New synthesis methods are of utmost importance for most materi- als science research ﬁelds. The present review focuses on mecha- nochemical synthesis methods for solid hydrogen storage. We anticipate that the general methods and techniques are valuable with a range of other research ﬁelds, e.g. the rapidly expanding ﬁelds of ‘energy materialsscience’ and ‘green chemistry’ including solvent free synthesis. This review starts with a short historical reminder on mechanochemistry, followed by a general description of the experimental methods. The use of milling tools for tuning the microstructure of metals to modify their hydrogenation prop- erties is discussed. A section is devoted to the direct synthesis of hydrogen storage materials by solid/gas reactions, i.e. by reactive ball milling of metallic constituents in hydrogen, diborane or ammonia atmosphere. Then, solid/solid mechano-chemical synthe- sis of hydrogen storage materials with a particular attention to ala- nates and borohydrides is surveyed. Finally, more specialised techniques such as solid/liquid based methods are mentioned along with the common characteristics of mechanochemistry as a way of synthesizing hydrogen storage materials.
Part-time students may study for the PhD in MaterialsScience and Engineering. Responsibility lies with the student to be aware of modified residency requirements and other conditions required by the Graduate School (http://www.tgs.northwestern.edu/academics/academic-services/registration/part-time- study/index.html). Part-time students may not receive financial aid from the Department. A study plan, approved by the adviser, must be submitted to the Associate Chair prior to any academic work. Full-time students spend nearly two full years on course work followed by one, two, or more years of full-time research. Part-time students should therefore anticipate a lengthy program with substantial release-time from their employers in order to fulfill a part-time PhD. A leave-of-absence is often required to complete the thesis.
MatSEEC is an independent science-based committee of over 20 experts active in materialsscience and its applications, materials engineering and technologies and related fields of science and research management. Committee members are nominated by the member institutions and they maintain strong links with their nominating organisations and their respective scientific communities.
statutory review of the MaterialsScience and Engineering Expert Committee (MatSEEC) of the European Science Foundation (ESF), covering the period from 2009 to 2013. MatSEEC is an independent science-based committee of over 20 experts active in materialsscience and its applications, materials engineering and technologies and related fields of science and research management. The aim of MatSEEC is to enhance the visibility and value of materialsscience and engineering in Europe, to help define new strategic goals and evaluate options and perspectives covering all aspects of the field.
For me, this thesis has been more of a journey than a destination, and as with any voyage it is the people you travel with that makes it possible and worthwhile. I would first like to thank the entire MaterialsScience department for even admit- ting such a long-shot candidate as me in the first place and for being an amazing group of teachers. In particular, I have had valuable conversations with professors Brent Fultz, Harry Atwater, and Julia Greer who have been very generous with their time. Harry was especially helpful with his input on the photovoltaic work as was his students Jeff Bosco and Greg Kimball. I appreciate that Julia kindly let me play with some cutting-edge fabrication work down in the cleanroom. Finally, I am very grateful to my advisor Axel who brought me to Caltech and has been supportive of my work these past years and has had to put up with the temperamental artist in me.
Abstracts are an essential element of scientific information. Every scientific journal requires that the author submits an abstract: as examples of such instructions, see Journal of Documentation: author guidelines, 2013; Materiali in tehnologije: navodila avtorjem, 2013; MaterialsScience and Technology: instructions for authors, 2013; SAGE, 2013. According to Nicholas et al. (2007), abstracts help deal with the situation of information overload. They also save reading time (Borko and Bernier, 1975) because they reduce the reading problem to about 10 percent of that of primary journals (Bernier and Yerkey, 1979 and Lancaster, 2003). Considering the importance of the abstract, it is quite natural that an author would be concerned about what to include in it and how to properly construct it.
