiences, social, economic, cultural, political behaviour, etc. All media effects, messages and media contents cannot be one sided neither received by all individuals equally. In Elihu Katz words we can say that media message receiver takes the messages of media as per his/her uses and gratification 4 because aware receiver does not receive or
The main objective of this study was to determine the “the influence of interactive media on instructional education in Nigeria using Mass Communication Department, Cross River State University as case study. The survey research design was adopted using the questionnaire for the gathering of data, following the analysis of data and discussion of findings. This study is summarized thus: The findings showed that 98(41%) of the respondents are exposed to interactive media. Mass communication students in CRUTECH do not often use interactive media for lectures, though the tested hypotheses indicate that there is a significant relationship between effective teaching of mass communication and the use of interactive media and also indicate that there is a significant relationship between students’ assimilation of communication studies and the use of interactive media. This result may actually come from the little experience got from the use of the facility. Respondents also think the biggest challenge associated with the use of interactive media is the problem of power failure.
trust and confidence in the police are also bound up with the social meaning and cultural significance of the police that goes further and deeper than the legal mandate of catching criminals, protecting citizens and keeping law and order. The police are the ‘civic guardians’ of the community’s ‘moral architecture’ (Loader and Mulcahy 2003), and people look to the police to typify and represent these moral values, and to defend and reassert them when they are perceived to come under threat. Perceptions of the area in which people live - anti-social behaviour, disorder and neglect, (lack of) social cohesion - have been found to be associated with trust and confidence in the police (Sunshine and Tyler 2003, Jackson and Sunshine 2007, Jackson et al. 2009, Jackson and Bradford 2009). We would thus expect that media images not only of the police but also of society at large might impact on public confidence in the police. The practical limitations of the study did not allow for an empirical test of this hypothesis. A further practical limitation is the comparatively short three-year period covered in this study. Public confidence has been very stable over the past five years, however, the picture looks different if we consider long-term developments. Both public confidence and media images of the police have undergone dramatic changes since World War II (Reiner 2010). Finally, the study suffers from the notorious difficulties inherent in media studies: the omnipresence of the media, the near-impossibility of isolating and disentangling media effects and following from that, the near-impossibility of attributing casual effects to media exposure. This type of study can also only pick up short-term effects and cumulative long-term effects go undetected (Livingstone 1996).
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Stuart Hall (1932- 2014) the Jamaican-born cultural theorist and sociologist, along with Richard Hoggart and Raymond Williams, was one of the founding figures of the school of thought known as British Cultural Studies. Hall‟s propositions primarily address representation, identity, hegemony and cul- tural studies. A favorite social site to be profoundly analyzed was mass media communication taken into fuller account through his encoding/decoding model of communication which, like textual analysis, focuses on the scope of negotiation and opposition on the part of the audience. Critical of the long held traditional “mass-communication research” which “has conceptualized the process of communication in terms of a circulation circuit or loop”, Hall openly takes a semiotic approach developing his mindset on how media messages are produced, circulated, consumed, and finally reproduced (Hall et al. 2005, p. 117). A text- be it a movie, book, or even a poem- is not simply passively accepted by the audience but interpreted by them based on their individual experience and cultural background. A text may have no objective meaning, but it contains a variety of objectively describable features. The response of a
The search for information from media revealed a statistically significant relationship between country setting and mass media usage; television (χ2 =48.371, df = 1, p = 0.000); radio (χ2 =16.666, df = 1, p = 0.000); print media (χ2 = 56.232, df = 1, p = 0.000); and the internet (χ2 =38.580, df = 1, p = 0.000). The internet was the only medium in which New Zealand respondents scored higher than Malaysian. A closer look at each media revealed that in New Zealand, the internet was the most frequent source, followed by television. Very few adolescents would use print media or radio to any substantial degree. This indicates how powerful the internet has become among adolescents. This is also reflected in the survey in 2007 by Nielsen/NetRatings, a commercial media research company, which revealed that young New Zealanders were enthusiastic internet users. Almost all respondents (91.7%) in New Zealand accessed the internet from home, followed by school (70.8%). Overall, 16.7% of New Zealand respondents spend more than three hours a day on the internet for personal use. It was also reported in the Nielson Panorama Survey (2006) that those in the 15-25 years age group in New Zealand were less likely to read newspapers (Comrie et al., 2007). That may explain why print media had little impact on the respondents. Nearly half of the respondents indicated they would use television as a source of information, a consequence, perhaps, of the high exposure of medicines advertisements on New Zealand television. Norris et al. (2005) reported there were 340 medicine advertisements screened on New Zealand television with an average of 1 per 102 minutes, of which 37% were advertisements for OTCs.
