In this paper we study the main performance characteristics of TMAC, a control protocolaccess to the medium for sensor networks (WSN) based on containment. TMAC was designed keeping in mind that the applications for this type of networks have some characteristics such as low transmission speed and delay sensitivity, which can be exploited to reduce energy consumption by introducing an active/inactive useful cycle. To handle any type of variation in traffic, TMAC uses an adaptive useful cycle, a novel strategy which allows that useful cycle to vary dynamically. Our contributions through this work are as follows: first, a physical layer model corresponding to the radio transmitter/receiver CC2420 was implemented in Qualnet®, including an energy consumption model and a model of the TMAC protocol based on the specifications of the authors; second, a detailed performance analysis of the protocol was made based on different metrics. Through our study we give useful information to the designers of sensor networks for the adjustment of their operation and performance parameters.
The main contribution of this paper is the development of the SD-MAC, a long- distance TDMA based MAC protocol, suitable for A2A communication. SD-MAC is based on TDMA with time divided into frames. Each frame contains slots and all messages are sent over one or several slots. The LM-Hello packets are used to exchange information of all one-hop neighbors and slot availability in the frame. SD-MAC uses the basic mechanism of RR-ALOHA  to broadcast control information; however, in contrast to RR-ALOHA, SD- MAC explicitly accounts for propagation delays in the reservation scheme (by appropriately shifting reservation slots). Additionally, to increase spatial reuse and to avoid link breakages due to high mobility, we augment SD-MAC with an adaptive power control mechanism, resulting in PowSD-MAC, a joint scheduling and adaptive power control MAC protocol. We show that PowSD-MAC provides an efficient and reliable MAC protocol suitable for the proposed black-box replication system. The protocol performance is evaluated and compared with tuned-up versions of IEEE 802.11.
This research work concludes that the in case of double receiver model that is used for serving nodes having high priority to send data to cluster head consumes less energy as compared to basic single receiver model. Performance of optical D-MAC protocol is analysed in terms of energy consumption by sensor network, network burst rate, probability of successful transmission and window size. due to which network congestion shorted our shortly and different time slots are assigned to different nodes. Implementation of direction mediaaccessprotocol is successful. A new concept of urgent node serves at duration of random accessprotocol assigning performed good and an improvement of 73% less power consumption is achieved. Basic model DMAC average energy consumption is 2.63uJ, while proposed model’s energy consumption is 0.879uJ.
Protocol for a systematic review of the effects of schools and school environment interventions on health evidence mapping and syntheses STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Protocol for a systematic review of[.]
iSCSI is a storage media based on the internet protocol as a link between storage servers and other servers and clients or users. In other words, iSCSI is useful for connecting storage media such as hard disk drive (HDD) or Solid State Drive (SSD) with an internet network or intranet as data transfer media. Building this iSCSI infrastructure requires a server that functions as a storage sharing service provider to server clients or users that can be called a storage server.
The increase in transmission services has place energy saving on the highest of current demands for mobile devices. sadly, batteries’ life has not been as extended because it would be fascinating. For that reason, reducing energy consumption in each task performed by these devices is crucial. During this work, a novel routing protocol, known as JOKER, is introduced. This proposal presents novelties in each the candidate choice and coordination phases, which enable increasing the performance of the network supporting transmission traffic also as enhancing the nodes’ energy potency. JOKER is compared in different-nature test-benches with attender routing protocol, showing its superiority in supporting a hard service like video- streaming in terms of QoE, whereas achieving an influence debilitating reduction in routing tasks
The next step was to obtain a password. The owners of the terminal to which the hacker had access did not know their ID; they had no need to know it because it was programmed into the terminal and sent automatically. The hacker could have put micro ’back-to-front’ across the line and sent a ENQ to see if an ID would be sent back. Instead he tried something less obvious. The terminal was known to be programmable, provided one knew how and had the right type of keyboard. Engineers belonging to the service had been seen doing just that. How could the hacker acquire ’engineer’ status? He produced the following hypothesis: the keyboard used by the service’s customers was a simple affair, lacking many of the obvious keys used by normal terminals; the terminal itself was manufactured by the same company that produced a range of editing terminals for viewdata operators and publishers. Perhaps if one obtained a manual for the editing terminal, important clues might appear. A suitable photocopy was obtained and, lo and behold, there were instructions for altering terminal IDs, setting auto-diallers and so on.
Razan Al-Ani  simulated and evaluated the AODV, OLSR, GRP, TORA and DSR routing protocols to analysis the performance on basis of Throughput, Delay, and Network load. They created a network which consists of mobile nodes, one fixed WLAN server running GRP and RX group config node to speed up simulation time. All nodes are configured to work with 5.5 Mbps data rate and FTP application type was chosen for all nodes with multiple FTP sessions. They ran four scenarios for each type of routing protocol. Each scenario was run for 30 min. According to their results OLSR routing protocol performs better than others in both delay and throughput.
Agreement for access to genetic resources and its commercial usage was admitted & signed between NBA and M/s. Britto Seafood Exports Pvt. Ltd. on 9th July, 2010. The company’s main trade is to produce & export of seafoods. In this particular agreement, the company has to export 28 metric tonnes of dried red seaweed to Vietnam. Seaweeds are generally grown by fishing community. It was further cultivated by women SHGs to produce carrageenan. In this agreement, NBA asked M/s. Britto Seafood Exports Pvt. Ltd to pay royalty of 5% of Free on Board value for exporting seaweeds, which is a huge amount of money. NBA also directed the company to share its benefits according to the BD Act, 2002. Surprisingly, benefit claimer & applicant is M/s. Aqua Clinic Centre, Mandapam as mentioned in the application for access to genetic resources.25 There are two critical issues emerging out from the facts of this case: 1. Absence of benefit sharing with fishing community or seaweed processors. It may be due to lack of proper coordination & communication. There is doubt on reliability of such kind of equitable sharing for benefit even if it exists or follow in the near future.
