As rates of overweight and obesity continue to climb in Canada and many other developed countries, curbing and reducing these rates has become a long-term goal for public health practitioners in these countries . Underweight adults are also at risk for negative health consequences including elevated mortality . One ap- proach that can aid in the evaluation of a population’s health according to body weight category is the estima- tion of health expectancy by body mass index (BMI). Health expectancy measures such as health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) combine life expectancy (LE) with a measure of health-related quality of life (HRQL) or dis- ability to create an indicator for assessing the combined effects of health and mortality, which is expressed in an intuitive measure similar to that of life expectancy . Furthermore, in populations where life expectancy is in- creasing, health expectancies can be used to monitor whether the proportion of life spent in health is increas- ing (compression of morbidity) or decreasing (expansion of morbidity) due to a particular health problem such as insufficient or excess body weight .
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other potentially important contributors to adult beta-cell mass regulation: (i) diﬀerentiation from stem cells precur- sors, (ii) transdiﬀerentiation from a non-beta-cell diﬀer- entiated precursor, (iii) whole islet neogenesis on the plus side and apoptosis on the negative, and (iv) changes in beta-cell size [3, 4]. However, the relative contribution of these processes in maintaining and expanding beta-cell mass is at present not well defined and varies between species [5– 7]. During adult life, the beta-cell mass may have to adapt in the face of increased demands due to increases in body mass, pregnancy, or even loss of insulin sensitivity of peri- pheral tissues. If such compensatory adaptation is inade- quate, then glucose homeostasis will be compromised and result in chronically elevated blood glucose, or diabetes [8, 9].
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BMI ≥ 30 is considered a major public health issue. Saudi Arabia has become more westernized over the years and prevalence of overweight and obese population is also alarmingly increasing . A recent national study revealed that one out of four adult males and one out of three adult females suffer from obesity . The two most contributing factors leading to obesity epidemic in Saudi Arabia are intake of imbalanced diet and lack of regular physical activities [28, 29]. Studies revealed that prevalence of overweight and obesity among male college students in Saudi Arabia is 21.8% and 15.7%, respectively . Another study documented that 49.8% of male undergraduate students were either overweight or obese . Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess and compare health related quality of life among Saudi undergraduate students at different categories of body mass index.
In this study, schizophrenic patients have lower BUA val- ues since they are young when compared with the com- munity population. Aging and menopausal transition effect on bone mass in the general female population can- not be seen in the schizophrenic patient group. The bone mass distribution of schizophrenic patients is different from that of the community population. This is a cross- sectional study, and does not include the information of sex hormone, bone metabolism related hormones, the type of antipsychotic medication used and bone turnover markers is its limitation. Use of ultrasonographic assess- ments instead of DXA scans and the assessment of bone mass at only one location is another limitation of this sur- vey. Further studies are necessary to clarify the hormonal changes, bony metabolism and effects of medication on bone mass characteristics in schizophrenic patients. Pro- spective study begins from the onset of schizophrenia may be also necessary. Once the cause and effect relation- ships are clearer, intervention may be used to either pre- vent or delay the onset of osteoporosis in these patients.
