Measuring youth offending and school safety

Top PDF Measuring youth offending and school safety:

Defining and Measuring Persistent Offending

Defining and Measuring Persistent Offending

4.1 ABSTRACT There have been few efforts to conceptually and empirically distinguish persistent and chronic offenders, despite the prominence of these concepts in the criminological literature. Research has not yet examined if different childhood risk factors are associated with offenders who have the longest criminal careers (persistent offenders), commit the most offences (chronic offenders), or both (persistent-chronic offenders). We address this gap using data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). Poverty, poor school attainment, and family stress had a pervasive impact on all forms of offending in correlational analyses. Longer criminal career durations were associated with fewer childhood risk factors than was the case for chronic offenders. Chronic offenders were significantly more likely than persistent offenders to experience many environmental risks in childhood. When controlling for all other risk factors, hyperactivity and parental separation uniquely predicted persistent offending, while high daring and large family size uniquely predicted chronic offending. Our analyses point to the need for responses based on a
Show more

260 Read more

MODERN YOUTH OFFENDING PARTNERSHIPS. Guidance on effective youth offending team governance in England

MODERN YOUTH OFFENDING PARTNERSHIPS. Guidance on effective youth offending team governance in England

strategic group focused on the safety and well-being of young people. Alternatively, the management board itself may expand its range of activity in order to widen the local youth crime and safeguarding agenda. There are also a number of examples of cross-authority integration, where one or more authorities have combined to form a large multi-area YOT and, in so doing, achieve greater efficiency. Elsewhere, there have been other forms of integration, such as the combining of children’s services into one management unit, such as targeted youth support. The practice examples below describe both arrangements.
Show more

28 Read more

Issues in youth offending sentencing

Issues in youth offending sentencing

the scene with $400. 00 in cash. The store owner later dies in hospital from his wounds. Bob is eventually charged with armed robbery and second degree murder. During his trial, it is disclosed that Bob comes from a very poor family and is currently living on social assistance. He has no previous criminal record. School transcripts reveal that he had been doing very well in school until he was kicked out of his mother’s home and started to hang out with the “ wrong crowd”. He argues that he only recently began to engage in robbery in order to provide financial support for his 13 month-old son that he fathered as a result of a common-law relationship. Bob’s legal aid attorney ask that these factors be considered during sentencing.
Show more

9 Read more

Youth offending and youth transitions : the power of capital in influencing change

Youth offending and youth transitions : the power of capital in influencing change

individual, structural and cultural forces, there is a further school of thought, namely that offending behavior is ubiquitous and normal but that it may be socially or politically labelled as a problem so as to ensure and justify social control. Theories of crime and criminality are varied and wide-ranging, not least because of the multi-disciplinary nature of criminology. Within the sociological discourse on criminology, there is also the dichotomy between micro- and macro-sociological stances. Farrall and Bowling (1999: 261), for example, have described much of the criminological literature as being split between seeing individuals as ‘super-agents’ or as ‘super-dupes’. The former are free to make their own decisions about what they do, and the latter are restricted by the influences and determinants of external forces. Few theories of offending can explain young women’s involvement in crime, the gendered nature of law enforcement practices and changes or reductions in seriousness or frequency. Equally, they cannot readily explain why some offenders do not desist from crime in adulthood: offenders are as likely to be influenced by significant others and events in deciding to continue offending as they are in deciding to stop.
Show more

33 Read more

Service Level Agreement between Leicestershire Youth Offending Service & Leicester City Youth Offending Service and Leicester College

Service Level Agreement between Leicestershire Youth Offending Service & Leicester City Youth Offending Service and Leicester College

It recognises that these key authorities have responsibility for the provision of a wide and varied range of services to and within the community. In carrying out these functions, section 17 places a duty on them to do all they can to reasonably prevent crime and disorder in their area. The purpose of this section is simple: the level of crime and its impact is influenced by the decisions and activities taken in the day to day business of local bodies and organSLAtions. Section 17 is aimed at giving the vital work of crime and disorder reduction a focus across a wide range of local services that influence and impact upon community safety and putting it at the heart of local decision making. Section 17 is a key consideration for these agencies in their work in crime and disorder reduction partnerships, drug action teams, YOTs, children’s trusts and local safeguarding children boards.
Show more

29 Read more

Practitioners in the youth justice system: a case study of the youth offending service

