Based on Baron and Kenny (1986), this study finds that there are significantly associations between the implementation of government auditing quality management mechanism, the job satisfaction of government auditor and identification of influential factors to improve performance audit. The path coefficient estimated value for the implementation of quality management mechanism alone predicting identification of influential factors to improve performance audit is less than that between them. Accordingly, the job satisfaction of government auditor indeed plays the mediation role for them. Employing the two-level test by Jöreskog and Sörbom (1996), this study divides all factor facets of the government auditors’ job satisfaction into two groups. The examinations for the packet group effectiveness by the discriminatory analysis and t-test of independent sample are well. Overall the goodness-of-fit for the sample models is acceptable. The Chi-square difference between benchmark model and identity model is 0.678. However, the Chi-square value for a freedom degree difference between benchmark model and identity model is 3.84(α=0.05). The Chi-square difference between them is insignificant. There appears to be no moderation effect for the job satisfaction of government auditor.
ABSTRACT : Objective image quality assessment (IQA) aims to evaluate image quality consistently with human perception. Most of the existing perceptual IQA metrics cannot accurately represent the degradations from different types of distortion, e.g., existing structural similarity metrics perform well on content-dependent distortions while not as well as peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) on content- independent distortions. In this paper, we integrate the merits of the existing IQA metrics with the guide of the recently revealed internal generative mechanism (IGM). The IGM indicates that the human visual system actively predicts sensory information and tries to avoid residual uncertainty for image perception and understanding. Inspired by the IGM theory, we adopt an autoregressive prediction algorithm to decompose an input scene into two portions, the predicted portion with the predicted visual content and the disorderly portion with the residual content. Distortions on the predicted portion degrade the primary visual information, and structural similarity procedures are employed to measure its degradation; distortions on the disorderly portion mainly change the uncertain information and the PNSR is employed for it. Finally, according to the noise energy deployment on the two portions, we combine the two evaluation results to acquire the overall quality score. Experimental results on six publicly available databases demonstrate that the proposed metric is comparable with the state-of-the-art quality metrics.
We have worked on aspects and different types of pricing models such as pay-as-you go model, genetic model for pricing in cloud computing markets etc. Pricing in cloud Service provider provides requested services to the customer. Customer pays to the service provider based on the amount and the quality of the provided service. Pricing process can be of two types: Fixed and Dynamic In Fixed pricing mechanism same amount is charged to the customer all the time. Fixed pricing mechanism include pay-per-use pricing model in which customers are charged based on their usage and consumption of a service. Subscription is another type of fixed pricing, in which the customer pays a fixed amount of money to use the service for longer periods at any convenient time or amount. In dynamic pricing mechanism customer is charged based on real time market conditions and the price of service is market dependent. ’spot pricing’ is a dynamic pricing mechanism. Factors such as initial cost, lease period, quality of service, age of resources, maintenance cost which influence pricing in cloud computing are also discussed. In the aspects of pricing models of cloud there are three main parameters: Quality of Service, utilization period, pricing approach. The pricing approach describes the process by which the price is determined.
8 In this paper, we applied the data mining techniques to mine a group of received staff petitions through Staff complain mechanism (feedback mechanism) in UNRWA - Gaza, each of these methods provided us with new knowledge that helped us to take some actions to improve the quality of service provided by the response unit in UNRWA, so we have discovered important results as importance of reply period that have an effect on the staff feedback. Thus, we have noted that the long period of reply lead to un-satisfaction of the requesters. We have noted the interests of staff groups as the staff member with lower grades are interested in question about salaries and getting loans. Furthermore, we noted the staff with higher grades need detailed answers about their questions.
