statutory review of the MaterialsScience and Engineering Expert Committee (MatSEEC) of the European Science Foundation (ESF), covering the period from 2009 to 2013. MatSEEC is an independent science-based committee of over 20 experts active in materialsscience and its applications, materials engineering and technologies and related fields of science and research management. The aim of MatSEEC is to enhance the visibility and value of materialsscience and engineering in Europe, to help define new strategic goals and evaluate options and perspectives covering all aspects of the field.
planning performance using massive organic re- action knowledge bases as training data (Segler et al., 2018). There are, however, currently no com- prehensive knowledge bases which systematically document the methods by which inorganic materi- als are synthesized (Kim et al., 2017a,b). Despite efforts to standardize the reporting of chemical and materialsscience data (Murray-Rust and Rzepa, 1999), inorganic materials synthesis procedures continue to reside as natural language descriptions in the text of journal articles. Figure 1 presents an example of such a synthesis procedure. To achieve similar success for inorganic synthesis as has been achieved for organic materials, we must develop new techniques for automatically extracting struc- tured representations of materials synthesis proce- dures from the unstructured narrative in scientific papers (Kim et al., 2017b).
The main task of MatSEEC is to deliver strategic advice to PESC and ESF on issues related to materialsscience and engineering. It also gives independent expert opinion and policy advice on matters of concern to European national agencies and ministries, institutions of the European Commission and the European Strategic Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) as well as to the related scientific communities.
Historically, MaterialsScience and Engineering (MSE) emerged as an interdisciplinary field with its roots in several traditional disciplines, such as phys- ics, chemistry, biology, mathematics and mechanical engineering. MSE integrates concepts or methods that may have been originally developed by these disciplines, and applies them to the design of new materials, materials systems and, ultimately, new products. MSE-based research and development seeks new concepts and methods to character- ise and tailor materials properties, and to provide engineering solutions for the most appropriate mate- rials systems to meet predefined specifications. This includes identifying the most appropriate processes for fabrication and life cycle management taking the necessary economic and ecological considerations into account. Thus, MSE has evolved over the last half century into a truly transdisciplinary field in its own right, crossing the boundaries of root disci- plines to describe, model and engineer new materials properties for target applications and new products. MSE is fundamental for several technologies. It addresses all stages of the innovation chain from fundamental research to advanced engineering applications, better production technologies and new products. The results of MSE research and development are found in all stages of the value chain from raw materials, via products and engi- neering systems, to technology validation; from new services to new solutions that meet the challenges that face today’s society. MSE continuously improves the competitiveness of both conventional industries and novel technology sectors. MSE innovation is the ‘raison d’être’ for many small-, medium- and large- scale industries.
The cathode lens (CL) mode of the SEM, employing sample as a cathode of the beam-decelerating electrostatic lens, enables one to preserve the image resolution down to lowest electron energies and in the same time secures an excellent collection eﬃciency of signal species. In the range of tens and units of eV, new image contrasts become available, based on the quantum mechanical character of scattering and the electron wavelength comparable with inter-atomic distances. However, already in the low keV and hundreds of eV ranges the CL mode has proven itself very eﬃcient in many materialsscience applications, overcoming some weak points the conventional SEM modes suﬀer from. Selected material structures are presented as demonstration examples. [doi:10.2320/matertrans.48.944]
1) Our understanding of this or that physical phenomenon always changes with time and usually corresponds to the level of experimental technique at the given period. However, some theories and views which formed many years ago (when the modern research methods did not yet exist) persisted to the present. They have so deeply rooted into our minds, that even now, when the experiment does not verify them, we believe that they are the unquestionable truth. For example, we cannot imagine equilibrium phase diagrams without regions of solid solutions at high temperatures, although the latter, from the point of view of thermodynamics, is not an equili- brium phase at any temperature. We cannot imagine the probability of decomposition of a quenched solid solu- tion without its “supersaturation” in the alloying component, which occurs at a decrease of the solution temper- ature. We cannot imagine a heat treatment carried out to obtain a highly dispersed two-phase structure, which will not include a preliminary high-temperature quenching from the solid solution region. The discovery of the phase transition “ordering-phase separation” in alloys makes us look more critically at some ideas existing in MaterialsScience, and to understand that it is precisely the chemical interactions between dissimilar atoms and their dependence on the transition temperature that are the source of all structural changes in alloys.
Polymorphism is a widespread and commonly occurring phenomenon in fields of chemistry, biology and materialsscience. In recent years, the development of technology has lead to the subsequent advancement and development of different instrumentation tools (such as SCXRD, PXRD, IR, SSNMR, DSC, TGA, SEM, TEM, AFM) which are employed for the characterization of different polymorphic materials (namely polymers, nanocrystalline metal oxides and pharmaceutical drugs) which are of great importance because of their applications in the field of materialsscience.
Energy problem is one of the serious concerns in modern society; therefore, we have to take hastily an effective action. Hence, researchers are looking for some attractive materials with low-cost, lightweight, and environmentally effective. Recently, 2D materials have taken notable recognition in the field of materialsscience for multiple energy application, because of its unique electronic and optical properties; and borophene is one of the 2D material which is commendatories than graphene. However, it has not much experimentally explored yet. This review discusses the synthesis process of borophene and discussed energy-related application such as energy storage, optoelectronic, photocatalytic activity, and hydrogen storage. Moreover, this work provides a summary of each application that could help to understand the importance of borophene materials for energy applications.