The MSE graduate program was designed as an interdisciplinary venture that would attract highly qualified graduate students, considered as backbone of any research in academia. Although there are several UPRM departments involved in MSE research, there is no appealing accretion program available on this area. Without easy access to graduate students, it is virtually impossible for the faculty to justify the need to setup laboratories where they can conduct research. Therefore, the proposed program offers specialization in the different fields of materialsscience such as materials selection, nanostructured materials, magnetic materials, electronic materials, bio-materials, materials characterization, materials recycling, etc. Many of the courses offered in each of the concentrations are to be available to graduate students in other UPRM graduate programs.
the annual report from the department of materialsscience and engineering (dmse) consists of two parts. the first part comprises short reports giving an impression of the current research conducted in the four research groups at dmse, the annual list of publications and conference proceedings and the laboratory infrastructure at dmse. We hope that this first part of the annual report give external readers an impression of the research being performed at dmse. the second part, which comprises an overview of the staff, master students and Phd students, last years masters and Phd candidates and their thesis’ titles and finally extracurricular activities, is presenting a comprehensive overview of the annual activity at dmse and is more intended for the archives.
1) Our understanding of this or that physical phenomenon always changes with time and usually corresponds to the level of experimental technique at the given period. However, some theories and views which formed many years ago (when the modern research methods did not yet exist) persisted to the present. They have so deeply rooted into our minds, that even now, when the experiment does not verify them, we believe that they are the unquestionable truth. For example, we cannot imagine equilibrium phase diagrams without regions of solid solutions at high temperatures, although the latter, from the point of view of thermodynamics, is not an equili- brium phase at any temperature. We cannot imagine the probability of decomposition of a quenched solid solu- tion without its “supersaturation” in the alloying component, which occurs at a decrease of the solution temper- ature. We cannot imagine a heat treatment carried out to obtain a highly dispersed two-phase structure, which will not include a preliminary high-temperature quenching from the solid solution region. The discovery of the phase transition “ordering-phase separation” in alloys makes us look more critically at some ideas existing in MaterialsScience, and to understand that it is precisely the chemical interactions between dissimilar atoms and their dependence on the transition temperature that are the source of all structural changes in alloys.
planning performance using massive organic re- action knowledge bases as training data (Segler et al., 2018). There are, however, currently no com- prehensive knowledge bases which systematically document the methods by which inorganic materi- als are synthesized (Kim et al., 2017a,b). Despite efforts to standardize the reporting of chemical and materialsscience data (Murray-Rust and Rzepa, 1999), inorganic materials synthesis procedures continue to reside as natural language descriptions in the text of journal articles. Figure 1 presents an example of such a synthesis procedure. To achieve similar success for inorganic synthesis as has been achieved for organic materials, we must develop new techniques for automatically extracting struc- tured representations of materials synthesis proce- dures from the unstructured narrative in scientific papers (Kim et al., 2017b).
The cathode lens (CL) mode of the SEM, employing sample as a cathode of the beam-decelerating electrostatic lens, enables one to preserve the image resolution down to lowest electron energies and in the same time secures an excellent collection eﬃciency of signal species. In the range of tens and units of eV, new image contrasts become available, based on the quantum mechanical character of scattering and the electron wavelength comparable with inter-atomic distances. However, already in the low keV and hundreds of eV ranges the CL mode has proven itself very eﬃcient in many materialsscience applications, overcoming some weak points the conventional SEM modes suﬀer from. Selected material structures are presented as demonstration examples. [doi:10.2320/matertrans.48.944]
Historically, MaterialsScience and Engineering (MSE) emerged as an interdisciplinary field with its roots in several traditional disciplines, such as phys- ics, chemistry, biology, mathematics and mechanical engineering. MSE integrates concepts or methods that may have been originally developed by these disciplines, and applies them to the design of new materials, materials systems and, ultimately, new products. MSE-based research and development seeks new concepts and methods to character- ise and tailor materials properties, and to provide engineering solutions for the most appropriate mate- rials systems to meet predefined specifications. This includes identifying the most appropriate processes for fabrication and life cycle management taking the necessary economic and ecological considerations into account. Thus, MSE has evolved over the last half century into a truly transdisciplinary field in its own right, crossing the boundaries of root disci- plines to describe, model and engineer new materials properties for target applications and new products. MSE is fundamental for several technologies. It addresses all stages of the innovation chain from fundamental research to advanced engineering applications, better production technologies and new products. The results of MSE research and development are found in all stages of the value chain from raw materials, via products and engi- neering systems, to technology validation; from new services to new solutions that meet the challenges that face today’s society. MSE continuously improves the competitiveness of both conventional industries and novel technology sectors. MSE innovation is the ‘raison d’être’ for many small-, medium- and large- scale industries.