The Tat pathway possesses the unique and remarkable ability to transport partially or even fully folded proteins across energy-transducing membranes, and does not require nucleoside triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis at any stage of the translocation process (reviewed by Robinson and Bolhuis, 2004; Muller, 2005). The composition of the Tat pathway has been identified but it is surprisingly varied in different species. In E. coli, it consists of three subunits TatA, TatB and TatC which are the minimal functional group. Homologues of each subunit are found in chloroplasts as Tha4, Hcf106 and cpTatC respectively. However, all Gram-positive bacteria except Streptomyces species and some archaea contain only TatA and TatC (Yen et al., 2002). TatD and TatE are also encoded by tat genes but they are not essential for the protein translocation. The tatD gene is co-expressed in an operon with tatA/B/C and encodes a protein with DNase activity (Wexler et al., 2000). The tatE gene is thought to be a gene duplication of tatA but is expressed at significantly lower levels, and can partially complement E. coli ΔtatA cells if overexpressed (Sargent et al., 1998; Jack et al., 2001). Surprisingly, recent researches have speculated that the involvement of the TatD and TatE in the quality-control of Tat substrates (Matos et al., 2009).
ABSTRACT: A successful and effective approach to give registering assets and administrations to clients on interest, distributed computing has turned out to be increasingly famous. From cloud administration suppliers' point of view, benefit is a standout amongst the most critical contemplations, and it is for the most part controlled by the design of a cloud administration stage under given business sector request. Be that as it may, a solitary long haul leasing plan is normally received to arrange a cloud stage, which can't promise the administration quality yet prompts genuine asset waste. In this paper, a twofold asset leasing plan is outlined firstly in which transient leasing and long haul leasing are joined going for the current issues. This twofold leasing plan can adequately ensure the nature of administration of all solicitations and decrease the asset squander incredibly. Besides, an administration framework is considered as a M/M/m+D lining model and the execution markers that influence the benefit of our twofold leasing plan are examined, e.g., the normal charge, the proportion of solicitations that need interim servers, et cetera. Thirdly, a benefit augmentation issue is defined for the twofold leasing plan and the upgraded design of a cloud stage is gotten by tackling the benefit amplification issue. At long last, a progression of computations is directed to look at the benefit of our proposed plan with that of the single leasing plan. The outcomes demonstrate that our plan cannot just ensure the administration nature of all solicitations, additionally get more benefit than the last mentioned.
Quality of Work Life deals with various aspects of work environment, which facilitates the human resource development efficiently. The term Quality of Work Life may be conceptualized as a subset of the quality of life .This is so because the two terms are related to each other. Quality of Work Life is the degree to which members of a work organization are able to satisfy their personal needs through their experience in the organization. Its focus is on the problem of creating a human work environment where employees work cooperatively and contribute to organizational objectives. The major indicators of Quality of Work Life are job involvement, job satisfaction and productivity. Quality of work life is a way of thinking about people, work and organizations, its distinctive elements are (i) a concern about the impact of work on people as well as on organizational effectiveness, and (ii) the idea of participation in organizational problem-solving and decision making.
A.Umamaheswaran et al.,  explored that position- based opportunistic routing mechanism which can be deployed without complex modification to MAC protocol and achieve multiple reception without losing the benefit of collision avoidance provided by 802.11. In the case of communication hole, there is a Virtual Destination-based Void Handling  (VDVH) scheme in which the advantages of greedy forwarding (e.g., large progress per hop) and opportunistic routing can still be achieved while handling communication voids that addressed the problem of selective jamming attacks in wireless networks.
Prof. Bergman started her project with modest funding, but overflowing personal magnetism, enthusiasm, motiv- ation as well as receptivity by the clinical community. In the ensuing years, long term care facilities have become more overwhelmed with clinical, ethical, legal and finan- cial constraints. If improving the care of persons with dementia is indeed a global goal, achieving progress will require not only sufficient resources and infrastructure, but the selection of effective models for advancing know- ledge and implementing best practices. The collaboration of practitioners and researchers in mini-research groups can provide an answer to many of the challenges of addressing the needs of persons with dementia. Yet, to ensure such cooperation on a national level and for long lasting periods, every care policy program should develop and assimilate an appropriate research strategy aimed to increase the knowledge and understanding as well as to ensure the provision of quality care for people with de- mentia and their family members.
