The studies of the CNEL and Commission for integration policy attempt to give the general picture of the integration in Italy. However, it should be note that specific indexes are as much important since migrants’ integration has a specific nature that varies according to the different dimensions under scrutiny or a geographical diminution that can have a high degree of heterogeneity. Although we do not survey these indexes 5 here because we also aim to build a general index, we would like to underline that the policymaker needs of both to coordinate their decisions at a micro and macro levels. Geddes and Niessen (2005) develop the “European civic citizenship and inclusion index,” which is an attempt to measure the potential effectiveness of the actions implemented by several member states as “civic citizenship” policies and for the job market. The index is not related to the success of the immigrants’ integration process, but it measures if the legal conditions to support such a goal have been created. The inclusion indicators were chosen for each of the five legal fields that seemed to be more relevant for integration: 1) labor market, 2) residence, 2) family reunion, 4) naturalization, 5) addressing discrimination.
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The bimodal decision fusion speech recognition system using side-face mouth region image is shown in figure 2. The dataset was recorded in an office environment with a background noise and each word was recorded 30 times. Out of 30 recorded samples, 20 samples were taken randomly for training and 5 samples have been used as a validation data and the remaining 5 samples have been tested. The log likelihoods of validation dataset with additive white Gaussian noise at SNRs of 20, 10, 5, 0, -5 and -10 dB are used to estimate the best acoustic and visual recognition hypotheses length NA and NV to measure correct reliability of each modality using the proposed algorithm. Then, these reliability measures are used to determine the integration weight. Finally, the estimated integration weight is used to compute the recognition accuracy of test samples which are again artificially degraded with additive white Gaussian noise at SNRs of 20, 10, 5, 0, -5 and -10 dB. Table 1 shows recognition accuracies obtained by the audio-only, visual-only, audio-visual baseline reliability ratio(AV Baseline-RR), audio-visual N best recognition hypotheses reliability ratio(AV N-Best RR), and the proposed GA adaptive best recognition hypotheses reliability ratio(AV GA Adapt. RR) based systems at various SNR conditions. Similarly figure 3 compares the unimodal and bimodal system’s recognition performance. From the results, the following observations were made,
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The Community Integration Measure (CIM) was originally developed by Dr. McColl, a researcher in the field of health sciences, to assess the level of commu- nity integration among community-dwelling people with acquired brain injury . There are many scales for measuring community integration in the context of individuals with psychiatric disabilities: the Social Inclu- sion Questionnaire User Experience (SInQUE) , the Social and Community Opportunities Profile (SCOPE) , and the Social Inclusion Scale (SIS) . However, these scales have several limitations when applied in a Japanese context. First, they consist of 22–121 items and take participants a great amount of time to answer. Sec- ond, the specificity of the issue for which each scale was originally developed makes it difficult to generalize their respective results. For example, the SInQUE is based on the UK Poverty and Social Exclusion Survey. In contrast, the CIM has fewer items (ten) and a much more general content than existing instruments [16–18]; additionally, it is potentially applicable in other cultural contexts .
In particular, there is no doubt that a good command of the language of the host country constitutes an important – maybe the most central - factor of integration, not only in the labour market, but also to improve social inclusion. We note a specific feature of the immigration phenomenon in Italy that is the vast majority of immigrants do not speak or understand Italian upon arrival. For this reason, host country language training is generally the most important measure for immigrants in most OECD countries (this is not the case of France and UK of course) and Italy is no exception in this sense. As a result, in Italy, the Permanent Territorial Centres for Adult Education (CPIA - Centri Territoriali Permanenti per l’Istruzione degli Adulti) play an essential role in language skills learning. A high percentage of participants in these centres obtain a linguistic certificate at the end of the courses and the role of the CPIA should be further strengthened.
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The main objective of this research was to find a correct measure of Information Systems. In response to that main objective of this study, this paper presents a conceptual model (Lashayo10) for measuring information systems based on DeLone and McLean (2003) IS model integrating it with UTAUT and Lin (2008) model. The integration provides a model which is more robust for carrying out IS projects. The Lashayo10 supplement what is missing from DeLone and McLean (2003) IS model. The missing components are: user acceptance (intention to use as separate factor), context (organizational conditions), social influences and trust.Furthermore, the presented model is a parsimoniously model, that is, it is comprehensive, effective, simple to understand, and with fewer assumptions [39-40]. Carefully definition of added constructs’ items is needed to avoid overlapping effects on existing measurement of base models, and in the course of empirical operation of the proposed model. A future study can try to examine empirically this conceptual model in different IS projects to validate and confirm the proposed factors.
