The recovery frame is, indeed, not without precedents in analyses of mentalhealthrepresentations in the media, but ours is among the few studies which described in detail what it entailed and identified recovery messages as the most prominent in the analysed sample. The earliest mention of a ‘treatment and recovery’ theme can be traced to research by Corrigan and colleagues (2005), who concluded that this was the second most frequently occurring theme in their analysis of selected newspapers from the United States (US) (present in 26% of all analysed news articles). It comprised the subthemes ‘research advances’, ‘biological treatments’, ‘psychosocial treatments’ and ‘recovery as a reasonable outcome’ with the latter subtheme present in only 4% of all analysed news articles. Corrigan and colleagues (2005) speculated that this might have been due to the novelty of the concept of recovery motivating journalists to only gradually start introducing it by anchoring it in more familiar themes of biological and psychosocial treatments. Yet, a more recent study of US news coverage found that the topic of ‘successful treatment for or recovery from mental illness’ was still the least frequently occurring topic (present in 14% of all analysed news articles) (McGinty et al., 2016). Other studies that identify recovery messages include those by: Whitley, Adeponle, & Miller (2015) who found that the ‘recovery’ theme (which included discussions about recovery or rehabilitation of an individual or in general) was the least discussed in selected Canadian newspapers (found in 24.8% of all analysed news articles); and Whitley & Berry (2013) who concluded that the theme of ‘recovery or rehabilitation’ was only present in 18% of all analysed news articles from selected Canadian newspapers. Overall, these authors have provided little context beyond percentages as to what precisely these recovery- related themes or topics entailed.
Another advantage of this setup is that we do not need complete information for every instance: Learning can proceed with asynchronous updates, dependent on what the data in each batch has been annotated for, while sharing representations throughout. This effectively learns a joint model with a common representation for several different tasks, allowing the use of several “disjoint” data sets, some with limited annotated instances. Optimization and Model Selection Even in a relatively simple neural model, there are a num- ber of hyperparameters that can (and have to) be tuned to achieve good performance. We perform a line search for every model we use, sweeping over L 2 regularization and hidden layer width. We
First, the new model includes more ’players’ than the original one (see figure 3.1). Two new components or ’social arenas’ have been added - the world of professionals and the world of politics and public policy. The arrows in the figure show the principle channels of communication between these spheres, although others may also be possible. Consideration of mentalhealth professionals in the initial stages of this research led me to realise that the position of many professional practitioners could not be accounted for by Moscovici’s original formulation of two distinct worlds of science and common sense. Professionals such as doctors, lawyers, teachers are vital players in the translation of knowledge and ideas between the world of science, research and expert knowledge, and the public domain. It is not only through the media (as the original model suggests) that lay people come to understand scientific and other expert knowledge, but through direct face-to-face contact with a whole host of professional practitioners - teachers, GPs, nurses, social workers and the like. This places professionals in a important position as ’vectors’, carrying and translating knowledge and ideas between social spheres. Similarly, the social circulation of knowledge cannot be adequately understood without consideration of the role of politics which often plays a powerful part in shaping societal understandings and practices (for example, in the introduction of community care policies for the mentally ill). This introduces notions of power into our understanding of the development of social representations. Drawing on the work of Foucault (1980), the social practices of professionals can be seen as perpetuating ideological power in privileging and normalising certain definitions and reactions to, for example, sexuality, the body or the mind, and in so doing rendering other definitions unthinkable^ I Social practices which perpetuate, resist and renegotiate social power relations are lived out both within and between the various social spheres presented; in Figure 3.2.
