The next step of analysis was to review all coding/record sheets and audio recordings of Phase 1 and Phase 2 for frequency and examples, per class, of types of teacher extensions provided to challenge the students. This begins to address the component of the research question “in what ways do the teachers challenge their students?” For the analysis, I collapsed some of the existing categories on the coding/record sheet and organized them within Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy to provide a stronger case for their connection with higher levels of thinking, which is necessary for Ascending Intellectual Demand. Both within case and cross case data were considered, but the cross case analysis of what both teachers frequently did to extend student thinking will hold more weight in the analysis. To supplement this presentation of ways in which teachers attempted to challenge their students, student interview comments were provided on one particular type of extension. Teacher interview data were examined to further understand the teachers’ intent for using these extension strategies as well as for other ideas on how to challenge their mathematicallygiftedstudents.
These particular interviewees were selected to provide a comprehensive and diverse picture of the education of the gifted in this school from a specific viewpoint. The mathematics teachers were able to offer insights into mathematical giftedness and the mathematics education of the school. Mathematics Teacher 1 was the headteacher of the special program and assisted the principal in administrative work. He was also a former student of the school and had worked in the school as a part- time teacher during his university studies since 2003 and in a full-time position for five years. With his help, the researcher chose the rest of the interviewees. Mathematics Teacher 2 (Interview 3, February 14, 2012) had taught both lower and upper secondary school students for six years at the school. At the time of the data collection, Mathematics Teacher 2 had participated in the Lapland summer school twice. Mathematics Teacher 1 recommended interviewing the biology teacher (Interview 4, February 14, 2012) due to her experience in teaching the students of the special program: She had worked at the school for 27 years, attended 15 summer camps, and been involved in the establishment process of the special mathematics program in the 1990s.
Identification of mathematicallygifted and talented students is not necessarily an easy task. These students may or may not display those characteristics outlined in the previous section. They may or may not show interest in things mathematical, get excited during a mathematics lesson, or score well on mathematics tests. Teachers who have a limited background in mathematics or little experience in identifying giftedstudents often mistake hard work for promise. Students who complete many written tasks efficiently and quickly are not necessarily those who are gifted and talented in mathematics. Mathematicallygifted and talented students may be identified through their high levels of reasoning (Sheffield, 1999), but if teachers focus on teaching rules and formulae, they may not give opportunities for mathematicallygifted children to demonstrate the thinking processes that set them apart from the hard workers (Hoeflinger, 1998). As high achievers, they are usually identified by their abilities to attain high test results. Other mathematicallygiftedstudents with unique ways of thinking about and doing mathematics may be overlooked unless, as more recent research shows, identification includes aspects of problem solving, creativity, and spatial development (Diezmann & Watters, 1997; Niederer, 2001; Watters & English, 1995). Spatial ability has recently been given more attention; it has now been recognized as a neglected dimension, for example, in the American Talent Searches for Intellectually Precocious Youth (Webb, Lubinski, & Benbow, 2007). These researchers believe, based on an extensive study, that a focus on spatial ability could uncover a neglected pool of mathematical-science talent.
expressed in numbers (from 1 to 5) is an evaluation of the extent in which a student mastered particular subject (i.e. acquired some knowledge) during a certain period of educational process. In this paper, we decided to perceive the distribution of school success through the distribution of student's success in the previous grade, as an indicator of real effectiveness of gifted and other students during their regular schooling. In that context, there has been set a specific hypothesis that no significant differences in school success between gifted and other students may be expected. Self-awareness – in the analysis of subjective experience of both gifted and other students there were perceived two important aspects: the perception of present and the vision of future. Both aspects carry within themselves that emotion – value character, as a referential framework for adjusting the behavior of an individual, in everyday activities and planning of some relevant activities in the near and far future. In Psychology, the terms of perception of present and vision of future are regarded as important within the identity analysis of an individual (identity, self-consciousness, self, self-system, self-image, self-concept); so it is important to emphasize that they are an integral part of self-image or self-consciousness. Therefore, we shall assume that both perception of present and vision of future are phenomena, relevant for the development of giftedstudents during their schooling as well as in the self-actualization process, later on. They are particularly important in the relation of an individual toward tasks that person set himself/herself as some relevant goals and tasks to which he/she strives in his/her life. In that view, there has been set a specific hypothesis that no significant differences in the perception of present and the vision of future between both gifted and other students may be expected. However, we shall assume that all persons set some goals to themselves to which they strive in their lives and according to which they adjust their activities and behavior in the social environment, so no differences among young high school students, nor gifted and other students may be expected.