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Inappropriate visual and vestibular integration is evident in a variety of abnormal behaviours. These have been most extensively studied in aquatic vertebrates and are of particular interest to us in the present study. For example, some organisms will react to a reduction in gravity by exhibiting repetitive righting reflexes (Wassersug et al. 1991a,b; Rahmann and Slenzka, 1994; Wassersug and Izumi-Kurotani, 1993). Amphibians and blinded fish exhibit tumbling, corkscrewing or looping behaviours (von Baumgarten et al. 1972; Rahmann et al. 1990, 1994; Wassersug, 1992; Wassersug et al. 1993; Neubert et al. 1994b; de Jong et al. 1996). In contrast, fish with normal vision do not display this looping behaviour in microgravity (von Baumgarten et al. 1972; Mori et al. 1996; de Jong et al. 1996; S. P. Pronych and R. J. Wassersug, personal observations). Thus, although a fish may sense that the gravity vector has changed, it relies more on visual than on vestibular information for positional cues.
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The empirical study on similarity of monetary policy stance in the GCC countries over the period of the last three decades delivers an interesting picture. Due to factors discussed earlier in this paper, there has been a significant high positive correlation of the monetary policy stance in the region. When compared with the situation in Europe, prior to the creation of the EMU in 1999, it is obvious that the GCC countries have been suited for a currency union in much greater extent that the EU countries (Mlodkowski 2011). This has been achieved by means other than the nom- inal convergence criteria, formulated for the EMU members in the Maastricht Treaty. The GCC countries compose an OCA, but still formal monetary integration is not present. There is an al- ternative situation that we may label “de-facto monetary integration”. In the same time, the EMU
Because an interval split is useless if one integrates over both energy intervals with the same method, an inte- gration measure needs to be derived that differs between LES and HES. This measure shall reflect the lower re- trievable information content of the HES compared to the LES. The next two sections explain how this measure is derived and implemented mathematically. In Section 4, the modified method of computing loop integrals is applied to the tadpole integral illustrated in Figure 1. Lastly, the applicability of this integration method is dis- cussed and further steps to establish this technique are outlined.
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Motivated by , where several distinct measures of market co-movements were analyzed, a simple, though still efficient, integration measure is designed by extract- ing the main factors explaining the cross-sectional equity returns in terms of the average percentage of variance explained by the first significant principal components. However, the performance of the standard PCA may de- teriorate in several cases, such as, the presence of a noisy behavior in the original data, and/or the case where a portion of the original data values may be missing or we don’t have access to. The recently introduced framework of PPCA  is capable of overcoming such limitations, and it is exploited in our proposed market integration measure to build portfolios for pure alpha investors. 2.1. Linear Multiple Factor Structure
Abstract: In this paper an efficient and scalable surveillance network providing systematic collection and analysis of social security data based on distributed cooperative ontology framework is proposed. Upon ontology integration system, each reasoning agent can build and process ontology cooperatively. They share context ontology for cooperative combined inference. In the process of reasoning agents not only can get services from a region server but also can form and generate a P2P(peer-to-peer) overlay network to provide services to each other in wider bandwidth. Structured P2P overlay network forms useful substrate because it provides extendable, scalable, self-organizing and reliable framework. For efficient ontology integration the data weighting and similarity measure is incorporated and shows better performance.
305 recommend the most favorable trade preferences between Pakistan and its trade partners. Also empirical estimate was done to measure trade creation or diversion among Pakistan and India and selected sub- blocs of OIC concern to economic integration effect. Unlike majority of studies which focused mostly on investigate of economic variable directly, this study includes cross effect of variables to capture the specific role of them on trade relationship. State level data between 1999 to 2010 was used to examine the issue. We used three scenarios to find effective variables on trade and investigate integration effect on trade .the data were fitted on a random effect panel regression model. Results of this study shows economy size and capacity of economic of bloc members, population, distance between member and exchange rate of partners are most effective factors on trade relationship between Pakistan and India and selected OIC’s sub- bloc member. Linder and Openness are not effective on their trade flows, and finally was found Preferential Trade agreement lead to trade creation for OIC, ECO and TOPSE and lead to diversion for SAARC block.