Practitioners in the youth justice system: a case study of the youth offending service

It was highlighted by some practitioners that the type of education provision in particular which they spoke of, already existed, however was not readily accessible to all young people who came into contact with PYOS: “I think one thing I would certainly look at is how young people’s education is provided. I think, ya know, education is certainly increasing these days is such a key element to success… there’s a school at Wisbeach which takes some really challenging kids, really good kids, and they do an absolutely brilliant job with those kids, I went to visit Oakhill and senior training centre a couple of weeks ago and went through their education provision, again taking on these kids, working with them, ya know kids who haven’t a hope of surviving in mainstream education but the kids attend, they learn, they develop, they improve their social skills, they improve that kind of whole process, and so it’s, I would certainly want to think about how we can improve the quality of provision for young people who are essentially excluded from mainstream, because I think at the minute it’s not very effective and it doesn’t necessarily allow youngsters to fulfil their potential, so that would be one area I would really want to focus on.”
Show more

241 Read more

School Safety and Youth Violence Prevention Services

School Safety and Youth Violence Prevention Services

1 Center for Safe Schools • (717) 763-1661 • SafeSchools@csc.csiu.org • www.SafeSchools.info S chools are facing a compelling reality of dramatic educational change, complex student and staff needs and limited resources. In an effort to comply with federal and state statutes, schools must provide a safe and harassment-free environment for all students. These mandates require that schools address school safety and youth violence prevention issues to ensure that students are able to make adequate academic progress. New updates to the Pennsylvania School Code further illustrate the increasing efforts schools must make to coordinate school safety and youth violence prevention activities with law enforcement and other local partners. Schools with an all-hazards planning process including prevention/
Show more

16 Read more

In Search of the Inspired Student—Measuring of Youth Inspiration in High School—A Youth Economy Paper

In Search of the Inspired Student—Measuring of Youth Inspiration in High School—A Youth Economy Paper

Inspiration has been rarely studied in education and pedagogical literature. In fact it is even very hard to find good reference papers about measuring stu- dents’ inspiration. Student inspiration has nearly been totally away from schools expected outcome. Inspiration is not yet a measure for the return of investment on education. Along the educational journey, in many schools that are considered to be competitive; students have never been challenged to ex- plore their sources of inspiration. In this study we investigate the data for more than 17,000 high school students, after setting the basic criteria’s for students’ inspiration. The paper addresses what are the situations, the condi- tions and practices that help in creating waves of inspiration to cover more students. The study concludes with a proposed learning framework and a recommendation for future researches to come. The limitation of the paper mainly is that it was conducted only in one country.
Show more

13 Read more

Restorative Justice: Theory and Evidence Relating to Youth Offending

Restorative Justice: Theory and Evidence Relating to Youth Offending

assistance, vocational training, arts and cultural activities, sports etc.) Parents, and other caregivers and guardians are viewed as key partners, in supporting the rehabilitation of the child. Particular focus on improving the child’s self esteem, developing understanding of their behaviour and return to school.

10 Read more

Referral Orders and Youth Offender Panels Guidance for the courts, Youth Offending Teams and Youth Offender Panels

Referral Orders and Youth Offender Panels Guidance for the courts, Youth Offending Teams and Youth Offender Panels

convenience of victims wishing to attend but should not be held during any educational provision which the offender is required to attend. 8.10 Youth offending teams should consider the needs and preferences of victims when selecting the venue for the meeting. In general, venues should be community-based, informal and non-institutional, for example, community sports and leisure centres, adult education centres, family centres, youth clubs and schools, rather than youth offending team premises or police stations. However, in some cases, especially where one of the participants is likely to be volatile, there should be a risk assessment and, if there are safety concerns, such premises may be more appropriate.
Show more

111 Read more

Measuring School Climate in High Schools: A Focus on Safety, Engagement, and the Environment

Measuring School Climate in High Schools: A Focus on Safety, Engagement, and the Environment