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Says Mani Mahanta of Asomiya Pratidin, “Our conflict reporting standard was possibly not up to the mark, first because we didn’t have skilled people, who had exposure to similar situations. Second, there were only a handful people who are handling the issue seriously. Most journalists were biased, some even were part-time activists. Both insights and foresight were missing. There were very few senior journalists studying the situation as a neutral observer or having an impartial view of the situation. They reported the ground reality and their coverage things like mass grave or army atrocities in villages was outstanding.”
With more stimuli bombardments, individuals are more cautious and adept in allocating attention to information; thus it is essential for marketers to find the reasons that speak to particular customers’ concerns, and to seek ways to speak to customers individually, or in smaller communities. Internet offers favorable solutions to marketers these days. Marketing through social media would be an alternative perspective of interfacing with individuals, and yet the most influential applications of social technologies in the global economy are largely untapped. Social media puts consumers back to the center of the business world and provides marketers a new set of tools to interact with consumers and to integrate them into the brands through innovative ways. In essence, marketers have to understand how the social media has influenced consumer buying behavior.
Jodi Dean’s contribution misses to address the issue of digital labour directly, but provides an interesting analysis of communicative capitalism as a societal condition that frames the question of digital labour. Dean analyses some aspects of the dialectics of social media. Par- ticular blogs or social networking profiles are unique, but at the same time interchangeable and not very visible in the midst of the mass of existing blogs. They provide exposure and anonymity at the same time; they are progressive political tools, but are at the same time facing the threats of repressive control and surveillance. Dean speaks in this context of a fantasy: “As with blogging, our participation in social networks relies on the supposition that we expose but are not exposed, that we are unique but ultimately indistinguishable” (129). Dean refers theoretically to Agamben and characterises the motif behind new media usage as “whatever being”: When using social media “there is belonging, but not to anything in par- ticular” (131); rather the other way round: “something in particular is, insofar as it belongs” (131). Dean argues that participation enabled by social media “becomes indistinguishable from personalization, the continued cultivation of one’s person” (140). Whatever beings “seek nothing, they lack nothing [...]; their being is apolitical, beyond politics” (141). Dean is inter- ested in the questions “who and what is likely to benefit” and “what kinds of political and eco- nomic relations are likely to flourish in these new communicative habits” (131)? Against theo- rists, who see progressive elements within the formalisation of whatever beings’ communica- tions in communicative capitalism, Dean argues that whatever being is an ideological way of controlling subjectivity. It is crucial to remember that communicative capitalism is still a social order, in which “a lucky few will get nearly everything. Most will get very little, almost nothing” (138
general rejection of absolute monarchical perception of power and truth and citizens began to advocate for better treatment ‘as rational beings, capable of making independent judgements on social issues and developing their own individual senses of truth’ (Ocitti, 1999 p 8). The period also marked the emergence of a powerful middle class, especially in England, as commerce expanded rapidly at the growth of industries. The libertarian atmosphere was kindled by the voices of philosophers like John Milton, John Locke and John Stuart Mill who argued for intellectual freedom and the open marketplace of ideas. This was a time for a social rebirth underpinned by the notions of freedom of thought and opinions as the cornerstone of the emerging change. In relation to the media, libertarians viewed the media not as an instrument of government, but rather as a device for presenting evidence and arguments on the basis of which the people could check on government and make up their minds as to policy (Ocitti, 1999 p 9). The libertarian theorists argued that the press should stay completely free of government control and influence and that any individual with the economic means to own a press should be allowed to do so. Ocitti (1999) adds that the notion of “truth” was to be left to the free marketplace of ideas, rather than government interpretation, as advocated by authoritarian theorists. The libertarian theory presents the world with the first idea of an “alternative media”, especially from the monopoly of monarchical and church-led government of the Renaissance and Enlightenment eras. According to Denis McQuail (1994), an interpretation of this movement toward alternative media narrative, is that “the nearest approximation to truth will emerge from the competitive exposure of alternative viewpoints, and progress for society will depend on the choice of 'right' over 'wrong' solutions”. This means that the media was to be allowed as much freedom as practically possible, so as to promote political debate and encourage a multiplicity of viewpoints on social issues, as a way of presenting the truth to the public (Ocitti, 1999 p 9).