The observed gender differences in externalizing disorders are consistent with those in the general population, where males are as many as 10 times more likely than females to continue antisocial behavior from childhood into adulthood (Moffitt et al., 2002). Males may fare worse than females for a number of reasons. First, delinquent males are less likely to receive mentalhealth and substance abuse services than females, which may exacerbate these differences (Teplin et al., 2005). Second, they may have fewer opportunities to assume age-appropriate social roles (e.g., jobs, postsecondary schooling)—all turning points that might reduce problem behaviors (Sampson and Laub, 1992). Third, males are incarcerated more frequently and for longer periods of time than females, thus decreasing the amount of time available for building a stable life (Massoglia and Uggen, 2010). Finally, early entry into adult social roles, such as parenthood, may be associated with worse outcomes for males than for females (Hope, Wilder, and Watt, 2003; Kreager, Matsueda, and Erosheva, 2010; Thornberry et al., 2000).
Different elements of the mentalhealth system all made mistakes, tribunals releasing him from a secure unit; and assessments made which enabled him to move into less secure settings. These decisions were even made hours before some of his attacks on people. He was clearly mad, in the lay sense of the term, openly talking about eating or wanting to eat his victims and potential victims – suggesting that this would give him the powers of his victims. He also stated that it was normal to eat his prey – talking about attacking the weakest people, considering them to be lowest in the food chain. Again and again it is reported that the system ‘had manifestly failed to protect the public’.
The athletic frame provides legitimacy to Paralympic athletes and their accomplishments by mirroring elements of traditional sports journalism. However, this type of coverage sometimes tends to ignore disability almost altogether in its attempts to provide “normal” stories. Hiding the disability in disability sport risks reinforcing the impression that sport is for able-bodied, Caucasian, males. Contrastingly, common stereotypes such as the patient and the supercrip diminish the value of Paralympians‟ performances by placing too much emphasis on the athletes‟ status as different/damaged because of their bodies. The question becomes: Is there a threshold for what amount of Othering is considered acceptable when it comes to media coverage of Paralympic athletes? Is it enough for the majority of the articles to simply have a primary athletic theme? Or, in fact, do the underlying themes show that there is still considerable progress to be made before Paralympic athletes are deemed well-represented in the media?
Overall, despite the similarities and differences in leg- islation, all these four countries share some common concerns regarding the practical aspect of implement- ing their legislation. These need consideration while developing or reforming a new law. For example, poorly developed mentalhealth services, poor mentalhealth lit- eracy and lack of adequate resources. It is worth noting that 28 years after the enactment of the MentalHealth Act 1987 in India, only 11% of Indian states have state mentalhealth rules in place and possibly many states are unaware of these rules . Therefore, people with men- tal illness continue to be potentially vulnerable to vari- ous type of abuse and violation of their rights. Reform of legislation would need to go hand in hand with resource issues and service improvement .
For three decades, Agoramétrie researchers have conducted annual surveys (ex- cepting 1979 and 1980) of public opinion, sampling both the French population and the media discourse about contemporary social issues and social conflicts. From these two sources, closed-ended questionnaires based on sampling of on- going issues are constructed, and data are obtained through face-to-face inter- viewing are then analyzed, typically using principal-components factor analysis. There are sociologically-important findings derived from comparative analyses of results from studies following this Agoramétrie methodology. First, across different populations, nations, cultures, economic situations, war or peace, and changing environmental conditions, a common core of about 30 - 40 “trunk” questions occur (used together with about 50 - 70 other questions), suggesting that some issues are likely cross-culturally universal, being fundamental, peren- nial issues of concern in human societies. And second, the first and second prin- cipal-component axes of these investigations are quite stable across studies, and might reflect fundamental “structures of human societies,” possibly meaning that there are two basic types of human society (van Meter, 2014).
ral models for depression detection. Some of the previous studies use deep learning methods on a post level to infer general information about a user (Kshirsagar et al., 2017; Ive et al., 2018; Ruder et al., 2016), or detect different mentalhealth con- cepts in posts themselves (Rojas-Barahona et al., 2018), while we focus on utilizing all of the users’ text. Yates et al. (2017) use a CNN on a post- level to extract features, which are then concate- nated to get a user representation used for self- harm and depression assessment. A CNN requires a fixed length of posts, putting constraints on the data available to the model, while a HAN utilizes all of the data from posts of arbitrary lengths.