To keep the survey relatively short and efficient to administer, we restricted the number of items on each subscale. We attempted to use items from widely validated scales that succinctly encompassed that factor; this may have lowered the alphas for some scales, as scales with fewer items typically have lower alphas. 65 Because the climate survey is cross-sectional, more research is needed to understand the temporal association between these factors. Some may also question the association between the behavioral indicators and the attitudinal components of school climate. For example, substance use and bullying could be conceptualized as possible behavioral outcomes or behavioral predictors of school climate, rather than specific domains of school climate. This study included only high school students; thus, additional work is needed to determine if this measure demonstrates a similar factor structure and measurement invariance when completed by middle school and elementary school aged youth. Although we drew upon a relatively large set of geographically and ethnically diverse schools, the data were collected in a single state; further research is needed to understand if these scales operate similarly in other states. Given the primary purpose was to fit the USDOE’s school climate model, we drew upon existing measures, rather than develop new items or instruments. Nevertheless, addi- tional research examining the convergent, divergent, and predictive validity of the measure is needed. Because our study design necessitated the use of anonymous data collection procedures, we are unable to track student-specific changes across the years, or measure test-retest reliability; therefore, additional research is also needed to examine various aspects of reliability.
Show more

12 Read more

The same the whole world over? A review essay on youth offending from the 1980s and youth justice in contemporary China

The same the whole world over? A review essay on youth offending from the 1980s and youth justice in contemporary China

25 Similar to bangjiao, the study-work school is an informal crime control mechanism in China, but available exclusively to juveniles. It admits students aged 12 to 18 who have displayed ‘unhealthy behaviour’ or ‘very unhealthy behaviour’, and are deemed unable to continue studies at ordinary schools. The main function of study-work schools is educational. Curran and Cook (1993: 311) suggest that ‘the placement of juveniles in the work-study setting integrates the positive reinforcement of the community’, and, according to one Chinese commentator, ‘having one more study-work school, one more prison can be avoided’ (China News Agent Net Hainan Division, 2006). However, another commentator argued that, although not regarded as a punitive measure, study-work schools ‘actually harm their students by labelling them as wrongdoers’ (ibid). A combination of diminishing effectiveness in a context of changing social circumstances and a growing awareness of the deleterious effects that can follow the criminalisation of young people has influenced the decline in the use of this measure over recent years. Like bangjiao, study-work schools are now used for juvenile offenders as part of newly developed restorative justice interventions (Wang and He, 2012), and thus regarded as a hopeful development in restorative justice (Braithwaite, 2002).
Show more

49 Read more

Joint Working Protocol Youth Offending Service & Children s Social Care

Joint Working Protocol Youth Offending Service & Children s Social Care

2. Information Sharing 2.1 Information-sharing is central to improving the outcomes for these children, young people and their families. The YOS and CSC will share information with other agencies e.g. police as required in order to ensure that the young person remains safe from harm and/or to ensure the safety of others in the community. Where a child is reported missing and not currently known to CSC the YOS they will immediately make a referral to MASH. CSC and YOS will use the same return to home paperwork.

15 Read more

Youth crime: an investigation into the effectiveness of general re-offending risk assessment tools

Youth crime: an investigation into the effectiveness of general re-offending risk assessment tools

ii ABSTRACT This thesis examines the effectiveness of general re-offending risk assessment instruments for young people. The introductory chapter considers current trends in Scottish youth crime and provides an overview of the unique way in which children and adolescents are dealt with through the Children’s Hearing System (Social Work Scotland Act, 1968). Chapter two presents a systematic literature review of the risk and protective factors associated with repeat offending and desistance in adolescent offending behaviour. A number of factors in the domains of individual, peer, family, school and community were identified which differentiate repeat offenders from those who desist from offending in adolescence and emerging adulthood. However, variations in the methodology adopted for each of the studies (N=9) limit the conclusions that can be drawn from this review and highlight the need for further research in this area. Specifically, research is required that is conducted outside the USA, includes females as a discrete offender group and uses methodology comparable to existing research in this field.
Show more

229 Read more

A Return to Rawls: Applying Social Justice to Mental Health Provision in the Youth Offending Service

