Maya Culture

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MesoAmerica 2.pdf

MesoAmerica 2.pdf

answer to the question "Why did the Maya abandon their magnificent city of Chichen Itza?" There is reference to Maya culture.... Where did the Aztecs live.[r]

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Telling and being told : storytelling and cultural control in contemporary Mexican and Yukatek Maya texts

Telling and being told : storytelling and cultural control in contemporary Mexican and Yukatek Maya texts

excellence, one in which anonymous Mayas use the tools of oppression in order to ensure the continuity of Maya culture. As the authors of the K’iche’ book of council transcribe the oral performance of a glyphic text in Latin letters they say they do so “now amid the preaching of God, in Christendom now. We shall bring it about because there is no longer a place to see it […]” (Tedlock 63). That is, the people performing the text situate this performance within a specific time and place, “in Christendom now,” meaning that the Popol Wuj must be read as a colonial work as much as a pre-Colombian one. In doing so, they place “Christendom now” as a continuance of previous epochs in K’iche’ history and the work ends, interestingly enough, with a geneaology of K’iche’ rulers. They therefore realign “Christendom” as part of K’iche’ history while realigning the K’iche’ Christian present with the immemorial past. Similarly, in Yucatán, the Yukatek noble Ah Nakuk Pech asserts the legitimacy of his social position based in the fact that he is “descendiente de los antiguos hidalgos conquistadores de esta tierra, en la región de Maxtunil” (a descendent of the first noble conquistadors of this land, in the region of Maxtunil; 19). 6 In the space of a few words written in Latin script, he appropriates the Spanish words and categories of “hidalgo” and “conquistador” to strip the Spanish Conquest of its primacy and claim the historical precedence of other, non-Spanish nobles. That is, “hidalgo” ‘noble’ becomes a term that refers equally to pre-conquest Maya nobility as it does to the Spanish, and “conquistador” points to an entire Maya history of military conquest that pre-dates the arrival of the Europeans.
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The Relationship of the Maya and Teotihuacan: A Mesoamerican Mystery, Keith Ferguson

The Relationship of the Maya and Teotihuacan: A Mesoamerican Mystery, Keith Ferguson

Located in the jungle of El Peten, Guatemala, the ancient Maya site of San Bartolo features amazing two- millennia-year-old pyramid temples, writings, and murals. In 2005 I spent four months at a field school in San Bartolo studying archaeological techniques and unlocking some of the mystery of ancient Maya culture under the guidance of Dr. Bill Saturno. Of great interest to me was the puzzle surrounding the possible connections between certain Maya sites and a powerful city in central Mexico known as Teotihuacan. My research into this topic formed the basis of my senior thesis, which focused on a classic Mesoamerican subject: the nature of the relationship between the Maya and Teotihuacan. Here I will share with you my observations and findings.
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Ko’ox T’aano’on ich Máaya: Yucatec Maya Language Revitalization Efforts among Professional
Educators in the State of Yucatán, México.

Ko’ox T’aano’on ich Máaya: Yucatec Maya Language Revitalization Efforts among Professional Educators in the State of Yucatán, México.

dominate their language, that’s good. Everything they learn will be something more that will strengthen their language and knowledge...So at the same time Spanish should be taught in towns so that the students coming to Merida do not feel like helpless rural people, but that they easily integrate with their classmates. In her narrative, Hilaria makes a straight-forward association of Maya language as an essential index of Yucatecan identity (whether indigenous or Mestizo) as well as an official standard of the Yucatecan state. Through questions like “Why should we not value that?”, her argument to advocate for the compulsory teaching of Maya in the state stems from a socio- cultural heritage shared in the region, where the original Yucatec Maya culture and language has a tremendous influence in the region (Restall 1999). Consequently, she taunts the divisive hegemonic ideology by taking on a character role of someone who holds that ideology by expressing “Oh, Maya should be preserved in towns.” Here, this statement is one that indexicalizes metalinguistically people like the Maya through false assumptions about the aspects of rural life implying limited opportunities for socio-economic mobility and formal education. This denigrating, divisive ideology based on linguistic, class and ethnic division has been present since Spanish colonial rule and persists today in the Yucatan.
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Social justice of the Maya people in the Guatemalan education system