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In 1976, Baudrillard used the French information mediatisée in line with Benjamin’s work on photography and cinema and McLuhan’s work on television (Lundby, 2009, p. 10), and in German there is still a distinction between mediatisierung and medialisierung. Ernst Manheim used the former in the 1930s in his research on Publizistik, referring to the “Mediatisierung of direct human relations” and considering modern subjects as increasingly shaped by “publicistic socialization” (Averbeck-Lietz, 2014; Jansson, 2013). In addition, Habermas (1987) normatively described the social role of media as transmitting systemic logics within the symbolic world as a subprocess by which the dynamics of the system penetrate and colonize the lifeworld with logics of power, influence and money. With these reminiscences Krotz writes, “The meta-process of mediatization in particular ‘makes it clear that lifeworld specific communication remains the basis of communication and meaning in general’” (Krotz, 2009, p. 5). However, in Zurich, Imhof (2006) used the concept of medialisierung. For Lundby (2009, p. 12) mediatisierung refers to the process of change, while “medialisierung refers to the status of society as a media society and its consequences.”
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First, emphasizing a regime’s selective and self-interested promotion or suppression of information overlooks how the Egyptian state rules as much through passive neglect as it does through active interference. This neglect was embodied in the examples given by government insiders who reported on the influence of institutional gate-keepers and risk- adverse staff who acted according to their own initiatives in the absence of clear codes of information handling. These interviews reveal a degree of agency inherent with state institutions that can operate somewhat independently from regime-level machinations, with organization-level factors held responsible for the management of knowledge. This may potentially set the external goals of elites against those of specific institutions, complicating the dynamics of power operating within the Egyptian state in what is known as the principal-agent problem, which “stipulates that in cases when the interests of principal (the owner) and agent (the organization that is to carry out the owner's will) do not coincide, the agent is tempted to leverage its informational advantage to dodge the principal's interest in favor of its own needs” (Saleh, 2010, p. 12). Empirical studies have shown that behind Egypt’s seemingly sophisticated and coordinated state apparatus there “is little to suggest that the bureaucracy is a cohesive, united, or effective actor in
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After consulting the proposers of the STOPS model, our measures of these three constructs (problem recognition, constraint recognition and involvement recognition) were adopted from the 2010 Kim’s study (Kim, Grunig, & Ni, 2010) and 2011 Kim & Grunig’s study (Kim & Grunig, 2011). Measurement items were carefully selected from the original list of items obtained in order to: 1. Ensure that the items are unambiguous and easy to comprehend and 2. avoid multiple negatives, double-barreled sentences, ambiguous pronoun references, and misplaced modiﬁers (Netemeyer, Bearden, & Sharma, 2003). For example, under constraint recognition, more government-related items were selected in order to generate more face validity. The questionnaire used a unidimensional 7-point scale in all items of STOPS model: this is in line with most of the STOPS studies and most importantly, with the proposers of the STOPS models (see Kim 2010 for more explication on the choice). Every item asked respondents to indicate their level of agreement from absence of agreement (Not at all) to full agreement (absolutely). The finalized items can be seen in Appendix A.
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The attitude of the mother has had the deep effect on Harry. Since he has not received any attention, he has not good sense toward her: “He didn’t like to touch her but he made himself bend down to kiss her” (Kureishi 314). Due to the mother’s attitudes, as an individual who is shaped by hegemony, Harry becomes bewildered and believes himself situated in the threshold. Blaming TV programs, he believes that his mother does not feel any responsibility toward her family and he feels the created distance. This status makes him angry; he feels the shadow of the media in his life and enjoys escaping from it: “It gave him pleasure to turn the TV off” (315). The system by its productions causes people to be alienated with each other and makes them have no real sense of satisfaction. Thus, the alienation between mother and family members, which occurs through the hegemony’s production- TV programs- is clear.
The empirical study of communication in social media by promoting studies at Lithuanian higher education institutions proved that universities follow communication of one another in social media; select objectives of communication in social media individually; use the same channels Facebook and YouTube for communication with schoolchildren and prospective students are attracted the most by a visually provided information, which is new, adapted to the target audience and which cannot be found on other Internet pages, i.e. very important content; universities try to turn the negative messages into a positive information, delete obscene messages; the popularity of messages is measured by the number of “like” clicks or the number of comments; universities use different means to measure success. So far Lithuanian universities do not fully use the existing tools of social media to perform monitoring.
