Several studies are being carried out in the world in the field of the influence of media products on the social and psychological development of individuals, ensuring the information security of children, studying media education from a social, pedagogical and psychological point of view, developing scientific and methodological foundations for media activities. These studies were brought to the attention of the International Chamber “Children and Violence on the Screen”, the Global Children‟s Media Summit, and the UNESCO Conference “Information for All”. The development of mediaculture in educational institutions through the integration of education and media, the development of media competence through the improvement of media knowledge based on an integrative approach, is gaining urgent importance.
T he crisis in education is part of crisis of science and this is one of the dimensions of contemporary culture. The mediaculture addressed to a large audience through technical means of communication is more and more important. Today’s students are no longer the people our educational system was designed to teach (Prensky, 2001). The ‘instant culture’, which main message is ‘carpe diem’, speedy communication and sexualization of life, shapes the identity of young people and their lifestyle (Melosik, 2010). The article undertakes theoretical and practical analysis of the trends in biological education, what is presented in the following conceptual framework: /1/ from cognition to metacognition, /2/ from individual experience to community, /3/ from knowledge to attitudes, /4/ from diagnosis to prevention, /5/ from subject skills to life skills. Experimental tests and analyses were designed to verify the research hypothesis assuming that mediaculture has the influence on biology education of ‘instant generation’. The alternative ways of teaching, including negotiation of shape the reality with students of high school are possible during biology lessons. The conclusions can be the basis of new educational models of ‘instant generation’.
In this section I outline the impetus for my design approach to the course curriculum and offer a short overview of its theoretical framework. In the field of media education there are major divisions about how media should be taught, which generally falls under two approaches: functionalist and critical (Gutiérrez-Martín & Tyner, 2012). Functionalist media literacy teaches practical skills for how to read media messages, and is also linked to information literacy. It is generally apolitical and does not promote any particular kind of activism. Critical media literacy, on the other hand, acknowledges that media play a significant role in defining power relationships within society. This approach is usually associated with activism and is not neutral when analyzing media messages. Though I sympathize with its orientation, oftentimes the critical approach can be abused for the purpose of promoting a ―protectionist‖ agenda, which views media audiences as powerless or as victims. Protectionists try to ―inoculate‖ students from potential harm caused by media corporations or advertisers. The primary method of this technique is media deconstruction, which involves teaching students how to analyze media messages, such as tobacco or alcohol advertisements.
In addition, the module outlines some key critical frameworks through which we make sense of the mass media. Using a range of analytic frameworks, the module examines issues related to power, identity and representation and assesses their significance for our understanding of the vast array of media material that surrounds us. The module encourages students to undertake close readings of a range of specific media texts and practices as well as understand how producers and consumers make sense of contemporary mass media.
In Malaysia for instance, Netto (2007) in an article ‘Malaysian media giant grasps for Internet’, summates that the largest private media conglomerate – Media Prima owns four free to air TV networks. Despite being a private broadcasting company, Media Prima is allied to UMNO (United Malays National Organisation), which is a dominant political party in Barisan Nasional; the National Front of the ruling coalition. Other than Astro - which is paid satellite TV network; RTM 1 and RTM 2 stations are state owned which are available to the public (Netto, 2007). During the last Malaysia’s General Election in March, 2008; Nain noted the opposition candidates and some of the media users chose the alternative media such as; mobile, blogs, email, YouTube and SMS to raise awareness and consciousness on the current socio-political issues due to the lack of credibility in both the mainstream and print media (Shah, 2008). Even though, it may appear that internet censorship does not apply in Malaysia, as yet; the draconian Internal Security Act may be imposed by the Home Minister to any individual who are believed to create or instigate instability in racial harmony or national security in Malaysia. This notion was further supported by Shao and Waller (1993, as cited in Waller & Kim, 2000, p. 4), that legal restrictions such as the Internal Security Act - 1960 and the Printing Presses and Publication Act – 1984, in Malaysia for instance; are implemented to protect the cultural identity and keep a tight rein on any offence(s) that may be intentionally/unintentionally instigated to other cultural group(s). With Malaysia being a country of diversified race, ethnicity and culture; the authority in power’s intention to protect its local interest, social harmony and political stability has escalated to a situation where democracy and freedom of speech is no longer practiced in its true volume.
