1) Our understanding of this or that physical phenomenon always changes with time and usually corresponds to the level of experimental technique at the given period. However, some theories and views which formed many years ago (when the modern research methods did not yet exist) persisted to the present. They have so deeply rooted into our minds, that even now, when the experiment does not verify them, we believe that they are the unquestionable truth. For example, we cannot imagine equilibrium phase diagrams without regions of solid solutions at high temperatures, although the latter, from the point of view of thermodynamics, is not an equili- brium phase at any temperature. We cannot imagine the probability of decomposition of a quenched solid solu- tion without its “supersaturation” in the alloying component, which occurs at a decrease of the solution temper- ature. We cannot imagine a heat treatment carried out to obtain a highly dispersed two-phase structure, which will not include a preliminary high-temperature quenching from the solid solution region. The discovery of the phase transition “ordering-phase separation” in alloys makes us look more critically at some ideas existing in MaterialsScience, and to understand that it is precisely the chemical interactions between dissimilar atoms and their dependence on the transition temperature that are the source of all structural changes in alloys.
Historically, MaterialsScience and Engineering (MSE) emerged as an interdisciplinary field with its roots in several traditional disciplines, such as phys- ics, chemistry, biology, mathematics and mechanical engineering. MSE integrates concepts or methods that may have been originally developed by these disciplines, and applies them to the design of new materials, materials systems and, ultimately, new products. MSE-based research and development seeks new concepts and methods to character- ise and tailor materials properties, and to provide engineering solutions for the most appropriate mate- rials systems to meet predefined specifications. This includes identifying the most appropriate processes for fabrication and life cycle management taking the necessary economic and ecological considerations into account. Thus, MSE has evolved over the last half century into a truly transdisciplinary field in its own right, crossing the boundaries of root disci- plines to describe, model and engineer new materials properties for target applications and new products. MSE is fundamental for several technologies. It addresses all stages of the innovation chain from fundamental research to advanced engineering applications, better production technologies and new products. The results of MSE research and development are found in all stages of the value chain from raw materials, via products and engi- neering systems, to technology validation; from new services to new solutions that meet the challenges that face today’s society. MSE continuously improves the competitiveness of both conventional industries and novel technology sectors. MSE innovation is the ‘raison d’être’ for many small-, medium- and large- scale industries.
machine learning models for automatic extraction of materials syntheses from text, in this work we present a new dataset of synthesis procedures anno- tated with semantic structure by domain experts in materialsscience. We annotate each step in a syn- thesis with a structured frame-semantic representa- tion, with all the steps in a synthesis making up a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG). The types of nodes in the graph include synthesis operations (i.e. predi- cates), and the materials, conditions, apparatus and other entities participating in each synthesis step. Labeled edges represent relationships between en- tities, for example Condition of or Next Operation. Our dataset consists of 230 synthesis procedures annotated with these structures. An example sen- tence level annotation is given in Fig. 2. We make the corpus available to the community to promote further research and development of scientific in- formation extraction systems for procedural text. 1 2 Description of the Annotated Dataset
Polymorphism is a widespread and commonly occurring phenomenon in fields of chemistry, biology and materialsscience. In recent years, the development of technology has lead to the subsequent advancement and development of different instrumentation tools (such as SCXRD, PXRD, IR, SSNMR, DSC, TGA, SEM, TEM, AFM) which are employed for the characterization of different polymorphic materials (namely polymers, nanocrystalline metal oxides and pharmaceutical drugs) which are of great importance because of their applications in the field of materialsscience.
The main task of MatSEEC is to deliver strategic advice to PESC and ESF on issues related to materialsscience and engineering. It also gives independent expert opinion and policy advice on matters of concern to European national agencies and ministries, institutions of the European Commission and the European Strategic Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) as well as to the related scientific communities.