A diverse set of equity indices of different stock markets comprising of both developed as well developing economies was selected. Initially, both Sensex (benchmark index) and BSE500 Index (broad-based index) were being considered to measure the integration with global equity indices, but due to the high correlation among both these indices, BSE500 was dropped from the analysis. The global indices include stock indices of US, UK, Australia, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Brazil, Hong Kong, Singapore, European Union and Thailand. We analyzed the time varying correlations on multiple indices from these countries, however, only the relationship with the benchmark indices is reported in this paper.
Some interesting phenomena can be found in Figure 3. Foreign financial ratio shows the shape of U curve. It may be related to international financial recession after 2007. China’s foreign assets and liabilities had a downward trend because of international financial and economic recession after 2007. Because international financial and economic situation has begun to have some improvements after 2010, China’s foreign assets and liabilities began to rise, too. The trend of change in the tilt ratio of bank credit assets abroad is similar to foreign financial ratios, but it has been in a relatively stable state since 2010. As is shown in Figure 3 that banking and insurance openness has been in a relatively stable state since 2007, but it has shown a slight decline since 2010. This indicates that China’s financial institution opening level to the outside world is low in recent years and China has thereby to take substantive steps to promote its reform and opening up. The degree of savings-investment correlation reflecting capital and financial account openness in 2007 was 0.92. It indicates that there is a strong correlation between China’s investment and savings, showing that China’s financial openness is still limited and China’s financial markets have not organic integration with international financial markets. The correlation of domestic and foreign interest rates is below 0.25 in most of the years, suggesting that link between domestic interest rate and foreign interest rate is not high. This may be related to China’s more strict restrictions on capital flows (especially short-term capital flows) (Table 2). Long-term capital openness has been in a declining state since 2007. This indicates that the introduction of long-term capitals has a slowing growth trend and a large amount of foreign capital introduction in early reform and opening up is turning to selective introduction of foreign capitals with a higher quality at the present stage. Although the speed of foreign capital introduction begun to slow, its quality was improved. Different from long-term capital flows, short-term capital flows show an unstable state. This may be related to the strict management of Chinese monetary authorities on international hot money. In fact, the RMB has been chased by international hot money because of strong appreciation expectation of the RMB in the past years. However, China’s monetary authorities have been strictly to manage short-term capital flows through various means for the sake of financial security. Although short-term capital flows show faster growth after 2009, they have apparently started to stabilize after 2011 (Figure 4). In addition, with respect to composite index, China’s financial openness has remained stable state since 2007 (Table 2).
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Abstract. Understanding the errors caused by spatial-scale transformation in Earth observations and simulations re- quires a rigorous definition of scale. These errors are also an important component of representativeness errors in data assimilation. Several relevant studies have been conducted, but the theory of the scale associated with representative- ness errors is still not well developed. We addressed these problems by reformulating the data assimilation framework using measure theory and stochastic calculus. First, mea- sure theory is used to propose that the spatial scale is a Lebesgue measure with respect to the observation footprint or model unit, and the Lebesgue integration by substitution is used to describe the scale transformation. Second, a scale- dependent geophysical variable is defined to consider the het- erogeneities and dynamic processes. Finally, the structures of the scale-dependent errors are studied in the Bayesian frame- work of data assimilation based on stochastic calculus. All the results were presented on the condition that the scale is one-dimensional, and the variations in these errors depend on the differences between scales. This new formulation pro- vides a more general framework to understand the represen- tativeness error in a non-linear and stochastic sense and is a promising way to address the spatial-scale issue.