Social justice of the Maya people in the Guatemalan education system

Guatemalan education system to address the issue of discrimination against the Maya people, which still constitute around half of the population (Poppema, 2009). The PAs promised “the expansion of educational opportunities and the overall inclusion of the Maya culture and language in the curriculum” (Poppema, 2009). For decades, the Maya people had been excluded from the education system in Guatemala and with the signing of the PAs an important step was made for the integration of the indigenous people of Guatemala as equals in the Guatemalan education system and in society. However, the Guatemalan government has not been the only influential actor regarding the realization of the promises of the PAs and the realization of social justice of the Maya people in the Guatemalan education system. Due to a global synchronization of education policy, national governments no longer have distinct education policies like they used to have (Robertson et al., 2007). International governmental organizations (IOs) have become to play an important role in the creation of education policies in developing countries, following their own education agenda and ideology. Accordingly, Guatemala has been affected by the international education agenda, which has affected the presence of social justice in the Guatemalan education system.
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Maya Intimacy with the Mountains: Pilgrimage, Sacrifice and Existential Economy

Maya Intimacy with the Mountains: Pilgrimage, Sacrifice and Existential Economy

I also encountered similar ideas of the sacredness, animation and power of the moun- tains on another occasion. Surprisingly, it was during a Pentecostal reunión (religious meeting). As is well known, Protestant churches – and various Pentecostal churches in particular – have spread rapidly in Mexico and Central America (Dow 2005) and have had an important impact on Maya culture as well (Annis 1987). In the traditional Maya areas in the western highlands of Guatemala, there is a popular Pentecostal religious ritual: the ayuno (fasting). Having stayed in Quetzaltenango for a few days, I intended to walk up the volcano of Santa María. During the trek, I met a K’iche’ man and his daughter from the nearby municipality of Cantel. I was told that they were attending the ayuno in order to cure the girl. In the morning, they had not eaten and had walked the long journey to pray on the volcano – they had taken on the commitment to make a sacrifice (poniendo ofrenda). On the summit of the volcano, several dozen believers gath- ered to wait for the beginning of the ceremony, squatting on the ground and praying. Since I had come with a member of the group, I was cordially welcomed by the Pastor and invited to participate in the meeting. The ceremony lasted for about two hours and consisted of prayers and praise to the Lord. In an emotionally charged atmosphere, people cried and implored God. Some of them – especially the women – were trem- bling, jerking, shouting and speaking in tongues, which was evidence that there was the intimate presence of the Spirit of the Lord.
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Effect of Animacy on Word Order Processing in Kaqchikel Maya

Effect of Animacy on Word Order Processing in Kaqchikel Maya

This study investigated the processing load of transitive sentences in two different basic word orders (i.e., VOS and SVO) in Kaqchikel Maya, with a particular focus on the animacy of the object. The results of a sentence plausibility judgment task showed that VOS sentences were processed faster than SVO sen- tences regardless of the animacy of the object. This supports the traditional analysis in Mayan linguistics that, although SVO is the most frequently used word order, the syntactically determined basic word order is VOS in Kaqchikel, as in many other Mayan languages. More importantly, the results suggest that the processing load in Kaqchikel sentence comprehension is more strongly affected by syntactic canonicity than production frequency or object animacy.
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Climate impact on the development of Pre-Classic Maya civilisation