The cathode lens (CL) mode of the SEM, employing sample as a cathode of the beam-decelerating electrostatic lens, enables one to preserve the image resolution down to lowest electron energies and in the same time secures an excellent collection eﬃciency of signal species. In the range of tens and units of eV, new image contrasts become available, based on the quantum mechanical character of scattering and the electron wavelength comparable with inter-atomic distances. However, already in the low keV and hundreds of eV ranges the CL mode has proven itself very eﬃcient in many materialsscience applications, overcoming some weak points the conventional SEM modes suﬀer from. Selected material structures are presented as demonstration examples. [doi:10.2320/matertrans.48.944]
The Review Panel welcomes and commends increasing interaction with industry as illustrated by the latest participation in meetings and discussions. This is also important for the future of materialsscience in Europe. The Review Panel regrets that the Technology and Knowledge Transfer report has not yet been produced as it addresses critical issues for the economic exploitation of materialsscience and engineering capacity. Comparison with other parts of the world will be instructive. However, it welcomes and strongly supports early recommendations presented by the Committee Chair: technology validation concept – a very innovative and valuable concept. The membership structure gives constraints, but
Th e state of the art in metallic systems for turbine blades, aero engines and gas turbines is the use of Ni superalloys. Th e implementation of TiAl intermetallics in applications involving moderate temperatures is foreseen within the objective to decrease the weight by up to 50% (Figure 1). Th e challenges here are to increase the ductility of TiAl intermetallics at room temperature, to improve the creep properties at temperatures up to 700 °C, and to develop alloying through optimised heat treat- ments. Such an improvement requires insight into the fundamental properties of these materials on all length scales. In a longer time perspective, the chal- lenge is to develop processing routes which integrate recycling and reuse. At that point, another chal- lenge will be the determination and control (also involving non-destructive testing) of degradation and of failure mechanisms of such alloys, including corrosion (chemical, galvanic), mechanical, thermal, bio-fouling, irradiation, wear and especially combi- nations thereof. Processing of TiAl intermetallics is currently based on casting technologies, for which Europe has a leadership that should be retained for future developments. In the longer term, challenges are the use of TiAl intermetallics in hybrid and/or composite materials, safety and quality issues, and multiscale-multiphysics modelling.
the lattice level step size, as the dislocation glides along its slip plane. In the thermal activation regime, pre-existing dislocations are pinned against barriers, and get freed by thermal fluctuations, after which they glide to the next barrier, where they get stopped. In the phonon drag regime, the applied shear stresses are large enough that dislocations glide above all barriers, and are resisted by scattering phonons in the lattice, which generate a drag.
The shape of nanoparticles can have a different habit (spherical, needle, plate). For such particles the parameter L 0 value will depend on the direction, i.e. there are cases where "nanofeatures" particles will not occur in all directions (x, y, z), and one (needle habit), two (lamellar habit) or three (spherical habitus). Therefore, by using modifiers particles having a relatively large size and nanometer active sites may be achieved by modifying effects inherent in the "classical" nanoparticles at least energy rich techniques for their preparation by synthesis or dispersing the intermediate product.
Probably the most common criticism of college textbooks is that they are too long. With most popular texts, the number of pages often increases with each new edition. This leads instructors and students to complain that it is impossible to cover all the topics in the text in a single term. After struggling with this concern (trying to decide what to delete without limiting the value of the text), we decided to divide the text into two components. The first is a set of ‘‘core’’ topics—sections of the text that are most commonly covered in an introductory materials course, and second, ‘‘supplementary’’ topics—sections of the text covered less frequently. Fur- thermore, we chose to provide only the core topics in print, but the entire text (both core and supplementary topics) is available on the CD-ROM that is included with the print component of Fundamentals. Decisions as to which topics to include in print and which to include only on the CD-ROM were based on the results of a recent survey of instructors and confirmed in developmental reviews. The result is a printed text of approximately 525 pages and an Interactive eText on the CD- ROM, which consists of, in addition to the complete text, a wealth of additional resources including interactive software modules, as discussed below.