1. Locate yourself - and your audience - within wider culture. Engage in reflexive practice around your own (internalised) assumptions and invite feedback from diverse others. One advisor said ‘I ask friends and colleagues and my editors/producers and audiences, plus whoever is asking for advice to give me feedback on how I’m doing. This includes thinking about my own values and prejudices and how my own experiences – personal and professional – affect my judgement.’ Ensure that your advice recognises the role of wider cultural understandings and power dynamics in structuring all of our (sexual) experience. Engage your audience themselves in reflecting critically on cultural messages around sex and intimacy.
As Mazzoleni (2008) points out, the analysis of mediated popu- lism is answerable to the histories, norms, limits and possibilities of media technology. Having argued that populism moves in accord with the emotional turn in mediaculture, it is also useful to consider media’s internal generic development, as well as its technological affordances. We have already referred to the com- pulsion of unscripted broadcasting to account for the norms of sociability (Scannell, 1996), but the technical and conventional demands of media extend far beyond these partial and context- speciﬁc efforts at para-social interaction. For one thing, in generic terms there are various and often conﬂicting priorities across entertainment and news-driven genres, with varying levels of compatibility with populist discourses (Mazzoleni et al., 2003). In terms of how these engage with political content more broadly, Street et al. (2017) identify a coming to dominance of genres conventionally associated with entertainment, markedly in the sketch-based satire of the left (Jones, 2010) and the populist talk radio of the right (Higgins, 2008: 65; Mort, 2012).
examined in the third part, while the final part addresses media policy in a European context. In fact, several essays could have been repositioned and there is more fluidity than these section divisions indicate, with reflections on democracy, politics, culture and identity running throughout. Yet there is also limited dialogue across the contributions. In their introduction the editors make an eloquent case for the book and summarize the individual contributions but they do not attempt a synthesizing survey of its findings, despite their claim to offer ‘a comprehensive approach to media, culture and
T he prompt detection of bacteremia and fungemia is a critical function of the clinical microbiology laboratory. Automated systems now in use incubate blood culture specimens and signal when growth is detected. For each of these systems, different for- mulations of blood culturemedia are available. These media often contain resins or charcoal particles intended to adsorb antimicro- bial agents or other substances inhibitory to bacterial growth that may be present in patient blood specimens (1). Previous studies have shown greater yields of some organisms and sometimes faster recovery of some species from such bottles than from bottles that do not contain these agents (2–6). Additionally, more recent in vitro and clinical studies have demonstrated an advantage of Bactec resin-containing media (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD) over BacT/Alert charcoal-containing media (bioMérieux, Inc., Durham, NC) (7, 8). In the present study, the clinical performance of BacT/Alert FA and FN media, which contain a proprietary char- coal-based additive, was compared to that of BacT/Alert FA Plus and FN Plus media, which contain a newly developed polymeric resin. The study was conducted at 3 geographically separate med- ical centers with specimens collected from adult patients sus- pected of having bacteremia and/or fungemia. This represents the first direct clinical comparison of BacT/Alert resin-containing media to BacT/Alert charcoal-containing media.
nents, ﬁ rstly the previously reported ISDD model  is embedded to provide a mean rate of NP agglomerate transport to the cell surface and (ii) system heterogeneity simulated through application of a nonhomogeneous Poisson distribu- tion, which stochastically determines agglomerate arrival at the cell surface where it may be part of and endocytic event and subsequently internalized by a cell. The STF ’ s principal ﬁ tting parameter re ﬂ ects the lifetime of an endocytic event, its optimized magnitude was found to be commensurate with direct measurements of clathrin-coated pits through high- resolution microscopy techniques [27, 28]. Further analysis of the STF provides previously unresolved dynamics of the NP agglomerate traverse across the cell membrane, quantifying statistically agglomerates fusion as NP dose is translated from cell-culturemedia to endosome vesicles. Through optimiza- tion and sampling of the statistical methodology we are con ﬁ dent in stating that the heterogeneity of the internalized NP dose (reported previously [15, 24]) is a result of the initial, inhomogeneous dispersion of the NPs in the cell culturemedia used for particle exposure.