A Return to Rawls: Applying Social Justice to Mental Health Provision in the Youth Offending Service

differences in funding means that provision is greater or lesser in some areas of the country (Foley and Platzer, 2007). The service young people receive then varies depending upon where they live, which can be perceived as unjust (Lambert et al., 2005). With a strong correlation between offending behaviour and mental health it would be expected that there would be a high level of mental health need amongst young offenders. This is supported by research, but the exact level of need varies depending on the assessment tools used. Amongst the general youth population, mental health need is approximately 12% (Marshall et al., 2011). Mental health need for young offenders ranges from the level of the general population, through to 90% with numerous estimates between these two extremes. (Anderson et al., 2004; Centre For Social Justice, 2011; Marshall et al., 2011; Rawal et al., 2004; Townsend et al., 2007; Vostanis, 2007). This variation is largely due to using different mental health assessments or looking at specific subgroups within the offending population. The Asset, SIFA and SQIFA are the assessments used by the YOT for mental health; these have been described as limited and inadequate (Almond, 2012). Research uses a variety of other assessments including the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Warwick Child Health and Morbidity Profile, The Health of The Nation Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA), the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia or School-Age Children- Epidemiologic version (K-SADS-E) and others (Almond, 2012; Anderson et al., 2004; Liebenberg and Ungar, 2014; Marshall et al., 2011; Nicol et al., 2000; Stallard et al., 2003; Townsend et al., 2007). This variety of tools gives a high variance of levels of mental health need. The SDQ seems to be a more commonly used tool, finding between 35% (Marshall
Show more

289 Read more

YOUTH SAFETY ADVISORY COUNCIL

YOUTH SAFETY ADVISORY COUNCIL

delineated between Northside, Southside and Westside. This is important as each area of the city encounters varying difficulties and celebrates a vast amount of cultures and traditions, each impacting the way in which community members view and interact with policing. Thus, if the community policing rationale is expanded to allow for SRO officers to get to know the historical significance of the school and its people, better outcomes are likely to occur. This can be exemplified by student and community lead engagement within an area with a predominant cultural, ethic, and linguistic heritage, such a community tour of Pilsen and Little Village, areas with high Latinx concentrations. If not already in effect, such training would occur on an annual or biannual bias in order to insure best practices. Moreover, collaboration incites a policing benefit, as “cognitive; emotional; social; and moral [skills]...may improve officers’ wellness as well as promote relationships between police officers and community members,” allowing both parties to receive benefits (Blumberg).
Show more

10 Read more

Youth Theatre School

Youth Theatre School

COVID-19 Legal Information ACCEPTANCE OF RISK AND CONSENT: I am aware that Playhouse on the Square/Circuit Playhouse, Inc. (CPI) is taking measures to protect its employees and students from the exposure and spread of COVID-19. Further, CPI is recommending that students, parents, faculty, and staff follow safety and health guidelines for the prevention of COVID-19, including those issued by the City of Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee Department of Public Health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and any other
Show more

18 Read more

School and Youth Gardens

School and Youth Gardens

compositions about the garden. Math skills were acquired by counting seeds, measuring garden plots, and determining the appropriate soil depth for planting. Students learned botany and entomology by observing plants and insects and their interrelationships. Geography and history came into play when students studied the origins of fruits and vegetables and planting customs among different cultures. The gardens provided inspiration for drawing, painting, and performing music. In 1914, the federal government established the Bureau of Education’s Office of School and Home Gardening, which promoted school gardens and provided “how-to” pamphlets and course guides.
Show more

22 Read more

Occupational health and safety education for youth : the process of constructing knowledge in the high-school curriculum

Occupational health and safety education for youth : the process of constructing knowledge in the high-school curriculum

In 1 998 the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) introduced the Workpla ce Safety 3220 course to the provincial high schoolcurriculum.Similar to 0ccupational health and safety ([r]

202 Read more

Youth transitions : from offending to desistance

Youth transitions : from offending to desistance

When comparing reasons and advantages or disadvantages of starting with those of maintaining offending, the data support the suggestion made earlier that these are distinct phases of offending which cannot be justifiably combined in an understanding of youth offending over time. What had started out as generally sociable and enjoyable criminal activity in the onset phase had become isolating, habitual and increasingly risky behaviour for many in the maintenance phase. The public image of being a successful offender, however, was important to the men in particular in the early stages of the maintenance phase, even though such a reputation may have caused them ambivalence more latterly (Bromley, 1993). Although people cannot be seen as responsible for the reputations others attribute to them, they are nevertheless held to account for that reputation being either sustained or abandoned. In addition, in a community where young people – especially young men – have few alternative sources of power or friendship, maintaining a public image, however difficult to uphold, serves an immediate and pragmatic purpose. However, to uphold and build on one’s reputation as an offender in the transition to adulthood often required these young people to focus in on that offending activity and to view their offending more as a business or way of life. They internalised the social identity that they had developed over time.
Show more

33 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...