MaterialsScience and Engineering/Master of Biomedical Engineering This five-year concurrent degree consisting of a four year Bachelor of Engineering in MaterialsScience and Engineering and a final year Master of Biomedical Engineering is specifically designed to cater for students wishing to pursue a career in biomedical engineering through the technical base of materialsscience and engineering. An increasing number of materials engineers in Australia and overseas are involved in the development, processing and application of materials used in many areas of biomedical engineering including: orthopaedics, dental and maxillofacial implants, artificial vascular materials, controlled drug delivery, prosthetics and orthotics and device housings.
Polymorphism is a widespread and commonly occurring phenomenon in fields of chemistry, biology and materialsscience. In recent years, the development of technology has lead to the subsequent advancement and development of different instrumentation tools (such as SCXRD, PXRD, IR, SSNMR, DSC, TGA, SEM, TEM, AFM) which are employed for the characterization of different polymorphic materials (namely polymers, nanocrystalline metal oxides and pharmaceutical drugs) which are of great importance because of their applications in the field of materialsscience.
One of the laboratories of the Department, Chemistry Building II was completely renovated during the year and the whole group of Inorganic Chemistry was temporarily relocated in Chemistry Building I. The renovation was com- pleted in December and the group could move back into very modern, well equipped laboratori- es. Also the group of Electrochemistry moved into the new laboratory and the department is now basically located in just two buildings. The Department receives students from two sources: The Materials Technology students are enrolled from their first year. Students from the program of Chemistry and Biotechnology which specialise in Materials chemistry and energy technology are enrolled from their third year. In addition the department recruits students from the Norwegian Colleges and the international master program in Light metal production. The trend of increasingly better enrolment to Materials Technology continued also in 2005. 60 students applied with Materials Technology as their first choice and 30 were admitted to the program. The department is also responsible for all teaching in general chemistry for engineering students, about 800 in total.
The facts mentioned above are confirmed by the results displayed in Nyquist plots of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in Figure 12b. One may see small differences in the behaviors of different materials soaked at different temperatures. Such differences show an increase in corrosion resistance, following the same sequence of Icorr and Ecorr described above, i.e., from the F138 steel to the ISO soaked at 1250 °C. This behavior is observable by the increase of the impedance modulus following the same sequence as above and with only a one-time constant, which is, indeed, related to the protective film formed rapidly on the electrode surface and the less stability for the F138 steel to the ISO steel soaked at 1250 °C. Such better corrosion properties of the ISO steel soaked at 1250 °C can be attributed to particles/precipitates dissolution. Such dissolution releases Cr and N in the matrix, thus, as stated elsewhere , avoiding sensitization and favoring the stability of the passive film, respectively. If one pays attention, the slightly better and somewhat worst corrosion behavior of the ISO steel reheated at 1200 °C compared to the F138 and ISO soaked at 1250 °C can be assigned to a little dissolution of coarse particles that delivered less Cr and N in the matrix than in the condition of soaking at 1250 °C.
149 The link between tubules in modern seafloor glasses and titanite-mineralized tubules in ophiolites and greenstone belts has been questioned, with some authors interpreting the latter as metamorphic features related to dendritic crystal growth (Lepot et al., 2011). Our hypothesis, favouring the interpretation of titanite-mineralized tubules in ancient metamorphosed basaltic glass as trace fossils, is that metamorphic titanite overgrows a pre-existing titanite or Ti-rich precursor assemblage. Previous studies have shown that Ti-rich materials exist within altered basaltic glass (Zhou and Fyfe, 1989), and titanite has been detected associated with the tubule-rich rims of basaltic glass shards (including the ones studied here) (Izawa et al., 2010a), but a definitive identification of Ti-rich material in situ within tubular structures has been lacking. The Ti-particles detected here are anatase-like, however, the co-occurrence of Ti with Ca and minor amounts of Fe could indicate that trace amounts of titanite are also present. In any case, the detection of Ti-rich materials here demonstrates that possible precursor materials for metamorphic titanite overgrowth do exist within partly mineralized tubules on the modern seafloor, demonstrating a direct link between modern tubular bioalteration textures in seafloor glasses and the oldest-known microbial trace fossils.