If the abstracts contain all the structural elements of an article, then the guidelines for the components of abstracts from the journals included in the research presented here can be compared to the IMRAD format (Milas-Bracović, 1987). The IMRAD format presents the sections of traditional scientific papers and the guidelines should coincide with the structural elements of the article. But it should be acknowledged that it is less universally used in humanities and social sciences. In the Table 3 the guidelines for components of abstracts (Materiali in tehnologije: navodila avtorjem, 2010; MaterialsScience and Technology: instructions for authors, 2013; Journal of documentation: author guidelines, 2013) are compared to IMRAD format. As it can be concluded from the Table 3 two from three journals included in the research have their guidelines for the components of abstracts in accordance with IMRD format. The guidelines of JoLIS (SAGE, 2013) are mainly focused on how to search for articles online, and there is no emphasis on the components of abstracts.
For me, this thesis has been more of a journey than a destination, and as with any voyage it is the people you travel with that makes it possible and worthwhile. I would first like to thank the entire MaterialsScience department for even admit- ting such a long-shot candidate as me in the first place and for being an amazing group of teachers. In particular, I have had valuable conversations with professors Brent Fultz, Harry Atwater, and Julia Greer who have been very generous with their time. Harry was especially helpful with his input on the photovoltaic work as was his students Jeff Bosco and Greg Kimball. I appreciate that Julia kindly let me play with some cutting-edge fabrication work down in the cleanroom. Finally, I am very grateful to my advisor Axel who brought me to Caltech and has been supportive of my work these past years and has had to put up with the temperamental artist in me.
One of the most common mechanical stress–strain tests is performed in tension. As will be seen, the tension test can be used to ascertain several mechanical properties of materials that are important in design. A specimen is deformed, usually to fracture, with a gradually increasing tensile load that is applied uniaxially along the long axis of a specimen. A standard tensile specimen is shown in Figure 7.2. Normally, the cross section is circular, but rectangular specimens are also used. During testing, deformation is confined to the narrow center region, which has a uniform cross section along its length. The standard diameter is approximately 12.8 mm (0.5 in.), whereas the reduced section length should be at least four times this diameter; 60 mm (2 in.) is common. Gauge length is used in ductility computations, as discussed in Section 7.6; the standard value is 50 mm (2.0 in.). The specimen is mounted by its ends into the holding grips of the testing apparatus (Figure 7.3). The tensile testing machine is designed to elongate the specimen at a constant rate, and to continuously and simultaneously measure the instantaneous applied load (with a load cell) and the resulting elongations (using an extensometer). A stress–strain test typically takes several minutes to perform and is destructive; that is, the test specimen is permanently deformed and usually fractured.
The structure and properties of nanocomposite materials and their products investigated using modern methods of physical and chemical analysis: IR transmission and ATR (Specord), EPR spectroscopy (ER 1306, Brucer), X-ray diffraction (DRON 2.0, 3.0 DRON ), differential thermal (Q-1500) analysis, optical (MIM-10, MF-2), scanning electron (ISM-50A, Nanolab-7) and atomic force microscopy (Nanotop III). Energy state nanomodifiers and composite materials was evaluated by EPR spectra and the spectra of thermally stimulated currents (TSC) on the original installation of the GNU MPRI them. VA White NASB. The dielectric characteristics of materials after exposure to energy (laser, ion, temperature) were determined by an appropriate standardized methods. Regulation nanorelief surface layer of polymer samples was performed by short-pulse laser and accelerated ion impact with a given power density. Evaluation features crystal-chemical structures of nanoparticles was performed by the original method, developed on the basis of X-ray analysis.
Corrosion is a harmful phenomenon that affects all kinds of materials (metals, ceramics, polymers) in various environments (aqueous media, atmosphere, high temperatures) [1,2]. Corrosion phenomena depend on a large number of factors such as: the nature and structure of the material, surface treatments (mechanical, chemical, electrochemical, etc.), the environment and its chemical characteristics, temperature, microorganisms, the hydrodynamic regime to which the material is subjected and the constraints which are imposed on it.
Smart composites combine a range of functionalities to produce a material that has better performance than its individual components. Traditional metal or ceramic-based composites are well known and, for example, the multiferroic effect, where the elec- tric properties of the material can be manipulated by an external magnetic field and vice versa, can be obtained through the formation of multilayers of piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials. A first challenge in this field is the fabrication of organic- inorganic (for example, polymer-ceramic) smart hybrids, such as the bone. Multiscale modelling is a first milestone in this case. A short- to medium-term barrier is the limited processing compatibility with current technology. Interesting functional organic materials to integrate into smart composites are, for example, molecular or polymer semiconductors, where applications such as organic light emitting devices (OLED) and solar cells are reaching the market place (Figure 5). Advantages of the organics include low cost, mechanical and chemical flexibil- ity, and ease of processing. As charge transport is hindered at grain boundaries, the molecular thin films are either grown as amorphous layers or as single crystals, but the latter are much more diffi- cult to process. A particularly exciting development for miniaturisation and increased efficiency is the advent of molecular nanowires, which can be grown