The other indicator, truly gifted, was a phrase invoked when a teacher did not know what to look for, or had a mental model that cannot be satisfied, hence statements such as not having seen such a student in 15-20 years of teaching. A teacher mentioned that top of the class could mean a child is gifted, but if the class is generally low, rising to the top may not mean the child is gifted in a larger setting. This may be especially true if the teacher is making an uninformed implicit comparison. These statements about a child merely being above average in the larger world but a high achiever in class indicated that the TAG teacher’s understanding of the use of local norms to identify possible gifted children had not been communicated to the teachers. Lohman (2005b) suggested that comparing students to those with similar backgrounds and experiences may provide evidence that the high achieving students of that group would benefit from a talent development program. Although the TAG teacher had created a bridge program to provide talent development for high achieving ELL students, it appeared that some teachers were not aware of the criteria for inclusion.
Except for grades 11 and 12 in the science curriculum branch, Islamic and Arabic studies dominate about 50% of the time from primary to secondary levels. Bearing in mind that most Islamic and Arabic studies rely on basic elements of cognitive abilities (i.e., memorization), this may result in storing information without understanding. Boyle (2006) conducted a qualitative study in three different Islamic countries and found that most students were able to memorize a lot of Qur’anic verses but were not able to understand or explain them. The argument here is not against religious education. Rather, it is against the domination of religious teaching which, as mentioned above, expands to include scientific subjects. It could be argued that memorization is an effective method for learning the Qur’an and Sunnah (sayings and teachings of the prophet Mohammed) or other important Islamic pillars. From its early appearance, when ignorance dominated the wide range of Muslim countries, memorization played a key role in maintaining the Qur’an and other religious instructions. However, today, the technology boom facilitates this job and people of different ages are able to read and listen to the Qur’an or review any theoretical information on their electronic devices. Aleisa (2009) claimed that Saudi educators acknowledge that the Saudi educational system apparently fails in its quality of education. As a result, several committees for reviewing and developing Saudi education discussed tenths proposals during the last five years.
of Music or CLA to be more challenging academically (via follow-up and probing questions), and if that impacted the students’ overall perception. These served as an expansion on the survey questions related to academic performance. The students that identified as participants in an academically gifted program on the survey were then asked to describe the program and their overall reactions to it. This was designed to allow the researcher to see what the students counted as programs for academically giftedstudents. The following two questions, “How or why did you choose your major or degree program?” and “Have you ever been conflicted about or regretted your choice of major? Why/why not?” serve to get at the core of the research question: do academically gifted music majors experience more internal conflict about their choice of major than their CLA counterparts? The final questions, “What do you want to pursue after DePauw,” and “Is there anything else you wish to add before we conclude,” serve as catch-all questions, to hopefully draw out any more information the interviewee may have on his or her mind that could be helpful for the purposes of the study.
Abstract: The fear of failure has always been a subject of debate. In classical literature, this debate has always involved the variables of motivations and achievements. The author considers this motif not as a bipolar construction, but as an interacting dimension. The prevailing assumption of bipolar construction had nurtured the view that anxiety is always linear with rejection resulting from failure. This fear of failure had made some children nervous before trying, reluctant to take risks in order to achieve. This fear of failure emerged as a result of the modern culture, which views failure as incompetence and such. Those who failed are described as weirdos,bullied by others, rejected, and even labeled as losers. This article is written using the phenomenological case study approach. The research subjects consist of 6 people, with performance indicators used as follows: (1) a student is considered afraid of failure if their questionnaire score is >75; (2) a student is considered intellectually gifted if their IQ score is >110; (3) said student also shows at least one of the several indicators of academic gifts; (4) and said student has both academic and non-academic achievements. Subjects are determined based on identification results obtained from the questionnaire. Students who are indicated as having high levels of fear of failure aand fulfills the criteria of intellectually giftedstudents are then grouped to become the research subjects. This article concludes that the data don’t differ much from the theories concerning fear of failure. However, there are several data anomalies discovered, such as: first, failure does not always drive one to despair. Some of the respondents are shown to handle failure by turning to the religious domain, creating alternative plans, or even switches their focus to the non-academic fields. This data show a pretty far departure from the mainstream theories concerning the fear of failure; there are several anticipative steps taken when facing failures, even involving the spiritual and emotional dimensions. Second, a departure from the prevailing theory can also be seen in the gender aspect. This article shows that gender has no correlation with the fear of failure. Someone who has never failed would not be able to develop their intelligence. To grow, failure is an important step. Third, when fear of failure affects a high IQ and academically gifted individual, it is guaranteed to cause a negative, even destructive, effects and excesses.
