Mechanical Design of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Top PDF Mechanical Design of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers:

Analysis of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Analysis of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

In the present project, the methodology used in the design of the heat exchanger is studied and presented. The thermal design involves the calculation of shell side and tube side heat transfer coefficients, heat transfer surface area and pressure drops on the shell side and tube side. The mechanical design involves the calculations of thickness of pressure parts of the heat exchanger such as the shell, channel, tube etc. to evaluate the rigidity of part under design pressures. The design of the heat exchanger is then modeled in Pro-Engineer and finally analyzed using ANSYS software. In this system oil is taken as hot fluid and cold fluid is water. Where no phase change occurs.
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Effect of Nanofluid on Heat Transfer Characteristics of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers: Effect of Alunimium Oxide Nanofluid

Effect of Nanofluid on Heat Transfer Characteristics of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers: Effect of Alunimium Oxide Nanofluid

It is essential for the designer to have a good knowledge of the mechanical features of shell-and-tube heat exchangers and how they influence thermal design. The principal components of shell-and-tube heat exchangers are: Shell, shell cover, tubes, channel, channel cover, tube sheet, nozzles, baffles, Other components include tie-rods and spacers, pass partition plates, impingement Plate, longitudinal baffles, sealing strips, supports, and foundation. The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer is Association, TEMA, has introduced a standardized nomenclature for shell-and-tube heat exchangers. A three-letter code has been used to designate the overall configurations. The three important elements of any shell-and-tube heat exchangers are front head, the shell and rear head design respectively. The Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA) [15] describes the various components of various class of shell-and-tube heat exchanger in detail.
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Design and Development of Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger for Beverage

Design and Development of Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger for Beverage

design is carried out using in-house developed software for design and drafting. This dedicated software enables qualified engineers to accomplish complex design calcu- lations complying strictly with the requisite international codes and standards. The software also generates fabrica- tion drawings to scale and 3-D images of the Exchanger thereby giving warning of any foul-up/mis-match in noz- zles, RF-Pads and in the dimensions of various compo- nents. Also an experienced team of design engineers un- dertakes thermal and mechanical design of complex heat exchangers and generate fabrication drawings to scale along with weights and estimates based on customer’s specifications. These designs are optimized to arrive at an optimal size. After carrying out the design, the final output is in an AutoCAD drawing format (DWG) or DWF (Web format).
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Design of a Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Prototype for 1 kW Power Output

Design of a Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Prototype for 1 kW Power Output

Rising energy demand due to industrial development, population growth, is pushing the mankind for utilizing more and more conventional energy sources such as coal, oil and gas. There is a need to minimize the use of such types of resources because, it contributes to the global warming, pollution and climate change. Use of alternative sources of energy such as solar, hydro, wind, tidal, geothermal, biofuel, and nuclear are preferable and are promising for the modern world. Solar energy, which is abundantly available in Jorhat area, can be used for power generation using Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Technology, is the source of energy selected for this work. Use of solar energy can reduce the load on the conventional energy sources. Solar parabolic trough collector (PTC) system is employed as the evaporator of the solar organic Rankine cycle (SORC) system. Working fluid for the subcritical ORC is R245fa. Reciprocating piston type expander is used for the expansion of the working fluid. The 1 kW capacity alternator coupled to the expander shaft can convert the mechanical power into electricity. Two heat exchangers have been designed for the ORC prototype, one is an air cooled cross-flow heat exchanger for cooling the hot organic vapours and one shell and tube condenser (water cooled) for condensing the vapour into liquid state. Theoretical modelling of the prototype assembly is done using DWSIM and thermo-economic analysis has been carried out. Results indicate that the system can generate electricity in the range 439-763 W. The 1 st law and 2 nd law efficiencies of the cycle varies from 25.13 to 37.07% and 29.69 to 43.57% respectively. The payback period for the system is estimated to be around 17.27 years.
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Design, Analysis and Fabrication of Shell and Tube Heat
              Exchanger

Design, Analysis and Fabrication of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

The Heat exchanger is a mechanical device which is used for the purpose of exchange of heats between two fluids at different temperatures. There are various types of heat exchangers available in the industry, however the Shell and Tube type heat exchanger is probably the most used and widespread type of the heat exchanger’s classification. It is used most widely in various fields such as oil refineries, thermal power plants, chemical industries and many more. This high degree of acceptance is due to the comparatively large ratio of heat transfer area to volume and weight, easy cleaning methods, easily replaceable parts etc. Shell and tube type heat exchanger consists of a number of tubes through which one fluid flows. Another fluid flows through the shell which encloses the tubes and other supporting items like baffles, tube header sheets, gaskets etc. The heat exchange between the two fluids takes through the wall of the tubes.
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Investigation of shell and tube heat exchangers by using a design of experiment