QOL can be defined as the impact of illness and con- dition on the physical and mental functioning from the point of view of the patient. Patients with schizophrenia have low QOL . Previous studies of Western popu- lations have shown that the QOL of patients with schizophrenia further decreased with obesity [10,12-14]. However, we are not aware any study concerning this issue among Asian populations, who have a different obesity prevalence and lifestyle from Western popula- tions [15-17]. QOL can be used to assess how patients feel and function in their everyday life with regard to a treatment, and a good QOL may improve the measure- ment of treatment efficacy. Directly treating QOL
consequences of obesity stem from systemic inflammatory responses. 21 In conjunction with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) activation as a result of genetic susceptibility and environmental stressors (ex. nutritional overload, stress, sleep etc.), the resulting hormonal and metabolic abnormalities contribute to the development of later disease. 22 Overweight and obese children are more likely than normal weight children to exhibit risk factors for chronic disease. Such risk factors include abnormally elevated lipid and insulin levels, low HDL cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure. Childhood obesity and accompanying risk factors can persist into adulthood leading to disease development later in life. 19, 23, 24 Obese children are at 25 to 50% greater risk of becoming obese adults. 23 Diseases that have been consistently shown to be associated with obesity include Type II Diabetes, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, hypertension, stroke, asthma, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, colorectal cancer, and postmenopausal breast cancer. Diseases resulting from childhood obesity are also emerging earlier in life. In particular, Type II Diabetes is also becoming more common in children as result of increasing obesity rates. 19, 23, 24 Besides the physical consequences, childhood obesity also effects mental health. Obese children are more likely to experience discrimination by their peers, and to have lower self-esteem and body image. 19, 24
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During childhood and adolescence, bone mass acquisi- tion occurs through skeletal growth or modeling, both longitudinal growth at the growth plate and cross-sec- tional growth at the periosteum. It is widely assumed that bone mass acquisition throughout childhood is an important determinant of the risk of osteoporosis in late adulthood; bone mass is thought to resemble a bank account in which deposits persist indefinitely. However, this assumption cannot be proven on theoretical grounds. It is equally conceivable that increasing bone mass acquisition during childhood will have only tran- sient effects, because bone mass is governed by a ho- meostatic system that tends to return to a set point after any perturbation and, therefore, bone mass depends primarily on recent conditions, not those in the distant past. Indeed, several well-controlled clinical studies have suggested that the latter alternative is true, at least in part. In an animal model, we have shown evidence that bone mass acquisition in early life has no effect on bone mass in adulthood, in part because many areas of the juvenile skeleton are replaced in toto through skeletal growth. Thus, both modeling and remodeling may erase any early effects.
up to three generations(Kaya and Gaugler,1993).After reproduction and depletion of all nutrients, a high nematode population density triggers the nematode development into IJs again. In the case of Steinernema, IJs become colonized by bacteria via one or two founder bacterial cells. The life cycle of Heterorhabditid is similar to that of Steinernematids except for the fact that the IJs always develop into self- reproducing hermaphrodites(Poinar, 1990). Strauch et al. (2000) observed that offspring of the first generation hermaphrodites can either develop into amphimictic adults or into automictic hermaphrodite, both can occur simultaneously.The development into amphimictic adults is induced by favourable nutritional conditions, whereas the development of hermaphrodites is induced by low concentrations of nutrient. The lifecycle is completed in a few days and thousands of new IJs emerge, searching for new hosts. The cycle from entry of IJs into a host until emergence of new IJs is dependent on temperature and varies for different species and strains. Generally, life-cycle of EPNs (infective juvenile penetration to infective juvenile emergence) is completed within 12-15 days. The optimum
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This article describes the essence of the reforms carried out during the years of independence, its aspects related to human spirituality. Thoughts were expressed to strengthen the process of spiritual education. The inteccecation of spirit and mass culture, contradictory effect of mass culture to words spiritual social life and the prophylactics of its negative effects are the main points of the present article. All the negative and positive sides of mass culture are revealed in certain examples.
a study of the laws would shed light on the policy goals behind these documents and the level of institutionalisation of titular languages. There were some comparative legal studies on the languages laws, for example, in the republics and other regions of Siberia (Katunin 2009; 2010) that, however, were focused neither on elucidation of the policy goals nor on the functions. Language legal regulations are usually classified according to the domains of public life: education, courts, administration, mass media, cultural and economic life and others (see Iskhakova 2002: 9–11). In the next section, the study proceeds with a comparison of the legal regulations in the finno-Ugric republics on: 1) the compulsory study of titular state languages by all students or compulsory study of native language and its functioning as the language of instruction, and 2) language pref- erences for some professions. This study undertakes comparison only in the sectors of education and the work environment because the way language functions in these two sectors implies their compulsory use. As a result, language revival here needed signifi- cant resources for its implementation and was, thus, the most debated. apart from this, the compulsory use in these sectors is not directly connected with instrumental use and preferential treatment because it does not have behind it the issue of status and access to resources, as in the case of language requirements for top officials (which represents the first function described above and is studied separately in Zamyatin 2013b). In these sec- tors, accordingly, the third and the second function of the official language are exercised. In addition, these sectors are the most illustrative of language promotion. however, a restriction of this study is that it does not evaluate the actual implementation of the legal provisions, which is accomplished for the sphere of education (Zamyatin 2012c).