vial. We compared two media for this system, resin-containing Plus aerobic/F and Lytic anaerobic/F. Sets of Plus aerobic/F and Lytic anaerobic/F vials inoculated with similar volumes (9 6 2.5 ml) were evaluated. In the laboratory, the vials were introduced into the system in accordance with the recommendations of the manu- facturer and incubated at 35°C for 5 days. A total of 10,914 sets consisting of two bottles each were obtained from 3,674 patients (2.97 cultures per patient). Of these, 1,233 (11%) were culture positive, including 1,074 (10%) yielding at least one pathogen, and 178 (2%) were contaminated. A total of 1,135 isolates were considered clinically relevant in 624 septic episodes; we isolated 894 from Plus aerobic/F and 852 from Lytic anaerobic/F (P 5 0.06 [not significant]). More S. aureus isolates (P 5 0.05), Pseudomonas spp. (P < 0.0001), other gram- negative bacteria (P 5 0.004), and yeasts (P < 0.0001) were isolated from Plus aerobic/F medium, but more streptococci (P < 0.0001), E. coli (P 5 0.02) strains and anaerobes (P < 0.0001) were detected with Lytic anaerobic/F medium. Lytic anaerobic/F vials were significantly (P < 0.0001) more often positive at least 6 h before Plus aerobic/F vials (n 5 112 versus 52, respectively). Significantly more (P < 0.0001) Plus aerobic/F vials (n 5 210; 1.9%) than Lytic anaerobic/F vials (n 5 42; 0.4%) were unconfirmed positives. Plus aerobic/F and Lytic anaerobic/F proved to be a valuable pair of blood culturemedia. Plus aerobic/F performs better for patients under antibiotic treatment, due to the antimicrobial-neutralizing effect of resins. For patients without antibiotic therapy, more microorganisms could be isolated from Lytic anaerobic/F due to cell lysis.
The principle of criminal law and democratic legitimateness of the legislator should tend to guarantee repre- sentativeness, rationality and extreme prudence in the recourse of the punitive sanction 53 . If these features of the penal system have been threatened for decades by the so-called legislation of emergency, they should be threat- ened even more by the hasty usage of the Internet. In fact, a politic use of the dialogue capacity of the Internet (such as, for example, the instantaneous referendum, or the political marketing polls, or the “vote” of proposal to transfer into the Parliament), if not accompanied by a mass of guarantees of real democracy of the media tools, seems modestly compatible with a penal system truly shaped on a extrema ratio 54 . The economic interests bu- ried in the web, the information technology chaos of the web, the scarceness of those who have adequate infor- mation technology knowledge, will probably direct the citizens toward emotive, little representative, irrational and repressive reactions. Reactions that, pursuant to the political marketing processes described, can concretely influence several criminal-political choices 55 .
the mRNA levels were lower than those detected in primary hepatocytes, the degree of albumin production of the hepatocyte- like cells in our two-chamber system was ∼ 2.5-fold higher than that previously reported in hepatocyte-like cells induced from iPSCs by Si-Tayeb et al. (2010). Their method, which consists of the addition of several growth factors in a stepwise fashion into the culture medium, achieved ∼ 1.5 μ g/ml albumin in the supernatant of the 3 day culture. When cultured for 3 days (from day 7 to day 10), our two-chamber culture of HE-iPSCs/MSCs and iPSCs/HUVECs produced albumin concentrations of 4.3±0.13 and 4.4±0.3 μ g/ml, respectively, in the culture supernatant. Additionally, CPS1, a liver- specific enzyme of the urea cycle that is exclusively expressed in mature hepatocytes (Butler et al., 2008), is expressed in our hepatocyte-like cells. We also quantified their function by measuring urea production. Furthermore, we observed morphological features of cellular polarity and tight junctions in the monolayer hepatocyte-like cells. Collectively, the expression pattern of hepatic markers and morphological features provide evidence for additional maturation of hepatocyte-like cells. However, the low expression levels of a few functional genes suggest that the hepatocyte-like cells are less mature than the liver organoids in vivo .