Climate impact on the development of Pre-Classic Maya civilisation

4.3 Precipitation versus human development in the CML Our records indicate that the Early Pre-Classic period in the CML was relatively dry. During that period, the CML were still sparsely populated by moving hunter-gatherers. It is highly likely that before maize became sufficiently pro- ductive to sustain sedentism, the karstic lowlands were less attractive for humans than the coastal wetlands along the Gulf of Mexico and Pacific coast, where natural resources were abundantly present to successfully sustain a hunting– gathering subsistence system (Inomata et al., 2015). Re- liance on cultivated crops, most notably maize, rapidly in- creased after the onset of the Middle Pre-Classic period around 1000 BCE (Rosenswig et al., 2015). Between 1000 and 850 BCE, under still dry conditions, there is evidence for increased maize agriculture in the Pacific flood basin (Rosenswig et al., 2015) and within the Olmec area on the Gulf of Mexico coast (Arnold, 2009), and maize grains (AMS 14 C dated to 875 ± 29 BCE) have been found as far as Ceibal within the CML (Inomata et al., 2015). We specu- late that wetter conditions after 850 BCE might have been unfavourable for further development of intensive agricul- ture in the CML. This is supported by palynological evi- dence, indicating that widespread land clearance and agri- culture activity did not occur before ∼ 400 BCE (Wahl et al., 2007; Galop et al., 2004; Islebe et al., 1996; Leyden, 1987), despite some early local agricultural activity (Wahl et al., 2014; Rushton et al., 2013; McNeil et al., 2010). A return to drier conditions during the Late Pre-Classic period coincided with an expansion of maize-based agriculture in the CML, and communities within the Maya lowlands show strong and steady development (Hansen, 2017; Inomata and Henderson, 2016). Hence, major development of Maya civilisation in the central Maya lowlands occurred only after the onset of the Late Pre-Classic period, when climate became progressively drier, in line with earlier findings that drier conditions were favourable for agricultural development in the CML (Wahl
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[W463.Ebook] Ebook Download The Affair By Maya Banks.pdf

[W463.Ebook] Ebook Download The Affair By Maya Banks.pdf

Do you believe that reading is a crucial task? Discover your factors why adding is essential. Checking out a publication The Affair By Maya Banks is one part of delightful activities that will certainly make your life high quality better. It is not regarding only exactly what type of publication The Affair By Maya Banks you read, it is not simply concerning how several books you read, it's regarding the routine. Reviewing habit will certainly be a means to make publication The Affair By Maya Banks as her or his good friend. It will certainly despite if they invest money and invest more e-books to finish reading, so does this publication The Affair By Maya Banks
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Quest for Self-Identity: A Study of Maya Angelous Autobiographies

Quest for Self-Identity: A Study of Maya Angelous Autobiographies

IJSRR, 7(2) April – June, 2018 Page 133 Whites were mostly rich while blacks struggled to put two square meals on the table. Whites lived in well maintained urban areas and cities while blacks had to make do with rural country areas without basic amenities. All these things were not easily understood by a child. Maya and her brother both struggled with the truth in the society. Why was it like this? Why are we discriminated against? Questions like this and an incident with Bailey and a dead black man who was fished out of the local pond lead to Momma deciding that it was time for the kids to live with their parents and move into the city. Vivian Baxter had moved to San Francisco, California and so the kids went to live with her in the big city. They were well taken care of by their mother and adjusted fairly well in the environment. 7 Life changed quite drastically after moving to San Francisco. Maya felt alone as Bailey started growing distant to her and she didn’t feel quite close to her mother then. She felt alone and lost. And that’s when she started reading more and more and discovered herself once again. This was a vital moment in Angelou’s life as it helped shape her personality and character. A lot of strong independent woman influenced Angelou in her life, each quite different to other and yet all had contributed significantly in shaping her life in a way she could not imagine. The first was her own grandmother, her Momma. Living with Momma in her early childhood, Maya grew accustomed to doing whatever was told to her. However, Maya later realized that whatever Momma did, it was all for her sake and benefit. Momma was a pious woman who attended church every Sunday. She taught Maya about right and wrong, about being merciful and just. She taught her that no matter how hard it gets, you have to march on and go forward for the Lord will take care of the rest. Momma could not read or write but she still commanded respect from far more learned men and women because of who she was, what she had endured and what she was capable of doing. The honesty and holiness inside her was unquestionable and she laid a strong foundation of conscience in Maya’s personality and thinking. Maya later realized that no matter how hard the situations got, Momma never let go of her cool. She would get angry and scold but never lose control of what she was doing. She was as balanced a person could get and most of that revolved around being religious. 8
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Evidence of Bat Sacrifice in Ancient Maya Cave Ritual

Evidence of Bat Sacrifice in Ancient Maya Cave Ritual

While the proposal that bats were utilized for ritual purposes is not new, the idea does not appear to be widely accepted. Based on the cases available to him, Coe (1959: p. 64) states that, “The practice of sacrificing birds (and bats) and subse- quently depositing them as votive offering evidently was established widely and persistently among the Maya”. Given the fact that Coe produced fewer examples of bat offerings than cited above, his assertion was more provocative than con- vincing. Pohl (1983: p. 85) also raises the possibility that bats, along with rats and birds that live in caves, were used in ritual because of their cave association. Our data support the proposition that bats were considered by the ancient Maya to be a ritual fauna and suggest that they may have played an important role in cave ritual.
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Quantification of drought during the collapse of the classic Maya civilization