In 2002, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and in 2009, the Race to the Top legislation stressed teacher accountability based on student performance, so high-stakes test taking became increasingly important. Teachers across the nation began shifting their instruction to focus on teaching to the test (Elias, DeFini, & Bergman, 2010; Rakow, 2008). Experts in gifted education observed that schools had begun to focus on the bottom line of test scores even with their high learners, ensuring that each student would reach the appropriate standards in terms of cognitive ability (Jean, 2009; Megan, 2011). Locally, the state Department of Education mandated that social studies be tested in schools beginning in 2014; thus, science, mathematics, reading, writing, and now social studies are included in standardized testing, placing additional emphasis on academic testing. Standardized tests are not expected to diminish in the future; hence, trying to shift the pendulum to educating the whole child, including the child’s social and emotional needs, may be too lofty a goal (Tanis, 2014; Wright, 2010).
Generally, gifted school teachers believe that completing educational processes with preschool age training, as a supplementary one, is beneficial for talented students in terms of bot socially and academically. Regarding this question; one teacher (Teacher-D) does not express an opinion and where two teachers expressed negative view (Teacher-C expressed that an effective education could not be supplied even a supplementary training is given and Teacher-F said that he does not want have a class from pre-school age). Common point for both 2 negative views is the importance of personal interest and familiarity to education of pre-school age. Also the view of Teacher-H “it is better to give such kind of task to teachers who have specific education for pre-school education and have academic career in this field” is remarkable.
on Likert scale (1=disagree to 5=agree) . The measured dimensions include difficulty identifying feeling (DIF), difficulty describing feeling (DDF) and externally oriented thinking (EOT). This questionnaire has been evaluated in Iran by Besharat (2007). In Persian version, Cronbach’s alpha for total alexithymia and three subscales of DIF, DDF and EOT have been reported 82.85, 75.0, 0.0, and 0.72, respectively, indicating a good level of internal consistency. The test reliability is also reported 0.87. The validity of TAS was also evaluated based on the correlation between the subscales of this test and psychological-well being scale (r = 78 and P < 0.001) indicating that there is a significant correlation between psychological well-being and total aexithymia. The results of confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the existence of three subscales of alexithymia in Persian version . In the present paper, World Health Organization Quality of Life BRIFE (WHOQOL-BREEF) was used to measure the quality of the subjects’ life. This questionnaire includes 26 items measuring the quality of life in general and in particular. The employed questionnaire has 2 questions generally evaluating health state and the quality of life and only total scores are considered. Notably, this questionnaire is known as WHQOL- 100 containing 6 subscales and 24 dimensions. Due to high number of the questionnaire items and with respect to the fact that the respondents were students and they might leave some items unanswered, BREF type was selected including 26 items such that one question was selected out of the 24 items and two items were added regarding total quality and public health . Scoring was based on Likert scale (from 1 to 5) and in negative items, scoring was reverse as well. After performing the necessary computations in each area, a score of 4-20 was obtained for each separated area in which 4 indicated the worst and 20 indicated the best quality of life in the respected area. The first item contains questions about the quality of life and the second item on health status. After recording, the responses of the questionnaire were separately computed in each area and then, a total score was obtained for each person which was comparable with each other.