We recommend that where possible the reminder data should be collected as it has an important role to play. Records should be kept of which responses were received by reminder and then investigators can make use of the data in the ways we have illustrated. Little's test is applica- ble for all missing data patterns and therefore is the rec- ommended hypothesis test of MCAR. To obtain a more detailed investigation into the missingness mechanism at a particular assessment, a logistic regression procedure is useful. Deciding between Ridout and Fairclough's approaches would depend on whether the mechanism behind current dropout (Fairclough) or dropout after the assessment in question (Ridout) is of most interest; the choice remains with the researcher.
The researcher was of the view that, because majority of the Finance staff had tertiary education, they would be able to bring to bear their knowledge acquired, thereby enhancing the performance of the department such as keeping valuing books. Also, their level of education in addition to the in-service training acquired enabled the staff to keep documents as an evidence of their activities. In addition to minimize financial malpractices, the Internal Revenue Service in the Eastern Region Office has an internal audit as a quality control unit in checking and promoting the effectiveness of internal control in the organization as well as following the laid down procedures in the Finance Department.
Although there are some studies on the effect of powdery mildew on grain quality and its molecular mechanism, due to the differences between varieties and the complexity of disease, the related researches focus more on analyzing the changes of protein content and components in grain [4, 18, 24], changes of soluble sugar metabolism and starch components in kernel . While the analysis of other components has not been involved, nor has it been analyzed whether toxins are produced and accumulated in grain, what types of toxins are present and what the harm is. And the effect of powdery mildew on processing quality is limited to the preliminary comparison of the rheological parameters of dough, such as extensograph and farinograph parameters, viscosity and so on [18, 25]. The study on the molecular mechanism of the effect on quality involves the difference of metabolic protein expression in grain development under the condition of susceptibility to disease [4, 24]. But the related research is mainly about the change of protein expression level, while the researches on the changes of mRNA level and some key enzymes activities are lack. And the related studies on the change of specific metabolic pathway and its deep mechanism need to be strengthened. In the future, if we can combine the changes of key enzymes activities, we can study the difference of metabolism in seed development under the stress of powdery mildew. Combining quality analysis will be helpful to reveal the mechanism of powdery mildew's influence on grain quality, and to control wheat quality. And it will lay the foundation for further clarification of the wheat-fungi interaction.
This research provided an empirical study on quality disclosure effect on the relationship corporate governance and discretionary accrual as proxy earnings management, from the concentration ownership context. Using 175 sample of listed manufacturing firms on IDX during period 2009-2013, disclosure quality as moderating or interaction variable was investigated with MRA. The results indicated that there is a significant effect on disclosure quality on the relationship between corporate governance mechanism such as board size of directors, board size of commissioners, and Independent commissioners mechanisms and earnings management, This result gave evidence that disclosure quality and good corporate governance can reduce earnings management manipulation on concentration ownership context. This study also found insignificant moderation effect of disclosure quality on the relationship between audit committee and independent audit committee and earnings management variables. This research showed that companies with concentration ownership on IDX only meet requirement regulation of the corporate governance. This meant the existence of weak of corporate governance system which securities regulator have oversight responsibilities on all firm disclosure activities. The stronger corporate governance system and appropriate monitoring have the ability to impact on the firm management to disclosure more and give better financial information. Improved adequate disclosure presents adequate financial reporting as an important way to reduce agency conflict Type 2, which characterized concentrated ownership structures due to conflict of interest between dominant shareholders and minority shareholders.
Packet loss is another cause of quality degradation. A number of recovery schemes exist that are either receiver-based or sender-based [TOW97]. Some schemes are specifically designed for reliable multicast applications [LEV98] and others try to support real-time applications [HOD98]. A mechanism commonly used in the latter is Forward Error Correction (EEC) [ROS99]; it includes previously sent data along with new data to enable receivers to perform some recovery. A form of EEC is audio redundancy that is used in the ‘rat’ audio tool [KOU97b]. A new audio packet also incorporates a low quality version of an earlier audio packet. This is usually the immediate predecessor although other schemes have been proposed (e.g. include the third or fourth predecessor packets or even multiple ones). Information in the RTF header allows receivers to discover missing packets. When a receiver discovers loss, it attempts to repair the stream using the built in redundant data thereby compensating partially for packet loss. If heavy losses occur, EEC will most likely not be able to recover all missing packets. EEC is really a broad term and is also used in other media types (e.g. nte) possibly in combination with other schemes. The use of redundancy has also been proposed to repair losses in video streams [LIUOO].