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Many people are interested in media to watch some famous people who are concerened with their lives and many people try to use media because of their power and their impacts on the earth. Politicians and businessmen and singers are the main characters of media productions and many other people try to be heros of media recently (Wilhoit, 1969). People who need fame and who need to be known by much people want to contact media and media want to contact them to produce colorful productions which attract people easily. Though book and letter and cinema were also defined as media, contremporary media are known as newspapers, magazines, radio, television and internet. Almost all people in the world know media and most of them use media in their daily lives. A great number of people use media in their daily lives to learn news or to learn agenda or to feel themselves in society by watching social developments (Mutz and Martin, 2001). Many people use media to learn news about the world but many people also use media to make fun and to spend enjoyable time. Media became into an instrument of popular culture that produces simply and quickly consumed productions (Cereci, 2010). Media introduce products of popular culture in colorful forms and tempt people to live in a simply and enjoyable life. Due to culture, tends and forms also change. Media are the
The above points can be examined from two perspectives; private and government media ownership. In a developing country like Nigeria, it has been observed and discovered that, most government owned media of mass communication are extensively used as instrument of propaganda to foster the political ideals of the government in power. This again has been made possible because these media outfit lack financial autonomy and are heavily reliant on government for revenue to run their businesses. For this reason, the outfits as well as journalists working in them become putty in the hands of the government by fulfilling their whims and caprices rather than making the welfare of the general populace their first priority. This also may account for why there are usually very few programs where there will be healthy discussions of important national issues and development are tackled, and in the few situations that are, the atmosphere is not confrontational therefore the assurance of non revolutionary thinking and actions are guaranteed. This also prevents the emergence of a just, humane and self reliant society, as initiatives are stunted as a result of suppressed information.
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It is after Second World War, that imperialism becomes a theory that refers to the relations between developed and under developed countries . Towards the end of 20 th century, nationalism of media has been changed to globalization which leads to a situation of “non-national concern of media”. Media languages of Capitalism and Colonialism have made everything a tool to bring victory in any field which they feel good. Capitalists always use media to transform the views of masses. There are more than 150 news agencies, 80,000 radios & TV sta- tions and around 20,000 important newspapers over the world. Reference texts, Historical books and even en- cyclopedia are being brought out by major publishing houses. All these capitalist’s forces affected the life style, social ethics and consumption patterns in developing countries. These news related establishments gather major- ity of their inputs through trans-national Corporations of developed countries and TV communication satellites majority are supported by the US capital. It is interesting to note that all major news agencies have associated with weapons industries either directly or through their business partners. Shares of major military industrial as- sociates like IBM, Westinghouse, and Western Electric etc have their stake in Associate Press. The major or- dinance factory Siemens of Germany and Matra of France run News agencies as ancillary establishments. By strategic use of news, unrest at one or other part of the world can be created and supplying arms to both affected parties their business can be promoted. This is most apparent when national television news coverage is increa- singly becomes homogenised and only few news sources are shared in common worldwide . Herman and McChesney (1997) argued that “The global media system is dominated by three or four dozen large transnation- al corporations with fewer than ten mostly US based media conglomerates towering over the global market” [7
Over the past decade, Science Watch Magazine, that monitors research trends and indicators, has placed food research at the University of Helsinki to the very top of its field. The programme takes place on Viikki Campus, one of the largest concentrations of bioscience studies in the world. Finnish food research benefits from a long tradition of food development having resulted, for example, in production of functional food ingredients such as stanol esters and probiotics.
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On the positive side, there is no doubt that the modern media system and information technologies are among the greatest achievements of man, a miracle of human ingenuity. Its rich potentiality for human development and progress in most areas of human life and society are no longer matters of speculation but a reality indeed. For ‘ab actu ad posse valet illatio’ (from the reality we can conclude to the possibility). The modern media could indeed be a force of integration through its capacity to inform people in general about the goings on within the society and as a veritable channel of interaction, of dialogue among the various segments of society and philosophical, religious and ideological persuasions. The media could them promote “colloquium salutis” between peoples and cultures. They could be used to mobilize people for action for the common good, the promotion of the immediate, and ultimate aims of society and the promotion of solidarity. The educative potentiality of the media is enormous as a veritable access to knowledge or claims to knowledge and of course to truth. The extension and volumes of information citizens receive daily, give an impression of a free access flow of knowledge and truth. Thus they constitute an undeniable source of updating one’s knowledge, and offer a constant reference course for those who drink from this fund of apparently free knowledge. So there is no doubt that the modern media technologies and information systems do fulfill its traditional function of informing, educating, and entertaining for presumably the good of man and society, as they inform, warn, encourage and capture the mood of society at any given time. Who will doubt the media as a vehicle of entertainment and exposition, to variety of recreational and leisurely programmes? We think of the diffusion of sports, of drama, of art, of music, etc.
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