A rationale for this plurality is often rooted in the ideas of Gardner (1983, 1993) and his conception of multiple intelligences. However the measurement basis of Gardner’s theory is weak (Klein, 1997, 2003). It remains the case that a ‘g’ based factor hierarchy, with a general ability factor at the apex and various specialised abilities arrayed below it, is the most widely accepted current view of the structure of intellectual abilities, and general cognitive ability remains the best single predictor of academic success and job performance (Neisser et al, 1996). However, while we may reject the notion of 10 intelligences, many tests of reasoning abilities do make broad distinctions below the level of ‘g’. For example the most commonly used test for nomination for NAGTY (the Cognitive Abilities Test or CAT) recognises that within general cognitive ability there are strengths and weaknesses in reasoning with words, with numbers or with shape and space, but still remains grounded in the assessment of students’ reasoning abilities rather than their attainment in individual school subjects. This addresses equity issues which show that pupils from some social and ethnic groups or speakers of English as an Additional Language (EAL) often demonstrate particularly low scores on verbal reasoning
Another motivation theory related to intrinsic motivation is Deci and Ryan’s (1985) self- determination theory. A sense of autonomy is central to this theory, that is, that humans need to feel in control of their own lives. Other important factors in this theory are the need to feel competent and the need to feel related to others. Implications for gifted education include the consideration of how parents and educators provide evaluative feedback to giftedstudents. Feedback that praises students for independence and for successful results based on their own effort is more likely to preserve and develop self-determination than feedback that focuses primarily on students’ abilities. Feedback that provides information (“Here’s how this section could be improved”) is more motivating than feedback that can seem controlling (“I’m disappointed in you”). Relatedness is also a particular issue for giftedstudents. Working with teachers who genuinely like and appreciate giftedstudents, as well as spending time with peers with similar abilities and interests, are important social–emotional concerns for these students (see Neihart, Reis, Robinson, & Moon, 2002).
Acknowledging that giftedstudents spend most of their time at school in the regular class setting (Rosselli, 1993), relevant options for grouping by ability include: grouping with similar students within the regular classroom; via cross-setting (ability grouping across classes of the same grade); or by grouping giftedstudents with students in a higher grade (a form of acceleration). Flexible grouping arrangements in the regular classroom places students together on a short-term basis for specific instructional purposes or tasks, and has been shown to be effective for students of all ability levels (Azano et al., 2011; Clinkenbeard, 2012; Firmender et al., 2013; Neihart, 2007; Renzulli & Reis, 1994; Tieso, 2005; Van Tassel- Baska, 1992). Cluster grouping, where all giftedstudents in one grade are grouped together full-time in one of the classes, is also an option favoured in the research (Brulles et al., 2010; Pierce et al., 2011; Reis, Gentry, & Maxfield, 1998). For example, Gentry and Owen (1999) found positive effects for the achievement all students with cluster grouping arrangements, again when accompanied by curricular differentiation to suit the aptitude level of each group.
Obviously, this anecdote involves only one student. But Marcus is emblematic of the problem of underrepresentation of non-white students and many thousands of other diamonds in the rough like him who deserve to be noticed, championed, and empowered to reach their full educational potential. Educators have an ongoing crisis on our hands. Deficient screening devices and teacher referral methods are limiting identification and selection of potential non-white applicants. Educational opportunities of the non-white giftedstudents are not being met. More of these students exist but they are not yet identified. Understanding the gatekeeping that is taking place in selecting students for participation in gifted programs is fundamental and essential to empowering district decision makers and other stakeholders to reflect on the practices in place and implement policies to remedy existing disproportionate representation (Ford, 2014, Frye & Vogt, 2010, Henfield, Wood & Bang, 2017). Real lives, lives that matter, are affected by our efforts to help these students.
Firstly, the study has made pioneering contributions for educational policy makers in considering whether to continue the program or not since the cancellation of specialised education has been discussed recently. In addition, the findings have provided valuable insights to teachers involved in the TEAM program about how students perceived their teaching methodologies, which hopefully will inform them about existing practices that should be maintained and possible adjustments to accommodate new practices or rethink priorities. For example, one area that both sample groups indicated as needing more attention concerned the lack of opportunities for students to develop accurate pronunciation. Interestingly, the current students also indicated some dissatisfaction with the teaching of grammar. One possible interpretation of this finding is that the recent emphasis on communicative practices may have negatively influenced the effectiveness of teaching grammar. Since these issues were only suggested by the data, it is recommended that future research about the effectiveness and state of TEAM in Vietnam focuses specifically on the current methods of teaching English and their relevancy to developing students’ competence in the four language skills, grammar and vocabulary.