According to the study of Shah and Nair (2011), the higher education sector, to a large extent, is responsible for graduates’ attributes not being to the satisfaction of employers. The notion of continuous improvement (Oakland 1998, 124), which refers to the “efforts of universities to continually improve their quality” (Manatos, Sarrico and Rosa 2016, 145) and customer satisfaction (Oakland 1998, 124) is central to the philosophy of TQM. The TQM approach, therefore, can be regarded as a customer-centred approach. VUT should determine the needs and expectations of its employers as external stakeholders and the satisfaction of employers with the graduates of VUT that they employed. Satisfaction surveys can be used as a quality management mechanism to generate data and information as a “factual approach to decision-making” (Manatos et al. 2016, 145). The results of the study should inform the development and alignment of academic programmes as an attempt to enhance graduate employability and counteract employer dissatisfaction.
management performs the resource scheduling to allocate the resources to users. The centralized management maintains the status of the virtual machine and scheduling policy in each intra cloud and allocating the requests to the virtual machines. Heavy workloads may lead to scheduling errors because there is no prediction model to predict the coming resource utilization of a data center. Existing scheduling mechanism could not provide an optimal solutions for complex problems to providing the Quality-of-Service (QoS) and avoiding the Service Level Agreement (SLA) violations.
• involvement of the departments teaching staff and clinicians in research activities. In general, PPP mechanism, developing the trinity of science, education and clinical practice in UC, will provide the formation of university environments, quality medical education, obtaining of modern theoretical knowledge and practical skills, which will improve care based on access to advanced technologies and scientific developments with implementation them into practical health care.
Enhanced Random Early Detection Forward Error Correction (ERED-FEC) mechanism is implemented for improving the quality of video transmissions over wireless LANs (WLANs). In the proposed approach, redundant FEC packets are generated dynamically at the AP in accordance with both the condition of the wireless channel and the current network traffic load. The channel condition is evaluated by monitoring the number of packet retransmissions. As the number of retransmissions Increases (i.e., the condition of the wireless channel deteriorates), a greater number of redundant FEC packets are generated. Conversely, as the channel condition improves, the number of FEC packets is reduced. The network traffic load is evaluated by monitoring the queue length at the wireless AP. If the queue is almost empty, i.e., the network is only lightly loaded, the number of redundant FEC packets is increased. By contrast, if the queue is nearly full, i.e., the network is heavily loaded; the number of FEC packets is reduced. By adopting this approach, the ERED-FEC algorithm significantly improves the video quality without overloading the network with an excessive number of redundant packets. An analytical model is proposed for predicting the quality of MPEG-4 video streams delivered over WLANs with FEC protection in terms of the effective packet loss rate and the Decodable Frame Rate (DFR) , . It is shown that the model provides the ERED-FEC mechanism with the means to determine the FEC redundancy rate required to guarantee the QoS requirements of video transmissions over lossy wireless networks. Fig. 1 illustrates the basic architecture of the AP-based ERED-FEC mechanism proposed in this study. (Note that an assumption is made that the wired segment of the video delivery path is loss free.) As shown, the ERED-FEC mechanism consists of five
Human tooth contains enamel which is the hardest tissue in the body. Nature has provided teeth with this form of tissue so that it can withstand massive occlusal forces and protect the innermost part of the tooth. The removal and shaping of both diseased and sound tooth structure is an essential part of restorative dentistry, initially this was a difficult process accomplished entirely by the use of hand instruments, bulky chisels and excavators. As this trend has become apparent, it has become equally obvious that the efficacy of operative dentistry and the quality of work performed can only be