20. Other initiatives in the post-16 context could be exploited for the development of creativity. Two of the wider key skills, problem solving and working with others, present ideal oppor tunities to develop and accredit skills through enrichment activities where creative oppor tunities are provided through ar ts, media and related activities in schools and colleges. The developing curriculum initiative for active Citizenship post-16 will also provide many oppor tunities. LSDA would welcome a specific role in establishing criteria and frameworks for
In case of media technologies, corporate world follows what is going on outside work. In 1980’s when video cassette recorders became common, executives realized the application of videos for improving employee communication. Similarly in mid-1990 when World Wide Web was well known to world, organizations soon found opportunities for e-commerce. Same is going on now. Organizations have realized the potential in social media to facilitate collaborative learning at workplace. Many organizations are using social media as a forum to share ideas or discuss issues. Employees are using social networks to offer their expertise to people or to get the expertise of others. Social media works best in those cultures where knowledge sharing is valued and rewarded. (Shepherd, 2011)
were obtained from the Polish Collection of Microorganisms (Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw), and against 5 clinical strains of S. aureus, which were provided by the Department of Oral Microbiology, Medical University of Gdańsk (Poland). These strains were also characterized in terms of methicillin resistance. Preliminary identification and detection was conducted on the ChromID MRSA/ChromID S. aureus biplate (bioMérieux) for simultaneous detection of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). All tested strains (both reference and clinical S. aureus) were stored in cryo-vials (Roti®-Store, Carl Roth) and recultivated before all microbiological tests. All strains were cultured in three different media: Brain-Heart Infusion Broth (BHI, Biocorp), Mueller Hinton Broth (MH, Biocorp), and Tryptic-Soy Broth (TSB, Biocorp). Moreover, the stock solutions of lipopeptides were prepared in two different solvents: PBS and an aqueous solution of acetic acid/BSA (0.01% and 0.2% respectively). The complete list of compounds used in this study and their signatures is presented in Table 1. MIC was determined by broth microdilution method on polystyrene 96-well plates. Bacteria at initial inoculums of 5 × 10 5 CFU/mL were exposed to lipopeptides at concentrations
CONCLUSION: TSBB media give good recovery and count of Streptococcus mutans. It helps to easily identify the colonies of Streptococcus mutans as on this medium colonies appears like beads droplet and puddle shape which contain soluble extracellular polysaccharide with α & γ haemolysis 2. It was found that there was no need to incubate the cultures in anaerobic condition as thioglycolate present in media contains sodium thioglycolate which consumes oxygen and provide a favorable condition for growth of Streptococcus mutans. After observing almost all the aspects of TSBB (modified media) we can conclude that this modified media was found to be more appropriate and favorable for the growth Streptococcus mutans in comparison to other existing media.
"The problem of youth violence cannot be attributed to one cause alone. The media plays its part, regaling young children and adolescents with programming that is amazingly violent in content. The orgy of unnecessary violence continues into adulthood. Viewers and listeners become desensitized to the sufferings of others. Movies and songs teach young people to be selfish and self-centered, and to denigrate and devalue feelings of empathy and compassion. Some people do indeed imitate what they see on television. But the media is not the only model. Parents and guardians provide ethical guidance and moral direction. Nevertheless, not all young people enjoy the benefits of a healthy and wholesome upbringing. Many come from broken homes, and all exist in a society that is increasingly atomized and dysfunctional. The media may help, but it is society itself that urges on individuals toward the commission of violent acts."