area accounted for by grain boundaries is much higher in the alloys containing Sc, their partitioning effect must be increased with Sc addition. The sequence of precipitation in aluminium alloys strongly depends on the history of the materials, including quenching conditions, natural ageing and further heat treatment. Different processes may be involved: dissolution, coarsening or phase transformation from metastable precipitates to a more stable phase. GP zones formed at low temperature after quenching (typically room temperature); can act as nucleation sites for more stable precipitates. When the temperature is increased from the pre-ageing temperature up to the ageing temperature, dissolution of GP zones occurs. This dissolution is called reversion, can be partial. When the ageing temperature is higher than the reversion temperature, the GP zone dissolution is complete. In spite of this complete reversion, ageing can still result in a fine distribution of ή -particles. As η particles are incoherent with the matrix (and have a relatively high interfacial energy), metastable precipitates ( ή ), with a higher level of coherency (and lower interfacial energy), may be expected to form preferentially at lower temperatures because of a lower activation barrier for nucleation. The common metastable phases in the 7xxx system are GP zones and ή particles, respectively. According to the binary phase diagram of Al-Zn (in Figure 1), because of existence of solvus solubility, at temperature decreasing, decrease the solubility of solid solution. The decreased solubility of solid solution leads to its saturation and the material becomes thermodynamically unstable and therefore will tend to decompose into two new phases . The effect of the ageing treatment is evaluated by Vicker’s hardness testing and metallography. Hardness measurements can provide a good indication of the material strength and since strength is related to the number, type and spacing of precipitates then hardness measurements can be used to monitor the precipitation process. Vicker’s hardness tests were done with the purpose of analysing the influence of the precipitated phases, formed during the ageing treatment, on the hardness of alloy. Moreover, tensile testing has been carried out to signify the materials mechanical properties to ensure engineering application. The tensile fracture surface examination can be revealed precipitates morphology, size and mode of fracture, alloy chemistry and heat treatment processes.
Abstract : There were considered the physical, structural and morphological prerequisites for the realization of the nanostate phenomenon of dispersed particles of condensed matter of different composition, nature and technology for production. It was shown the role of the size factor in the occurrence of the nanostate phenomenon due to the change of the energy parameters of the surface layers of particles that contribute to their effective modifying effect on the high-molecular matrix. Physical models of the formation of a particular energy state of dispersed particles and metallic and non-metallic materials substrates, characterized by the presence of local areas ("charge-mosaic") with a long relaxation time are proposed.It was considered practical application of the nanostate phenomenon when creating high-strength and wear-resistant materials based on thermoplastic matrices (PA6, PTFE, PET), consistent lubricant and lubricating oils, tribological and protective coatings for friction units and metalwares used in mechanical engineering, automotive and mining engineering. It was made the examples of the effective use of developed nanocomposite materials in practice.
The earliest humans had access to only a very limited number of materials, those that occur naturally: stone, wood, clay, skins, and so on. With time they discovered techniques for producing materials that had properties superior to those of the natural ones; these new materials included pottery and various metals. Fur- thermore, it was discovered that the properties of a material could be altered by heat treatments and by the addition of other substances. At this point, materials utilization was totally a selection process, that is, deciding from a given, rather limited set of materials the one that was best suited for an application by virtue of its characteristics. It was not until relatively recent times that scientists came to understand the relationships between the structural elements of materials and their properties. This knowledge, acquired in the past 60 years or so, has empowered them to fashion, to a large degree, the characteristics of materials. Thus, tens of thousands of different materials have evolved with rather specialized characteristics that meet the needs of our modern and complex society; these include metals, plastics, glasses, and fibers.