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Mozambique has a socially oriented culture (Bower, 2007). It is focused on relationships rather than being task oriented like the American culture (ibid). When asking for directions or upon meeting someone, for example, it is polite to first greet the person and ask how they are doing and then go about business. Life is communal rather than individualistic. If a child were to steal from a neighbor, it would be the neighbor’s responsibility to spank the child rather than the parent. Likewise, if one were to yell, ‘thief!’ in a market, the crowd would gang up and beat the thief. All this is because justice is carried out communally in the traditional Mozambican culture. However, since the advent of mass media all these social and communal values of the Mozambican culture are fast loosing favor to the individualistic western values. The Brazilian Mira Mar channel has many programs such as operas (poderes paralelos) which emphasize that one’s life is a private business and no one should bother another person’s life. Today, if one yells, ‘thief!’ in Chipamanine market in Maputo, no one would even turn eyes to the thief. If a child steals from a neighbor and the neighbor disciplines the child, beware! The next day the neighbor would receive a summon from police.
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weeks’ gestation recruited to the SCOPE/Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study, were included. Gestational age, gender, birth weight, and length were recorded at birth for each infant. Ges- tational age was determined from a ﬁrst trimester scan or the last men- strual period. Gestational age based on last menstrual period was con- ﬁrmed against dates calculated from a ﬁrst trimester dating scan. If there was disparity of ⬎ 7 days between last menstrual period and scan dates, then the scan-based gestational age was used. Fat mass, %BF, fat-free mass, percentage fat-free mass, and surface area were measured by using the PEA POD system within the ﬁrst 4 days of life.
These changes in the basic structures of consciousness are accompanied by an alteration of the very structure of the field of awareness, which leads to an emergent, particular way of experiencing that is infused by: (a) a change in the focus or salience with which objects and meanings emerge from the background context; (b) an altered conceptual “grip” or “hold” on the world; (c) a mutual amplification of the growing dissolution of the sense of existing as a subject with a more pronounced, disturbing and alienating self-scrutiny; (d) an increasing objectification and externalisation of normally tacit in- ner phenomena, with a morbid objectification of one’s own psychic life 109 . At the extreme of such progression
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‘who alternated happiness with misery’ (p321). Maru’s reaction to the paintings is that of dislike and rejection: ‘It’s not for me’, as he discerns her love for Moleka and heightens the rivalry with him. On the other hand, Moleka looked at the picture with ‘adoration and attention’, and ‘It was to seem as though he came home each night specially to look at it, then wash and eat. It was to become an immovable part of their life together’ (p322), together with Dikeledi. Moleka likes the picture because he recognizes himself and Margaret, and the idyllic love that unites them forever in that endless hour. It even became a daily ritual for him to contemplate it and enjoy the peace and serenity it expresses, even after his marriage with Dikeledi. Once again, Margaret achieves victory over Maru as she lives with the person she loves in an ‘endless’ hour in the painting. So, through these paintings, we clearly see that Margaret is not as passive as she seems to be, since she is able to freely express herself, her ‘mind and soul’, through her art.
Abstract: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a person-centered concept. The analysis of HRQOL is highly relevant in the aged population, which is generally suffering from health decline. Starting from a conceptual dynamic systems model that describes the development of HRQOL in individuals over time, this study aims to develop and test a quantitative dynamic systems model, in order to reveal the possible dynamic trends of HRQOL among older adults. The model is tested in different ways: first, with a calibration procedure to test whether the model produces theoretically plausible results, and second, with a preliminary validation pro- cedure using empirical data of 194 older adults. This first validation tested the prediction that given a particular starting point (first empirical data point), the model will generate dynamic trajectories that lead to the observed endpoint (second empirical data point). The analyses reveal that the quantitative model produces theoretically plausible trajectories, thus providing support for the calibration procedure. Furthermore, the analyses of validation show a good fit between empirical and simulated data. In fact, no differences were found in the comparison between empirical and simulated final data for the same subgroup of participants, whereas the comparison between different subgroups of people resulted in significant differences. These data provide an initial basis of evidence for the dynamic nature of HRQOL during the aging process. Therefore, these data may give new theoretical and applied insights into the study of HRQOL and its development with time in the aging population.
