We have endeavored to do this beginning from a sound pedagogical foundation and guided by a formalized, multifaceted assessment program. This interactive multimedia courseware, titled Visual Mechanics of Materials (Vis-MoM), is designed to span the space of learning styles by providing extensive visualization and interactive content as well as thorough, step-by-step example problems. We have previously shown that these particular features of our courseware correspond well to a full span of student learning styles 16 . Vis-MoM is designed to increase motivation through extensive use of real-world examples and an interactive, thought-provoking learning environment. Finally, we show the open-ended nature of the subject by inclusion of open-ended design problems for each topic.
In other approach, a Chinese philosopher named Trang Chau in 369-298 B. C., had a belief which contradicted the true - false view of the world. He stated that true and false are one and undivided – a single-nary philosophy. He advised that we should go out beyond the framework of binary thinking: true - false, black - white etc. in order to better understand the nature of things. By single-nary thinking, which will be represented in this work, we introduce a modification of Aristotle’s philosophy using modal logic and multi-valued logic (these logics we call ‘high-order’ logic). Next, non-linear cause - effect relations are expressed through non-additive measures and multiple-information aggregation principles based on fuzzy integration. In this study, non-linearity will be singled out as an important concept for understanding high-order complex systems. The study of real time behaviors required experiences and intuition, will be realized using truth measures (non-additive measures) and a procedure for information processing in intelligence levels. Here, emphasis is put on a multidisciplinary approach using a single-nary philosophy based on high-order logic (modal logic and multi-valued logic) and fuzzy arithmetic. Non-linear study of mechanics of materials, in this paper, is formulated as a problem of meta- intelligent system analysis.
NOSA is a finite element code developed by the MMS Lab with the aim of testing new constitutive models for materials, checking the algorithm used for integrating the equations of the motion, as well as other numerical techniques for solving structural engineering problems. Development of the code has been made possible through the funding of CNR (progetto finalizzato Informatica, progetto finalizzato Materiali Speciali per Tecnologie Avanzate, progetto finalizzato Beni Culturali, progetto COMES-network for the computational solids mechanics) and funding of the region of Tuscany.
In some cases when macroscopic over-elastic deformation takes place before fracture (ductile fracture), cleavage fracture may occur after more or less ductile crack growth (dimple crack growth). This behaviour is mainly found in the transition region of toughness. Thus, the upper shelf of ductility is characterised by the fact that an existing crack does not fail directly during loading, but blunts due to plastic deformation, tears and growths stable due to plastic deformation. This means that the crack stops and does not fail without further energy input. In this case the value at the beginning of stable crack growth is used as fracture mechanics characteristic value and not the value at cleavage as used in the lower shelf and in the transition region. The fracture surface of stable crack growth is predominantly characterised by dimple fracture.
It would seem that the theory [quantum mechanics] is exclusively concerned about "re- sults of measurement", and has nothing to say about anything else. What exactly qualiﬁes some physical systems to play the role of “measurer”? Was the wavefunction of the world waiting to jump for thousands of millions of years until a single-celled living creature ap- peared? Or did it have to wait a little longer, for some better qualiﬁed system ... with a Ph.D.? If the theory is to apply to anything but highly idealized laboratory operations, are we not obliged to admit that more or less "measurement-like" processes are going on more or less all the time, more or less everywhere. Do we not have jumping then all the time?