developing peers and teachers who are not trained to teach giftedstudents. Curriculum compacting streamlines and modifies the grade-level curriculum by eliminating material that has previously been mastered, reducing the threat of common problems faced by high-achieving students such as boredom, depression, inattentiveness, discipline issues, and underachievement (“Gifted Education in the U.S.,” n.d.). Reducing the risk of these common side effects is not only a benefit to the educational setting but to academically giftedstudents on an individual level and society as a whole. Consider the massive number of future inventors, entrepreneurs, biomedical engineers, and community leaders who could be lost each year. Between 10-20% of all high school dropouts test in the gifted range (Davidson Institute for Talent Development, 2006). The findings of this study conclude that curriculum acceleration provides a viable way for school leaders to increase the mean teacher effectiveness and improve efficacy while serving the needs of academically giftedstudents. Studies have shown that as efficacy increases, so does performance. By utilizing curriculum acceleration for academically giftedstudents, individual and organizational goals are able to be met due to increases in the level of teacher efficacy. Evidence shows when teacher confidence and school climate improve, academic achievement and growth improve (Callahan et al., 2014).
This could raise the question of whether the learning task was too easy, so that the giftedstudents did not need to use regulative processes. Both knowledge levels of the students were in accordance with the literature, in the sense that most 13-year olds and adults did not discover the formula (Siegler & Chen, 2002). Although the frequently used balance scale task of Siegler (1976) is not the same as the learning task used in this study and a comparison of the data was therefore inhibited, Siegler’s results give an indication about the level of knowledge of students. Siegler’s Rule III of his decision tree model (1976) includes a broad range of reasonings, although substantial differences can be distinguished regarding the levels of knowledge. For example, guessing could be considered a lower level of knowledge than having a faulty theory like the addition rule. Therefore, the domain knowledge scheme used in this study to determine the students’ level of domain knowledge (Appendix C) is more specific and detailed in order to distinguish knowledge levels more clearly. The fact that the students’ levels of domain knowledge were far from the highest knowledge level might indicate that the students could have learned more. Moreover, one student proved that it was possible to discover the formula (to reach the highest knowledge level). Furthermore, the learning task, adapted from the balance beam task of van Klink et al. (n.d.), was performed in that study by older students (grade eight). Therefore, the learning task cannot be considered too easy.
Ever since Isaac Asimov created his Three Laws of Robotics, people have pondered the proper relationship between humans and robots. In this course for 2nd and 3rd graders, students read about robots and other forms of artificial intelligence engineered to serve humans by competing in athletic events, providing security, and running households. But what happens when the robot wants more? When teen rebels want to escape from a school that is training them to become super villains against their will, can the artificially intelligent entity that operates the institute prevent their escape? The stories include humor, suspense, fantasy, mischief, and adventure. Tom Swift - Young Inventor [The Robot Olympics] by Victor Appleton; Eager by Helen Fox; and H.I.V.E. [Higher Institute of Villainous Education] by Mark Walden.
Our results showed that in all sets of Raven progressive matrices, giftedstudents have significantly higher scores than not gifted ones, suggesting that the former perform better in both perceptual and analytical cognitive abilities. This implies that gifted children better apply their abstract thinking ability and usage of complex rules to relate to and manipulate visual patterns. Gifted boys and girls can detect the presence of complex patterns of relation and rules between factors, and use it to solve problems correctly. Considering that the rate of error is highest in the most difficult set, Set E, we can conclude that one of the differences between not gifted and giftedstudents is that the latter can work well in terms of manipulating complex information. Following Van der Ven’s & Ellis’  idea of a “lack of resistance to perceptual distracters” factor in Set C, we can suppose that gifted children can maintain a reasoning approach to problems independently of the presence of perceptual characteristics than can affect the results. This can explain why in Set A, which requires “gestalt continuation” ability, giftedstudents also showed better performance—they probably address the problems in set A in an analytical way even if it is “unnecessary” to use reasoning abilities to solve them.