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The profession of social work seeks to improve the quality of life for individuals and to effect system-wide change through the pursuit of social justice. Just like a helping profession, such as nursing and teaching, social work seeks to help people overcome some of life’s most difficult challenges. What separate social work from other helping professions is its focus on the person-in-environment model and its emphasis on social justice. Social workers not only consider individuals’ internal struggles, as a counselor might, they also work with people to examine their relationships, family structure, community environment, and the systems and policies that impact them in order to identify ways to help address challenges.
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insufficient functional well-being and insufficient socio- emotional well-being, both of which contributed to reduced QoL among these children. This study showed the importance of identifying the socio-emotional and functional outcomes in order to improve the QoL of these children. Our findings suggest that each step of the long-lasting and demanding treatment of an individual with a cleft might play a vital role in the functional and socio-emotional outcome and subsequently it might affect the everyday life of a person. Therefore, multidisciplinary interventional strategies, such as psychological aids are required to improve their diurnal life in every respect and should be considered from the early stages of treatment, or even early stages of diagnosis. And these supportive programs should be continued until a suf- ficient level of coping with daily conditions are achieved in later part of their lives.
Despite substantial gains in population health over recent decades, the US faces a growing epidemic of obesity that threatens continued progress. This dissertation seeks a better understanding of this dire challenge through three chapters that explore obesity from distinct vantage points. The first chapter quantifies the extent to which greater obesity in the US contributes to its low life expectancy ranking with respect to 15 other developed countries. The principal finding is that the higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in the US may contribute between a fifth and a third of the longevity gap above age 50. The second chapter is an investigation of the mortality risks and population impact of obesity in the older adult population of the US. I propose an innovative measurement strategy using weight histories. My findings indicate that the prior literature may substantially underestimate the mortality risks of obesity by failing to fully account for confounding by illness. The third and final chapter investigates the social context of obesity through an examination of eating behaviors of adults in the US. I find that participation in the family dinner is associated with a significantly lower probability of being obese and that the association is robust to adjustment for multiple dimensions of socioeconomic status.
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Methods: A randomized controlled trial with blinded assessors was conducted on 72 medical students from the pre-clinical years (1st to 3rd years in Syria) at Syrian Private University. Students were randomly assigned to peer-led or to professional-led training group for one-day-course of basic life support skills. Sixty-four students who underwent checklist based assessment using objective structured clinical examination design (OSCE) (practical assessment of BLS skills) and answered BLS knowledge checkpoint-questionnaire were included in the analysis. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in delivering BLS skills to medical students in practical ( P = 0.850) and BLS knowledge questionnaire outcomes ( P = 0.900). Both groups showed statistically significant improvement from pre- to post-course assessment with significant statistical difference in both practical skills and theoretical knowledge ( P -Value < 0.001). Students were satisfied with the peer model of training.
The success of nanosatellites (1 – 10 kg) and the miniaturization of sophisticated low-power electronics has motivated interest in even smaller “ smartphone ” -sized spacecraft as either standalone spacecraft or elements in a maneuverable fleet. These spacecraft, known as picosatellites (100 g – 1 kg) and femtosatellites (less than 100 g), have the potential to enable missions requiring a distributed fleet of sensor spacecraft (for example, distributed aperture, simultaneous spatial sampling, etc.). However, without some degree of propulsion capability, these spacecraft would behave more as an uncontrolled swarm than as a coordinated formation. Furthermore, lifetime in low Earth orbit can be limited for low-mass spacecraft with high area-to-mass ratios. This paper shows that a relatively short (few meters) electrodynamic tether is capable of providing picosatellites and femtosatellites with propellantless drag cancellation and even the ability to change orbit over an altitude range determined by the ionospheric density, neutral atmosphere drag, and magnetic field strength and orientation. The ability of the electrodynamic tether system ’ s anode to draw current from the Earth ’ s ionosphere and generate thrust is estimated, and this performance is traded against the power needed to overcome atmospheric drag forces. The trade study includes the development of a system concept and mission scenario to evaluate electrodynamic-tether propulsion system performance in low Earth orbit, which can be adapted to other planets.
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