Investigation of shell and tube heat exchangers by using a design of experiment

Heat exchangers are one of the most important devices of mechanical systems in modern society. Most industrial processes involve the transfer of heat and more often they require the heat transfer process to be controlled. A heat exchanger is the heat exchanged between two media, one being cold and the other being hot. There are different types of heat exchanger, but the type which is widely used in industrial application is the shell and tube. In this study, experiments conducted based on fully replicable five-factor, five-level central composite design. Regression modelsare developed to analyse the effects of shell and tube heat exchange process parameter such as inlet temperature of hot fluid and flow rates of cold and hot fluid. The output parameters of a heat exchanger are used for analysing the direct and interactive effects of heat exchange process parameters.
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Thermal effect in pressure fluctuation : internal flow

Thermal effect in pressure fluctuation : internal flow

Vibration analysis of shell-and-tube heat exchangers: an overview—Part 1: flow, damping, fluidelastic instability, Journal of Fluids and Structures 2003. Retrieved from science direct Ap[r]

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Online Full Text

Online Full Text

scatterplot of actual versus predicted costs for experi- ment 5. It is seen that most of the points lie very close to the line for strong prediction. For perfect prediction, all points should lie on this line. Hence, this chart pro- vides the linear equation of the regression line (in the form of Y=Ax+B) between predicted and actual values. In this equation the closer to 0 is the B factor and the closer to 1 is the slope of the line (A factor), the better can be considered the estimation. The model number 5 has been selected. The configuration of the neural net- work include an input layer of 5 neurons corresponding to the five input parameters and an output layer of one neuron as the target (cost per exchange area). Two hid- den layers both with 10 neurons. The input parameters (design variables and predominant cost drivers) for the input layer are presented in Table 1. The learning algo- rithm selected corresponds to Levenberg-Marquardt and the transfer function is logsig. Figure 3 plots the com- parisons between simulated and real values of the testing set. Note that the determination coefficient R 2 is equal
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Review on Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers using Helical Baffles and Nanofluids R. Ramakanth 1

Review on Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers using Helical Baffles and Nanofluids R. Ramakanth 1

In the majority of published papers as well as in industrial applications, heat transfer coefficients are estimated, based, generally on literature tables. These values have always a large degree of uncertainty. So, more realistic values can be obtained if these coefficients are not estimated, but calculated during the design task. A few numbersof papers present shell and tube heat exchanger design including overall heat transfer coefficient calculations (Polley et al., 1990, Polley and Panjeh Shah, 1991, Jegede and Polley, 1992, and Panjeh Shah, 1992, Ravagnani, 1994, Ravagnani et al. (2003), Mizutani et al., 2003, Serna and Jimenez, 2004, Ravagnani and Caballero, 2007a, and Ravagnani et al., 2009) Gang yong Lei et al [1] have showed the effects of baffle inclination angle on flow and heat transfer of a heat exchanger with helical baffles, where the helical baffles are separated into inner and outer parts along the radial direction of the shell. While both the inner and outer helical baffles baffle the flow consistently, smoothly and gently, and direct flow in a helical fashion so as to increase heat transfer rate and decrease pressure drop and impact vibrations, the outer helical baffle becomes easier to manufacture due toits relatively large diameter of inner edge. Lutcha J et al [2]have done experiments to the improvement of tubularheat exchangers with helical baffles for investigation of the flow field patterns generated by various helix angles which is expected to decline pressure at shell side and increase heat transfer process significantly.
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SIMULATION MODELLING ANALYSIS OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

SIMULATION MODELLING ANALYSIS OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

simulation can be used to answer questions like: What is the best design for a new network? What are the associated resource requirements? How will a telecommunication network perform when the traffic load increases by 50%? How will new routing algorithm affect its performance? Which network protocol optimizes network performance? What will be the impact of a link failure? The subject of this tutorial is discrete event simulation in which the central assumption is that the system changes instantaneously in response to certain discrete events. For instance, in an M/M/1 queue - a single server queuing process in which time between arrivals and service time are exponential - an arrival causes the system to change instantaneously. On the other hand, continuous simulators, like flight simulators and weather simulators, attempt to quantify the changes in a system continuously over time in response to controls. Discrete event simulation is less detailed (coarser in its smallest time unit) than continuous simulation but it is much simpler to implement, and hence, is used in a wide variety of situations illustrated in fig 2-5.
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Hydraulic Network Modeling to Analyze Stream Flow Effectiveness on Heat Transfer Performance of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Hydraulic Network Modeling to Analyze Stream Flow Effectiveness on Heat Transfer Performance of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

