machine learning models for automatic extraction of materials syntheses from text, in this work we present a new dataset of synthesis procedures anno- tated with semantic structure by domain experts in materialsscience. We annotate each step in a syn- thesis with a structured frame-semantic representa- tion, with all the steps in a synthesis making up a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG). The types of nodes in the graph include synthesis operations (i.e. predi- cates), and the materials, conditions, apparatus and other entities participating in each synthesis step. Labeled edges represent relationships between en- tities, for example Condition of or Next Operation. Our dataset consists of 230 synthesis procedures annotated with these structures. An example sen- tence level annotation is given in Fig. 2. We make the corpus available to the community to promote further research and development of scientific in- formation extraction systems for procedural text. 1 2 Description of the Annotated Dataset
statutory review of the MaterialsScience and Engineering Expert Committee (MatSEEC) of the European Science Foundation (ESF), covering the period from 2009 to 2013. MatSEEC is an independent science-based committee of over 20 experts active in materialsscience and its applications, materials engineering and technologies and related fields of science and research management. The aim of MatSEEC is to enhance the visibility and value of materialsscience and engineering in Europe, to help define new strategic goals and evaluate options and perspectives covering all aspects of the field.
Historically, MaterialsScience and Engineering (MSE) emerged as an interdisciplinary field with its roots in several traditional disciplines, such as phys- ics, chemistry, biology, mathematics and mechanical engineering. MSE integrates concepts or methods that may have been originally developed by these disciplines, and applies them to the design of new materials, materials systems and, ultimately, new products. MSE-based research and development seeks new concepts and methods to character- ise and tailor materials properties, and to provide engineering solutions for the most appropriate mate- rials systems to meet predefined specifications. This includes identifying the most appropriate processes for fabrication and life cycle management taking the necessary economic and ecological considerations into account. Thus, MSE has evolved over the last half century into a truly transdisciplinary field in its own right, crossing the boundaries of root disci- plines to describe, model and engineer new materials properties for target applications and new products. MSE is fundamental for several technologies. It addresses all stages of the innovation chain from fundamental research to advanced engineering applications, better production technologies and new products. The results of MSE research and development are found in all stages of the value chain from raw materials, via products and engi- neering systems, to technology validation; from new services to new solutions that meet the challenges that face today’s society. MSE continuously improves the competitiveness of both conventional industries and novel technology sectors. MSE innovation is the ‘raison d’être’ for many small-, medium- and large- scale industries.
If the abstracts contain all the structural elements of an article, then the guidelines for the components of abstracts from the journals included in the research presented here can be compared to the IMRAD format (Milas-Bracović, 1987). The IMRAD format presents the sections of traditional scientific papers and the guidelines should coincide with the structural elements of the article. But it should be acknowledged that it is less universally used in humanities and social sciences. In the Table 3 the guidelines for components of abstracts (Materiali in tehnologije: navodila avtorjem, 2010; MaterialsScience and Technology: instructions for authors, 2013; Journal of documentation: author guidelines, 2013) are compared to IMRAD format. As it can be concluded from the Table 3 two from three journals included in the research have their guidelines for the components of abstracts in accordance with IMRD format. The guidelines of JoLIS (SAGE, 2013) are mainly focused on how to search for articles online, and there is no emphasis on the components of abstracts.
1) Our understanding of this or that physical phenomenon always changes with time and usually corresponds to the level of experimental technique at the given period. However, some theories and views which formed many years ago (when the modern research methods did not yet exist) persisted to the present. They have so deeply rooted into our minds, that even now, when the experiment does not verify them, we believe that they are the unquestionable truth. For example, we cannot imagine equilibrium phase diagrams without regions of solid solutions at high temperatures, although the latter, from the point of view of thermodynamics, is not an equili- brium phase at any temperature. We cannot imagine the probability of decomposition of a quenched solid solu- tion without its “supersaturation” in the alloying component, which occurs at a decrease of the solution temper- ature. We cannot imagine a heat treatment carried out to obtain a highly dispersed two-phase structure, which will not include a preliminary high-temperature quenching from the solid solution region. The discovery of the phase transition “ordering-phase separation” in alloys makes us look more critically at some ideas existing in MaterialsScience, and to understand that it is precisely the chemical interactions between dissimilar atoms and their dependence on the transition temperature that are the source of all structural changes in alloys.