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ACPQ: Australian community participation questionnaire; APQ-6: Activity and participation questionnaire; CIM / CIQ : Community integration measure / questionnaire; CMSI : Composite measure of social inclusion; DESC : Downtown emergency service centre; EMILIA: Empowerment of mental illness service users: lifelong learning and action; EPQ: EMILIA project questionnaire; ESIQ: Evaluating social inclusion questionnaire; GP: General practitioner; HG: Based on ‘ The Human Givens ’ ; HK: Hong Kong; HOS: Homeless outcomes star; IW: Inclusion web; LCQ: Living in the community questionnaire; MHRS: Mental health recovery star; MSI: Multidimensional social inclusion; NHS: National Health Service; PRISMA: Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses; PS: Participation scale; RCGP: Royal College of general practitioners; SCOPE : Social and community opportunities profile; SCOPE-C: Social and community opportunities profile – Chinese version; SDG: Sustainable development goal; SE: Social exclusion; SEKN: Social exclusion knowledge network; SEU: Social exclusion unit; SI: Social inclusion; SInQUE : Social inclusion questionnaire user experience; SIQ: Social inclusion questionnaire; SIS / SIM: Social inclusion scale / Social inclusion measure; SIS: Social integration survey; SNQ: Support needs questionnaire; SSSI: Staff survey of social inclusion; UK: United Kingdom; USA: United States of America; VAT: Vulnerability assessment tool; WHO: World Health Organization
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In this paper and its companion , we extend real analysis to transreal analysis which allows division by zero. We do this by adding the usual topology of measure theory and integration theory to the transreal numbers and then use this topology to extend continuity, limits, derivatives and integrals so that they hold over functions of transreal numbers. This gives us a transmathematics which operates at mathematical singularities.
To accurately represent the environment, our brains must integrate sensory signals from a common source while segregating those from independent sources. A reasonable strategy for performing this task is to restrict integration to cues that coincide in space and time. However, because multisensory signals are subject to differential transmission and processing delays, the brain must retain a degree of tolerance for temporal discrepancies. Recent research suggests that the width of this ‘temporal binding window’ can be reduced through perceptual learning, however, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these experience-dependent effects. Here, in separate experiments, we measure the temporal and spatial binding windows of human participants before and after training on an audiovisual temporal discrimination task. We show that training leads to two distinct effects on multisensory integration in the form of (i) a specific narrowing of the temporal binding window that does not transfer to spatial binding and (ii) a general reduction in the magnitude of crossmodal interactions across all spatiotemporal disparities. These effects arise naturally from a Bayesian model of causal inference in which learning improves the precision of audiovisual timing estimation, whilst concomitantly decreasing the prior expectation that stimuli emanate from a common source.
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In this paper, Web search engine based term similarity measure and results integration by SVM are attempted to discover matched service on the trip domain. The similarity calculation measure using search engine provide latent terms hided in the Web document so that it was helpful to give more flexibility to find close terms for terms in a query. Average precision in Top 20 result data obtained is 94.4% for 100 test queries as an experiment result, and it is very high score compare to other literatures’ result  on a specific domain of the trip.
Considering the debates regarding lower increase in the economic growth after Brexit, the main objective of this paper is to measure the positive impact of economic integration of Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries on the UK economy and the effect of Brexit on the immigration from these countries to the UK. The European Union membership of some CEE countries increased, in average, the number of the UK immigrants by 12 times in the period 2004-2014 compared to the group of countries formed by Russia and Ukraine. The empirical fi ndings show positive economic effects of immigration on the UK’s economy, even if the pro Brexit group claimed that a control of immigration is necessary. CEE countries emigrants stimulated the UK economic growth, price stability and reduced the homicide rate. The effects of immigration on the unemployment rate, health and education spending were positive, but very low. According to mixed-effects Poisson models estimations, after Brexit the number of the UK immigrants from the CEE countries that are member of the EU might decrease by 2 times. This signifi cant decline in immigration might impose austerity measures, because of the fall in the economic growth trend with negative impact on the UK economy. Therefore, we recommend policies that focus more on high-skilled labour force than on the reduction of the number of immigrants. The UK should propose measures to slow the expected immigration decline in order to alleviate economic issues like decline in economic growth, decrease in labour productivity, cutting backs on public services.
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Various scholars, Albanians and foreigners have offered special models to measure the economic effects of the European integration process. These effects are divided into direct effects and indirect effects. It is understood that the effects of the first group can be measured more easily when we do quantification, while the latter - indirect effects are considered those effects associated with the impact of this process in various sectors of the national Albanian economy, effects in the allocation of resources and the effects on the redistribution of income and wealth. Among the direct effects of integration, some authors list:
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