2. 1. Definition of Stream Flow Areas and Stream Flow Rates Because of tube-baffle holes and shell-baffle clearance, a fraction of fluid flow across each baffle section can become bypass or leakage through each gap respectively, which affect the window and cross stream. It is necessary to analyze them individually in the different section to see their effectiveness on shell-side heat transfer performance and pressure drop. The shell-side flow is divided into individual streams: cross-flow stream, tube-baffle leakage stream, shell and tube leakage stream, bundle- shell bypass stream, pass partition bypass stream and stream W as window-section stream. Also, to account for non-uniform flow rates, this model requires the shell-side of heat exchanger to be divided into three main flow-sections; window-section, cross-section and tube-baffle clearance. The expressions to calculate other geometrical characteristics are given in the following by Equation (1) to (4), which can also be found in the literature [1-3]. Figure 1 shows the stream flow and different baffle-section regions of shell and tube heat exchanger. In addition, the shell-side equivalent hydraulic network for different stream flow is shown in Figure 2.
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Design and Experimental Analysis of Concentric Tube Heat Exchangers with Various Fins

Design and Experimental Analysis of Concentric Tube Heat Exchangers with Various Fins

The test procedures are used to evaluate the fabricated heat exchangers. The experimental measurement of the heat exchanger effectiveness over a range of mass flow rates. In this test, an external cooler and a heater are used to control large temperature differences across the heat exchanger while minimizing the pressure drop. Pressure regulator is used to control the inlet pressure and the digital indicator is used to find the inlet temperature and also outlet temperature.

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Numerical Study of Improvement in Heat Transfer Coefficient of Cu-O Water Nanofluid in the Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Numerical Study of Improvement in Heat Transfer Coefficient of Cu-O Water Nanofluid in the Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

tube wall and absorbance of heat energy contained in it, however, wall temperature decreases. The evaluation between the wall temperature and Reynolds number showed that the heat energy absorbed in it and reduced wall temperature reduces the wall temperature while increasing nanoparticles to the base fluid. Therefore, when the temperature increases, the viscosity of nanofluid decreases and rapid alignment of nanoparticles occurs to create some contact between nanoparticles; in addition, decreasing particle in a fluid phase and near the wall causes a decreased thermal conductivity of boundary layers in the tube wall. In a constant concentration at different Reynolds numbers, this evaluation shows that temperature of a tube wall containing water flow as the base fluid is higher than the nanofluid flow and wall temperature decreases in both flows for higher Reynolds numbers. Figure 9 shows the pipe wall temperature in Celsius degrees, with increasing Reynolds at 0.015 and 0.031% volumetric concentration and water.
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RECITAL SCRUTINY ON TUBE-IN- TUBE COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGERS

RECITAL SCRUTINY ON TUBE-IN- TUBE COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGERS

In this paper, a new type of extended surface based on diminutive wire mesh is proposed. Use of the wire mesh as extended surface has many advantages. A large surface area density can be achieved particularly when thin wires are used. Geometric parameters of wire mesh such as the wire diameter, the cross sectional shape of wire and mesh diameter can easily be controlled, which allows to have many design options to achieve heat transfer requirements. There is a wide variety of material available too. If the wire diameter is small, a mesh will form a flexible structure, unlike the conventional rigid mesh, which is also an advantage because such a flexible structure will release the thermal stress. In addition, there is no problem for mass production and therefore it has a potential to be cost effective.
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IJRTSM INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RECENT TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE & MANAGEMENT CFD ANALYSIS OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER USING BAFFLES WITH DIFFERENT ANGLE OF INCLINATION Karishma Jawalkar 1, Yogesh Kumar Tembhurne2 , Dr. Mohit Gangwar 3

IJRTSM INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RECENT TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE & MANAGEMENT CFD ANALYSIS OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER USING BAFFLES WITH DIFFERENT ANGLE OF INCLINATION Karishma Jawalkar 1, Yogesh Kumar Tembhurne2 , Dr. Mohit Gangwar 3

In present day shell and tube heat exchanger is the most common type heat exchanger widely use in oil refinery and other large chemical process, because it suits high pressure application. Firstly modeling done on CATIA software and the process in solving simulation consists of modeling and meshing the basic geometry of shell and tube heat exchanger using CFD package ANSYS 14.0. The objective of the project is design of shell and tube heat exchanger with series of baffles and study the flow and temperature field inside the shell using ANSYS software tools. The process in solving simulation consists of modeling and meshing the basic geometry of shell and tube heat exchanger using CFD package ANSYS 14.0. The objective of the project is design of shell and tube heat exchanger with baffle and study the flow and temperature field inside the shell using ANSYS software tools. The heat exchanger contains 5 tubes and 600 mm length shell diameter 90 mm. The helix angle of baffle will be varied from 10 0 to 20 0 . In simulation will show how the pressure vary in shell due to different helix angle and flow rate. The flow pattern in the shell side of the heat exchanger with continuous baffles was forced to be rotational and Baffles Series due to the geometry of the continuous baffles, which results in a significant increase in heat transfer coefficient per unit pressure drop in the heat exchanger.
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Design and CFD analysis of hair pin heat exchanger at different nano-fluids