Quantification of drought during the collapse of the classic Maya civilization

Modern Lake Water Paleo-lake Water Modeled Gypsum Precipitation No gypsum precipitation.. O-excess per meg.[r]

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Modul pembelajaran baik pulih komputer secara maya

Modul pembelajaran baik pulih komputer secara maya

Menghasilkan satu modul pembelajaran secara maya e-Learning bagi mata pelajaran Baik Pulih Komputer yang memenuhi keperJuan pelajar dan silibus matapelajaran politeknik... Mengaplikasika[r]

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Threshold Extension of Gallium Arsenide/Aluminum Gallium Arsenide Terahertz Detectors and Switching in Heterostructures

Threshold Extension of Gallium Arsenide/Aluminum Gallium Arsenide Terahertz Detectors and Switching in Heterostructures

Finally, Mudgal likens Shankara’s understanding of maya with the Mahayana’s notion of illusory nature. He contends that both believe that the world is maya. In other words, this manifest world, which everyone perceives and experience, is illusory. He says, “It is a creation by the self deluding itself by its avidya” (180). He refers again to the analogy of waves on the ocean. As the waves on the ocean are not distinct from the ocean, he explains, the world is also non-distinct from the tattva or the Brahman. He then concludes by saying, “When avidya is overcome or maya is dispelled, what is discovered is Brahman only” (181). Thus for Mahayana Buddhism and Shankara, the existence of empirical world is only conventional, conditioned, or dependent. As Smart says “All appearances are illusory, but some are more illusory than others” (89). This feature of illusory nature of all appearances, at the ordinary level, is what Shankara’s system shares with Mahayana Buddhism.
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Study And Enhancement In A Research Over The Decades Of Writing By Maya Angelou

Study And Enhancement In A Research Over The Decades Of Writing By Maya Angelou

Maya talks about several barriers that remain between whites and blacks. In the opening lines of the poem Angelou uses words such as Breeze, fat worms etc. that portray the white society as selfish and caring more about wealth than black’s plights and sufferings. Angelou has always been a victim of racial insult in her life. She as well as other blacks have suffered a lot due to racism. Thus the poem is an extended metaphor of racial segregation present in society. The same experience of racial insult is recorded in her autobiography I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings When Momma takes Maya to the town’s white dentist, he humiliates his black patients by saying that he’d rather put his “hand in a dog’s mouth than in a nigger’s”.
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Maya-Spanish contact in Yucatan, Mexico: Context and sociolinguistic implications

Maya-Spanish contact in Yucatan, Mexico: Context and sociolinguistic implications

In normative Spanish, existential or impersonal haber prescriptively does not agree with its accompanying nominal phrase, which syntactically is analyzed as a direct object rather than a subject. In spoken Spanish, however, this construction is often reanalyzed by speakers, with the verb agreeing in number with what speakers perceive to be the subject. Compare standard había muchas personas with colloquial habían muchas personas. This feature is not unique to Yucatan, and occurs throughout the Spanish-speaking world (see Bentivoglio & Sedano 2011). Castillo-Trelles (2007) presents a quantitative analysis of this phenomenon in Yucatan Spanish, where she finds an overall rate of 53% pluralization in conversational data (p. 80), similar to rates found in other varieties (see Bentivoglio & Sedano 2011: 173 for an overview). Although language background was not a significant factor in the oral data, Maya bilinguals did significantly favor pluralization over Spanish monolinguals in a questionnaire task, in which the participants had to indicate which form (singular or plural) they would use in a series of phrases (Maya bilinguals = 65% pluralization; Spanish monolinguals = 42%)(p. 81). Although Castillo-Trelles does not hypothesize about the possible causes of the observed differences, it is likely that language background overlapped significantly with education level, which was not selected as significant in the statistical analysis. As the pluralization of haber is a universal phenomenon in Spanish, it is unlikely that the observed pattern can be attributed to either direct or indirect Maya influence. These findings do illustrate, however, the ways in which language background and social class/education level frequently interact in modern day Yucatan.
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Measurement of Error in 3D Polygonal Model Using MAYA API