The cathode lens (CL) mode of the SEM, employing sample as a cathode of the beam-decelerating electrostatic lens, enables one to preserve the image resolution down to lowest electron energies and in the same time secures an excellent collection eﬃciency of signal species. In the range of tens and units of eV, new image contrasts become available, based on the quantum mechanical character of scattering and the electron wavelength comparable with inter-atomic distances. However, already in the low keV and hundreds of eV ranges the CL mode has proven itself very eﬃcient in many materialsscience applications, overcoming some weak points the conventional SEM modes suﬀer from. Selected material structures are presented as demonstration examples. [doi:10.2320/matertrans.48.944]
Following thorough discussions with major stakeholders about the needs and future opportunities for materialsscience and engineering research in Europe, the European Science Foundation (ESF) established a new MaterialsScience and Engineering Expert Committee (MatSEEC) in October 2009. MatSEEC operates as an ESF Expert Committee within the remit of the Standing Committee for Physical and Engineering Sciences (PESC) with a term of five years.
Energy problem is one of the serious concerns in modern society; therefore, we have to take hastily an effective action. Hence, researchers are looking for some attractive materials with low-cost, lightweight, and environmentally effective. Recently, 2D materials have taken notable recognition in the field of materialsscience for multiple energy application, because of its unique electronic and optical properties; and borophene is one of the 2D material which is commendatories than graphene. However, it has not much experimentally explored yet. This review discusses the synthesis process of borophene and discussed energy-related application such as energy storage, optoelectronic, photocatalytic activity, and hydrogen storage. Moreover, this work provides a summary of each application that could help to understand the importance of borophene materials for energy applications.
Polymorphism is a widespread and commonly occurring phenomenon in fields of chemistry, biology and materialsscience. In recent years, the development of technology has lead to the subsequent advancement and development of different instrumentation tools (such as SCXRD, PXRD, IR, SSNMR, DSC, TGA, SEM, TEM, AFM) which are employed for the characterization of different polymorphic materials (namely polymers, nanocrystalline metal oxides and pharmaceutical drugs) which are of great importance because of their applications in the field of materialsscience.
For me, this thesis has been more of a journey than a destination, and as with any voyage it is the people you travel with that makes it possible and worthwhile. I would first like to thank the entire MaterialsScience department for even admit- ting such a long-shot candidate as me in the first place and for being an amazing group of teachers. In particular, I have had valuable conversations with professors Brent Fultz, Harry Atwater, and Julia Greer who have been very generous with their time. Harry was especially helpful with his input on the photovoltaic work as was his students Jeff Bosco and Greg Kimball. I appreciate that Julia kindly let me play with some cutting-edge fabrication work down in the cleanroom. Finally, I am very grateful to my advisor Axel who brought me to Caltech and has been supportive of my work these past years and has had to put up with the temperamental artist in me.
Th e state of the art in metallic systems for turbine blades, aero engines and gas turbines is the use of Ni superalloys. Th e implementation of TiAl intermetallics in applications involving moderate temperatures is foreseen within the objective to decrease the weight by up to 50% (Figure 1). Th e challenges here are to increase the ductility of TiAl intermetallics at room temperature, to improve the creep properties at temperatures up to 700 °C, and to develop alloying through optimised heat treat- ments. Such an improvement requires insight into the fundamental properties of these materials on all length scales. In a longer time perspective, the chal- lenge is to develop processing routes which integrate recycling and reuse. At that point, another chal- lenge will be the determination and control (also involving non-destructive testing) of degradation and of failure mechanisms of such alloys, including corrosion (chemical, galvanic), mechanical, thermal, bio-fouling, irradiation, wear and especially combi- nations thereof. Processing of TiAl intermetallics is currently based on casting technologies, for which Europe has a leadership that should be retained for future developments. In the longer term, challenges are the use of TiAl intermetallics in hybrid and/or composite materials, safety and quality issues, and multiscale-multiphysics modelling.
Corrosion is a harmful phenomenon that affects all kinds of materials (metals, ceramics, polymers) in various environments (aqueous media, atmosphere, high temperatures) [1,2]. Corrosion phenomena depend on a large number of factors such as: the nature and structure of the material, surface treatments (mechanical, chemical, electrochemical, etc.), the environment and its chemical characteristics, temperature, microorganisms, the hydrodynamic regime to which the material is subjected and the constraints which are imposed on it.