Design and CFD analysis of hair pin heat exchanger at different nano-fluids

Air-cooled heat exchangers, commonly employed e.g. for condensing vapours, have several major advantages. They are cheap and very simple, thus little maintenance is necessary. No intricate piping or pumping system is required and, in most cases, fouling or corrosion do not occur at a significant rate (Hewitt et al., 1994, Sec. 9.2.1). On the other hand, there are disadvantages that must be considered, namely heat transfer coefficient being relatively low and hence these exchangers tend to be larger (Hewitt et al., 1994, Sec. 9.2.2). We must also bear in mind that embedded fans may be noisy and that temperature difference available for cooling may be lower in some locations due to warmer climate.
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Thermal design of tube and shell type Heat exchanger –a review

Thermal design of tube and shell type Heat exchanger –a review

Mass velocity strongly influences the heat-transfer coefficient. For turbulent flow, the tube side heat-transfer coefficient varies to the 0.8 power of tube side mass velocity, whereas tube side pressure drop varies to the square of mass velocity. Thus, with increasing mass velocity, pressure drop increases more rapidly than does the heat- transfer coefficient. Consequently, there will be an optimum mass velocity above which it will be wasteful to increase mass velocity further. The construction geometry and thermal parameters such as mass flow rate, heat transfer coefficient etc are strongly influenced by each other. A detail study of research of design procedures, effect and variation of thermal parameters under different conditions and optimization methods implemented for STHE has been carried out in literature review.
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SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER CFD ANALYSIS USING BAFFLES WITH DIFFERENT ANGLE OF INCLINATION

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER CFD ANALYSIS USING BAFFLES WITH DIFFERENT ANGLE OF INCLINATION

This model can likewise be enhanced by utilizing Nusselt number and Reynolds push model, yet with higher computational hypothesis. Besides the upgrade divider work are not use in this undertaking, but rather they can be exceptionally valuable. The heat exchange is poor in light of the fact that a large portion of the fluid goes without the cooperation with baffles. In this way the design can be altered for better heat move in two different ways either the diminishing the shell measurement, so it will be a legitimate contact with the baffle or by expanding the baffle so baffles will be appropriate contact with the shell. It is on the grounds that the heat exchange territory isn't used proficiently. So We can seen that when edge of inclination baffle will be expanded at that point heat exchanged we found that most extreme. Here we use 90⁰, 30⁰ and 45⁰ degree inclination edge with baffles and 45⁰ degree inclination baffles we discovered least disturbance esteem contrast with 90⁰ degree and 30⁰ degree inclination of baffles.
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Heat exchanger’s shell and tube modeling for intelligent control design

Heat exchanger’s shell and tube modeling for intelligent control design

Abstract- The shell and tube of heat exchanger is a medium where heat transfer process occurred. The accuracy of the heat exchanger depends on the performance of both elements. Therefore, both components need to be controlled in order to achieve a substantial result in the process. For this purpose, the actual dynamics of both shell and tube of the heat exchanger is crucial. This paper discusses two methods used in deriving the mathematical modeling of the system. First, physical dynamic modeling is obtained using physics and dynamics laws where actual parameters of the shell and tube are considered. Secondly, the model is determined by applying non-parametric system identification based on experimental response on the heat exchanger. Two models are used to design the shell and tube intelligent control. The intelligent control type is a Fuzzy Proportional Derivative (FPD) control. The experiment results shows that the shell and tube heat exchanger model develop using its physical parameters and controlled with FPD controller give better response, it means it can used as a model and controller of the shell and tube heat exchanger.
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DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER BY USING CFD

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER BY USING CFD

Heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat from one fluid to another fluid either in direct contact with each other or separated by solid wall. In heat exchangers, there are usually no external heat and work interactions. Typical applications involve heating or cooling of a fluid stream of concern and evaporation or condensation of single- or multi-component fluid streams. In other applications, the objective may be to recover or reject heat, or sterilize, pasteurize, fractionate, distill, concentrate, crystallize, or control a process fluid. In a few heat exchangers, the fluids exchanging heat are in direct contact. In most heat exchangers, heat transfer between fluids takes place through a separating wall or into and out of a wall in a transient manner. In many heat exchangers, the fluids are separated by a heat transfer surface, and ideally they do not mix or leak. Such exchangers are referred to as direct transfer type, or simply recuperators. In contrast, exchangers in which there is intermittent heat exchange between the hot and cold fluids—via thermal energy storage and release through the exchanger surface or matrix— are referred to as indirect transfer type, or simply regenerators. Such exchangers usually have fluid leakage from one fluid stream to the other, due to pressure differences and matrix rotation/valve switching. Commercially, heat exchangers are known as boilers, condensers, air heaters, cooling towers in power industry, radiator in automobile industry, equipments in chemical industry.
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