Measurement of Error in 3D Polygonal Model Using MAYA API

An error measuring approach is proposed in this work that is capable of measuring error of the polygonal models. This is implemented through API programming and effectively used as a plug-in in MAYA. This can track the approximate error of the model while it is being simplified. Error measurement is done at different levels of model in each set. Four different sets are taken for the same. The results are convincing as the trend is found to be like error is inversely proportional to the no of polygons. Error is increasing as the numbers of polygons are decreasing. This approach of measuring error of 3D model is useful to determine the error of any surface to decide the optimum surface levels with greater speed and flexibility.
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Dedrick_unc_0153M_14285.pdf

Dedrick_unc_0153M_14285.pdf

Many settlement studies in northern Belize conclude with population estimates for their study sites. In particular, Pyburn (1988) and Wilk and Wilhite (1991) have suggested increased settlement densities at Nohmul and Cuello, respectively, due to the presence of non-mound residential structures. For example, Wilk and Wilhite (1991:131) emphasized the flaws in traditional population estimation methods for Cuello, “where only a fraction of the population ever lived on mounds.” Instead, they proposed calculating inhabitants based on average total refuse areas from ethnoarchaeological work (Wilk 1983) in conjunction with structure counting and house redundancy estimation. According to Wilk’s (1983) work, thin trash scatters around houses would have grown in density but not size through time. This updated approach vastly augmented population estimates. Their method applied to Tikal would expand Haviland’s (1970) estimate of 39,000 occupants in the Late Classic to 156,000 or even 200,000 residents. Pyburn also calculated the Late Classic population at Nohmul using an estimate of nonplatform floors, in addition to all of the mounded structures. Clearly such strategies amplify population estimates and change our perspective on the nature of Maya sites and their development through time.
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Desacralizing Land(scapes). Maya Heritage in the Global Picture

Desacralizing Land(scapes). Maya Heritage in the Global Picture

research (which are along similar lines as Césaire’s statement): How can we choose to close our eyes to the most crucial problems of Maya communities? While investigations are taking place in the Maya region, transnational corporations are simultaneously destroying Maya Land and endangering heritage just beside the area of research. Interestingly, academic reports often miss mentioning these crucial problems in the communities. Someone may argue, ‘I’m not an activist but a researcher’. Such an attitude misses the point that research is not only linked with science but also with society. It also misses the opportunity to prove that scientific inquiry can be guided by ethical values in the first place and that crucial problems can be translated into a research question. On the other hand, looking at the crucial problems in Maya communities offers the opportunity to overcome colonial legacies in research. For instance, research questions should not be pre-designed according to the interest of an alien academic community and in accordance with the research agenda of their countries. Nor should a project pre-accepted by alien institutions and the national agencies (INAH-IDAEH) be imposed upon the concerns of the Maya communities without prior consultation. Instead, the project should arise from the crucial problems of the indigenous community and be based on an indigenous agenda (Atalay, 2012:167-ss; Tuhiwai, 2012:198- ss).
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Semantics and pragmatics of (not-)at-issueness in Yucatec Maya attitude reports

Semantics and pragmatics of (not-)at-issueness in Yucatec Maya attitude reports

Abstract English attitude reports like “x thinks that p” can be used in two different types of contexts: ones where the Question Under Discussion (QUD) concerns whether or not p is true and ones where the QUD concerns x’s mental state itself. Yucatec Maya (YM) has two different morphosyntactic forms differing superficially in the presence or absence of the morpheme -e’, which serves as a topic marker elsewhere in the language. This paper argues that despite these two forms being truth-conditionally equivalent, their use is consistently correlated with which sort of QUD is present in the context. To account for these facts, I develop a particular conception of the relationships between QUDs, relevance, at-issueness, and assertion, building on the account of Simons et al. ( 2011 ). Given this theory, I propose a semantics where -e’ encodes that the attitudinal predication is parenthetical — that is, not part of the at-issue proposal (similar to English sentences like “It’s raining, I think”) and instead contributes to what I dub the basis of the proposal. I show that this semantics, together with plausible general pragmatic reasoning, provides an account of the meaning of the two attitude constructions in YM and their distribution in discourse.
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