that the copper ion preferentially sits on the top of the ring, while unfavorably it binds with the oxygen lone pairs, as one could rather expect from chemical analysis. The differences in energy among the most stable configuration (see Fig. 7.1a)) and the other structures are 0.018, 0.025, 0.054 and 0.083 eV, respectively. The first two structures are therefore almost degenerate within chemical accuracy, with the copper-to-carbon bond length equal to 2.11 ˚ A in the most stable configuration. These preliminary results have been obtained by using PBE-GGA  pseudo-potential. Within Local Density Approximation (LDA)  we obtain a slight decrease of about 0.3 % of the carbon to copper bond distance, as expected since PBE usually overestimates the bond length, particularly for hydrogen bonds . We also tested these PAW potentials with the 3p either frozen in the core, or explicitly included in valence, along with the 3d and 4s electrons. After these tests, we decided to use the PBE-GGA  functional in all further calculations, the PAW potential without 3p electrons in valence, and to neglect spin-orbit interactions. Our prediction on the copper ion binding site above the aromatic ring is in good agreement with simulations performed by Milko et al.  on the same system using coupled cluster (CCSD(T)) extrapolated to the basis set limit. A second goal of this work is the vibrational analysis of resveratrol-copper molecular complexes to be compared with our IRMPD spectra. To perform these calculations, we used linear response DFPT (LR-DFPT), whose detailed description is reported in the Appendix A for the sake of completeness.
I must single out a few for special recognition. Roberta Flemming took a chance on a rather dubious-looking potential grad student some years ago, and for that I am very thankful. Neil Banerjee has occasionally tested the elastic limits of ‘the rules’ to the benefit of my scientific and personal education. Both my co-supervisors have gone above and beyond for me, have provided opportunities that few graduate students can have experienced, and have been unflinchingly supportive academically and personally. I am very grateful for all their help through this journey. Callum Hetherington has been incredibly generous with hospitality, instrument access, and some of Scotland’s finest export products. Gordon Southam has consistently (and sometimes terrifyingly) challenged me with his insightful questions, which have forced me to examine and re- examine my assumptions; he has also put a permanent stamp on my approach to figure drafting and electron microscopy. Bren∂t Hyde, Dominic Veillette and Ryan Sawyer have all been brave (or crazy) enough to live with me... What were you guys thinking?
The author acknowledges Prof. Dr. Kaoru Kimura (The University of Tokyo), Prof. Dr. Jeﬀrey Snyder (Northwestern University), as well as Dr. Yoshikazu Shinohara, Dr. Yukihiro Isoda, and Dr. Masahiro Goto (National Institute for MaterialsScience) for their kind support and fruitful discussions. This work is partially supported by KAKENHI grants Nos. 21860021, 23760623, 26709051, and 17H03421 from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the Thermal & Electric Energy Technology Foundation, the Sumitomo Foundation, and the Murata Science Foundation. A synchrotron radiation X-ray diﬀraction measurement was performed at the BL02B2 beamline of SPring-8 with the approval of the Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (proposal Nos. 2011A1230 and 2013A1495). This work was partially supported by “Materials research by Information Integration” Initiative (MI 2 I) project of the Support Program for Starting Up Innovation Hub from Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST).
The NDPBs all have a commitment to public engagement as a result of national policy for example, the “Five a day” agenda and Lord Sainsbury’s “Race to the Top” agenda. In some instances there is a legislative remit within the public engagement agenda for example, Natural England’s work in relation to the Countryside Act. Involve 01 indicates this legislative driver is also evident in the wider public sector however, the degree which it influences practice is dependent on whether the impact of engagement is measured “For Best Value Local Authorities there is a Duty to Involve 26 which is a very big driver… although it is becoming less potent because the Tories are essentially saying they are going scrap having to collect any evidence to say whether you are doing it or not.”