Protocol for evaluation of the continuum of primary care in the case of a miscarriage in the emergency room a mixed method study STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Protocol for evaluation of the continuum of[.]
The main operation of the proposed DQAL protocol is based on the distributed collision resolution queue. All the MDs have two counters (RQ and pRQ), where RQ is the number of collisions waiting in the queue. The second counter pRQ is the position of each MD in the collision resolution queue. At the beginning of each CRI, each MD makes some initialization based on the broadcast information (RQ value and preambles detection status). This initialization called queuing discipline rule. Another rule is the request transmission rule, used to resolve the collision. The whole process of DQAL protocol is described in algorithm 1 below. And elaborated in fig. 3.
Data confidentiality of client is more important in any sector of work, where in user authentication became more and more important. Access to web applications which is connected to LAN or single host will attract other parties who have no access to the network and application. Therefore, mechanism to identify user who have privilege to access the application is needed. This is to be added by providing the username and password for login process, so only right user can access the application
PORTS: The alternative name of PORT like END POINT or ACCESS POINT. The access point or end point available in this protocol for plug-in the different number of clients and it can for easy communicate with server. Client contact a server in all cases client send requests to an end point also called port. Server gives the response on those client requests that uses the port or specific end point. Port or endpoint can indirectly connected with server. In this protocol endpoint or port are attached at only in client side. These endpoints have been assigned by the INTERNET ASSIGNED NUMBERS AUTHORITY (IANA). With assigned endpoint, the client only needs to find the network address, where the server running. Many passive clients, it is often more efficient to a single server provided a specific server with every endpoint.
Easier  is a design that supports fine-grained access control policies and dynamic cluster membership by victimization CP-ABE theme. A lot of works are projected to style versatile ABE schemes There are two methods to comprehend the fine-grained access management supported ABE they are KP-ABE and ABE. In KP-ABE the cipher text consist of some descriptive attributes which are labeled by the sender and the trusted authority issues a user’s private key and the access policy is involved in the private key which specifies the decryption of the cipher text with the key. Here the disadvantage of this encryption is that the access policy is constructed into user's personal key. So data owner does not have the option on who can decrypt the data except encrypting the data with the set of attributes. Hence it is not suitable for certain applications as the information owner must trust the authority who gives the user’s key. The KP-ABEis secure beneath the final cluster model because it is monotonic access structure and additionally it cannot categorical the attributes to reject the parties with whom the knowledge owner didn’t have to share the knowledge from membership. To overcome this weakness cipher text policy attribute based encryption has been created that is proved to be secured below the quality model. In CP-ABE the access policy is made within the encrypted data and also the attributes is with the user’s private key. The attribute based encryption will be divided into monotonic or nonmonotonicbased on the sort of the access structure and based on the access policy the schemes will be classified as key policy or cipher text policy. The ideal attribute based encryption must support data privacy, scalability, fine-grained access control, user accountability, user revocation and collusion resistant. But the provided access policies are not appropriate for the scalable media content.
The conservation of energy and computation resources are the additional dimensions added to be included in protocol stack. The limited processing power, memory and battery life of the nodes introduces many challenges in design of MSN. The protocols needs to show the good performance and should be effective in stationary as well as mobile scenarios. The protocols is said to be working efficiently only when they are energy efficient in stationary scenario and it must provide performance in acceptable limits when the sensors are mobile. Energy management is very important key design issue in sensor networks. The MAC protocol design is mainly focused on energy efficiency.
Network encryption is a key component in the cyber security environment and is responsible for ensuring that communication between two trusted endpoints cannot be intercepted by malicious attackers. Network encryption is crucial for communication mechanisms operating over an untrusted public infrastructure. Consequently, protocols such as hypertext transfer protocol secure (HTTPS) and secure file transfer protocol (SFTP) natively support encryption. Be that as it may, as applications move from committed physical foundation to dispersed and virtualized framework in the cloud, numerous correspondence conventions that don't locally bolster encryption can possibly be misused by malevolent assaults. Given the
In  they have introduced a single channel MAC protocol for multihop ad hoc wireless networks known as MARCH. MARCH provides better throughput, delay and control overhead performance by reducing the number of handshakes. The simulation results reveal that MARCH outperforms MACA in several respects. MARCH is a protocol that exploits the case that neighbors overhear control messages, therefore it does not resort to network prediction, unlike most receiver-initiated protocols and it is more deterministic.
OSI model has seven layers structure for computing networks. The second layer of OSI model is data link layer. The main function of data link layer is to transfer the data to neighbor network nodes. The data link layer is concerned with delivery of frames between devices on the same network. The sublayer of data link layer is MAC. The MAC layer provide mechanism that address and control channel access. This make it possible to communicate within a shared medium, e.g. a wireless sensor network. The hardware that implements the MAC is referred to as a mediaaccess controller. MAC layer is responsible for Generating and managing beacons, manages network coordinators, Channel access, Guaranteed Time Slot management, Frame validation and Acknowledged frame delivery. The MAC protocols are broadly classified as scheduled based protocols and contention based protocols.
F-MAC shares with the contention based approach the lack of coordination between contending nodes for shared medium access. However, f-MAC differs from the cited contention based approaches because it is able to prevent message losses due to collisions with 100% guarantee. Schedule based protocols are are able to ensure collision-free communication but they invariably require some form of coordination between nodes. Mainly, time synchronisation among nodes is used which is not required in in the presented f-MAC protocol.