This property further complicates the issue of certainty about memories, given the automatic correlation mechanics of multilayer neural networks discovered by Hebb (Hebb, 1949). Due to this natural process, when some memorized as- pects of past observations become too faintly connected to be easily reactivated, the network automatically tends to reestablish a coherence to harmoniously re- connect what can easily be re-activated of these memories, subconsciously con- structing “replacement segments” to logically harmonize the segments that can be remembered of past events, which is a phenomenon that has regularly been observed in courts of justice regarding the progressive evolution over time of the versions of witnesses that cannot be suspected of acting in bad faith (Lacy & Stark, 2013).
combining quantum mechanics and special relativity requires that we give up another of our primordial convictions. We believe that ev- erything there is to say about the world can in principle be put into the form of a narrative, or story. Or, in more precise and technical terms: everything there is to say can be packed into an infinite set of propositions of the form “at t1 this is the exact physical condition of the world” and “at t2 that is the exact physical condition of the world,” and so on. But the phenomenon of quantum-mechanical en- tanglement and the spacetime geometry of special relativity—taken together—imply that the physical history of the world is infinitely too rich for that (Albert and Galchen, 2009, p. 39).
The employment of nanomaterial, such as carbon nanotubes or graphene flakes, in hierar- chical bio-inspired composites requires the full understanding of the mechanical behaviour starting from the lowest dimensional level (Figure 1.4). Molecular dynamics (MD) is a simulation technique that consists of numerically solving the classical Newton’s equation of motion for a set of atoms, which are characterized by their position, velocity, and acceleration. After the definition of the initial conditions of the system (initial temperature, number of particles, density, time steps, etc.) the initial equilibrium of the system is found and then the perturbation to be studied is introduced into the system. Each atom is considered as a classical particle that obeys Newton’s laws of mechanics in relation to the interaction with other atoms which are defined by the so called interatomic potentials (or force fields) that describe attractive and repulsive forces in between pairs or larger groups of atoms . Potentials may be defined at many levels of physical accuracy; those most commonly used are based on molecular mechanics which can reproduce structural and conformational changes but usually cannot reproduce chemical reactions. When finer levels of detail are needed, potentials based on quantum mechanics (density functional theory, DFT) are used; some methods attempt to create hybrid classical/quantum potentials where the bulk of the system is treated classically but a small region is treated as a quantum system, usually undergoing a chemical transformation.
deformation is fully recoverable. The constitutive behavior of a hyperelastic material is defined as a total stress-total strain relationship. Hyperelastic materials are described in terms of a “strain energy potential”, U( ε ) which defines the strain energy stored in the material per unit volume as a function of the strain at that point in the material. In ABAQUS there are several forms of strain energy potentials available to model approximately incompressible elastomers. When data from multiple experimental tests are available, the Ogden and Van der Waals forms are more accurate in fitting experimental results. When only one set of test data is available, the Marlow form is recommended. In this case a strain energy potential is constructed that will reproduce the test data exactly and that will have reasonable behavior in other deformation modes.
Cloth materials have distinct properties that make them deform in a different way than other materials. Apart from having a unique behavior each cloth material has its own characteristic way of deforming. A cotton fabric will not deform in the same way as a polyester fabric. Computer simulation of cloth drape has always presented significant problems and has been primarily carried out by a continuum model based on finite elements or a discrete particle based model. There are significant problems with the former continuum based modeling of cloth which assumes the small scale behavior of cloth is simply a scaled down version of its macroscopic behavior. This assumption is not valid for woven, highly deformable, anisotropic and nonlinear cloth. Cloth modeling based on an interacting particle model  is based on the microstructure of woven cloth which is not continuous and is a complex microstructure. By representing cloth in a particle model various complexities in the microstructure of cloth are better represented. The particle method is also simpler to implement and needs less computational time. Empirical data from a fabric testing system like Kawabata can provide the required material property input to the simulation system.
A role of aesthetics of the object came into question before starting to make the piece. I have mentioned, I tried to simplify this role. Since I decided to have a mechanical cranking system, an object was needed to attract the audience into action. The design of the structure also needed to contemplate strength, so the dominant restriction to aesthetic considerations was a mechanical and structural restriction. Craftsmanship was considered to avoid disturbing the viewer’s eyes, and also in order to create the exact right fit for each part. There was no consideration of a symbolic value of materials. My prevailing apprehension was to succeed in delivering the experience with a combination of senses. Therefore, the overall aesthetic was only needed to be harmonious and balanced with the primal objective.