Soft Exoskeletons: Ambitious Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) projects that could revolutionize the armed forces is the wing of the U.S. Department of Defense that’s responsible for developing emerging technologies for military use. With everything from brain implants to robosuits, the agency trying is hardest to make future tech a 2018 reality and to do it sooner than those who would seek to use that technology against the United States. Soft exoskeletons is a cutting edge technologies can also be used to “supercharge” troops by giving humans enhanced abilities, including faster speeds and greater strength. Working with researchers from Harvard’s Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, DARPA’s Soft Exosuit is a lightweight skeleton frame for soldiers which can augment its wearer’s strength and endurance; using inbuilt sensors and a microcomputer to intelligently match the requirements of its user. Human body offers you all kinds of feedback about how you are faring when it comes to health. However, a DARPA project created in association with the U.S. Army Research Office promises to take this to the next level courtesy of tissueintegrated biosensor technology. The idea is to implant tiny soft hydrogelbased sensors under the skin, and use them to measure biomarkers related to oxygen, glucose, lactate, urea, and ion levels. These sensors could stay in the body for up to two years, and read out information direct to connected devices like smartphones. A consumerfacing version of the same technology could one day help individuals manage chronic diseases such as diabetes.
To nurses answer to all professional challenges of modern nursing practice, their work must be based on the latest knowledge and information, but also on basic ethical values which provide them ethical orientation in both general life and professional work. There are two key aspects which determine the authentic values of patient: the first refers to the ethical motivation which has to be above particular values of medical professionals and is directed to the well- being of patients. The second is the importance of teamwork in which to take account of the specific competencies of certain professions, as none of them would lose their autonomy or identity. The patient may benefit only from a coordinated teamwork of competent professionals. To nursing ethics respond to current and future biomedical challenges, it is extremely important in nursing education and practice introduction of general and professional ethics. The nursing profession needs appropriate academic and scientific education and only then can deal with theoretical aspects of ethical analysis, argumentation and validation. Nursing ethics is based on health care which is its autonomous area of activity and therefore it must remain within the framework of
Funding for science instructional materials in physics courses has declined over time (Neuschatz, McFarling, & White, 2008). There is little information about how funding for science instruction has changed over time, but one study of physics instructors found that teachers had “less than half of the funds available to support the purchase of equipment and supplies than they did twenty years ago,” after adjusting for inflation (Neuschatz, McFarling, & White, 2008). In a survey conducted by the National School Supply and Equipment Association (NSSEA), 99.5% of all public-school teachers reported spending their own money out of pocket. Teachers were found, on average, to spend $485 of their own money during the 2012-2013 school year (Nagel, 2013). Of the $485 average, teachers reported spending $149 on school supplies, $198 on instructional materials, and $138 on “other classroom supplies” (Nagel, 2013). Science teachers often need consumable materials for labs such as soil, seeds, plant materials, vinegar, and other household and grocery store materials. Theses consumables are often things needed quickly and may be items that do not store from one year to the next. Additional research is needed to assess the extent to which science teachers feel involved in funding decisions as well as how much money is spent out of pocket for laboratory consumable materials.
One of the ways to reduce the cost of casting is to smelt pig iron on a cheap stock, that is, to replace expensive foundry-iron and steel-making iron with steel scrap with its further carbonization. Steel waste is basically much better than foundry-iron and steel-making iron in terms of materials, free from harmful impurities and inclusions. The absence of free carbon in the metal stock makes it possible to obtain any of its content in synthetic iron affecting the structure and properties of cast iron. The process of metal carbonization is the most significant stage in the production of synthetic iron. It largely determines the structure and quality of castings. Therefore, it is very important to study the patterns of dissolution of carbon in the melt. In the course of the study, there were established changes in the parameters of the crystal lattice of quartzite while it was drying using different temperature regimes. These changes further affect the lining resistance during the carburization of the melt. This is due to the fact that the production of synthetic iron from one steel scrap leads to a significant increase in the number of carbonizer (to 40 kg by 1 ton of the alloy), and forces the carbonizing process to proceed at elevated temperatures. For this reason, the sintered lining layer should consist of cristobalite, since it can withstand higher melting temperatures.
where we consider our modification for negation or not and multi-task LSSVMs. We consider both kinds of task classification strategies and joint training (JT). Finally, we compare our methods against the baselines described above. We report accuracy (proportion of questions correctly an- swered) in our results. Figure 2 shows the results. First, we can immediately observe that all the LSSVM models have a better performance than all the baselines. We also found an improvement when we handle negation using the heuristic de- scribed above 6 . MTLSSVMs showed a boost over