Planetary materials contain signatures of diverse processes in their mineralogy, chemistry, textures and assemblages. The record contained in planetary materials reflects the complex and commonly overprinting relationships between many processes. Discerning what mechanisms have operated to produce the rocks we observe requires first a careful characterization of various properties. These include the chemical and structural makeup of the rocks (that is, the mineralogy and mineral chemistry), the textural relations within and between rocks (petrology) Therefore, the key to how the studies here hold together is also in the methodology and guiding philosophy: understanding what is there (what atoms and how they are arranged, what their interrelationships are) is the first step to unravelling the record of processes stored in planetary materials of all kinds. In this thesis, the tools of mineralogy and geochemistry/cosmochemistry and petrology have been used along with an understanding of the grand-scale astrophysical constraints on planetary formation to interpret diverse planetary materials: terrestrial rocks and meteorites. In this thesis, detailed mineralogical and chemical study of various planetary materials have enabled some new constraints to be placed on asteroidal melting and shock metamorphic processes, the nature of habitable environments in post-impact hydrothermal systems, and the preservation mechanisms of microbial ichnofossils in basaltic glass. These studies all concern the emergence and development of terrestrial planets and habitable environments within them, and the preservation of records of biological activity through deep geologic time. This work therefore represents, in a broad sense, an exploration of the astrobiological implications of planetary materials including likely precursors to terrestrial planets (enstatite chondrites); and important possible planetary habitats including post-impact hydrothermal mineral deposits and their associated weathering assemblages; and the fossilization of records of an ecosystem based on the microbial leaching of seafloor basaltic glass.
Probably the most common criticism of college textbooks is that they are too long. With most popular texts, the number of pages often increases with each new edition. This leads instructors and students to complain that it is impossible to cover all the topics in the text in a single term. After struggling with this concern (trying to decide what to delete without limiting the value of the text), we decided to divide the text into two components. The first is a set of ‘‘core’’ topics—sections of the text that are most commonly covered in an introductory materials course, and second, ‘‘supplementary’’ topics—sections of the text covered less frequently. Fur- thermore, we chose to provide only the core topics in print, but the entire text (both core and supplementary topics) is available on the CD-ROM that is included with the print component of Fundamentals. Decisions as to which topics to include in print and which to include only on the CD-ROM were based on the results of a recent survey of instructors and confirmed in developmental reviews. The result is a printed text of approximately 525 pages and an Interactive eText on the CD- ROM, which consists of, in addition to the complete text, a wealth of additional resources including interactive software modules, as discussed below.
In heat treatable alloys, precipitation hardening is the dominant mechanism responsible for strength and local strength variations. Thus, the friction stir processed materials all the known mechanisms of strengthening of polycrystalline alloys can play a role. The mechanisms for increasing the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) of the slip planes are: precipitation strengthening, solid solution strengthening and dislocation strengthening. The response to stress of the polycrystal will depend on the CRSS and factors such as: local grain size, if the grain size is sufficiently small this will lead to grain boundary strengthening and crystallographic orientations of grains with respect to each other, therefore, the crystallographic texture . The as-cast alloys chemical composition are determined by ICP-AES and AAS methods, is shown in Table 1. The Zn and Mg are main constituents of 7xxx series of Al-Zn-Mg alloys. The effect of Zn and Mg on the strength of age-hardened Al-Zn-Mg alloys in mainly function of Zn + Mg contents. The Zn: Mg ratio controls the Zn-bearing constituents. With a ratio over 2, MgZn 2 ( ή )
The structure and properties of nanocomposite materials and their products investigated using modern methods of physical and chemical analysis: IR transmission and ATR (Specord), EPR spectroscopy (ER 1306, Brucer), X-ray diffraction (DRON 2.0, 3.0 DRON ), differential thermal (Q-1500) analysis, optical (MIM-10, MF-2), scanning electron (ISM-50A, Nanolab-7) and atomic force microscopy (Nanotop III). Energy state nanomodifiers and composite materials was evaluated by EPR spectra and the spectra of thermally stimulated currents (TSC) on the original installation of the GNU MPRI them. VA White NASB. The dielectric characteristics of materials after exposure to energy (laser, ion, temperature) were determined by an appropriate standardized methods. Regulation nanorelief surface layer of polymer samples was performed by short-pulse laser and accelerated ion impact with a given power density. Evaluation features crystal-chemical structures of nanoparticles was performed by the original method, developed on the basis of X-ray analysis.