problematic notions of representations, a less problematic sense of representation might emerge. The paper will proceed as follows. Firstly, I will discuss a general notion of representation that embodies the way in which it is used in psychological contexts. I will draw on a variety of discussions from both cognitive psychologists and philosophers. Secondly, I will introduce sense- data and explicate some of the general motivations and characteristics of these entities. Next, similarities between sense data and mentalrepresentations will be discussed as well as similarities in some of the arguments given for each. Though the two may be similar in important ways, they are also dissimilar in important ways, specifically in regards to a conscious user. Though some uses of representations may be problematic, it is not necessary to abort all mention of
In the current study of the American media, the focus is on the polemical exchanges between the right wing leaderships in the two governments, which are reflected in the mainstream press reports in the United States on Iran. The heightened sensitivities on both sides are due in significant measure to the cultural differences between the two societies. It is therefore instructive to start a review of the US press coverage of Iran after the revolution. This event was concurrent with the neocon ascendancy in the United States that first began during Reagan administration and later particularly under the George W. Bush administration. According to Nikki Keddie, “We could all tick off a list of hardships they suffer from the images we receive in the West: forced veiling, harassment by extreme Islamists, unequal laws with physical punishments, and so on. But the reality of the past twenty five years is more complex, and perhaps more hopeful” (Keddie, Time Online, Feb 9, 2004).
We in the media carry an enormous responsibility to deal with certain issues in a sensitive and thoughtful way. With support from the Scottish Government this guide to reporting mentalhealth, mental illness and death by suicide is the latest to be produced to help with that responsibility and to make you think about your own mentalhealth. Since the first guide was produced, there has been a vast improvement in how journalists report mentalhealth and deaths by suicide. However there are still lessons to be learned as certain recent events have shown. Public attitudes to mental illness have also improved vastly and nowadays the public are not slow to protest when mentalhealth issues are presented inappropriately in the media or elsewhere. The link between violence and mentalhealth still tends to be exaggerated on occasion and the use of derogatory language, while reducing, can still be problematic. Terms as derogatory as ‘nutter’, ‘maniac’ or ‘schizo’ would be unthinkable in relation to race or physical disability. This type of media reporting often has a negative effect on people with mentalhealth problems. Similarly, journalists reporting on patients of the State Hospital at Carstairs should remember it is a hospital, not a prison, and those being assessed or treated are patients, not prisoners.
mentalhealth in work places and educational institutions using life skills techniques can aim at health promotion, early detection as well as awareness programmes on mentalhealth (for common mental disorders like depression, anxiety, stress reduction, alcohol and tobacco, use, etc.,) and should be promoted at all levels; development of programme implementation guidelines, mechanisms and resources are critical requirements.
In our study, we addressed the problem of characterising and automatically classifying user-generated content on the social media platform Reddit for the case of mentalhealth conditions. We manually investigated data orig- inating from several subreddits to group the posts into overarching themes. The derived grouping of posts into themes was further evaluated by applying topic detection algorithms and results suggested that the theme-based grouping was valid. We then applied two classification strategies, a binary classification to determine whether or not a post contains mentalhealth related content, and multiclass classification to identify the mentalhealth condition (theme) a post is referring to. Our results show that by applying a CNN approach in the binary classi- fication task, we achieve an accuracy of 91.08% in distinguising the mentalhealth related posts from unrelated posts. Further to that, we can identify Reddit posts as belonging to one of the 11 defined themes with an overall weighted precision of 0.72 and a recall of 0.71 (0.72 FM). Taken in conjunction, these results suggest that we can
The evolution of social media users’ behav- ior over time complicates user-level compar- ison tasks such as verification, classification, clustering, and ranking. As a result, na¨ıve ap- proaches may fail to generalize to new users or even to future observations of previously known users. In this paper, we propose a novel procedure to learn a mapping from short episodes of user activity on social media to a vector space in which the distance between points captures the similarity of the corre- sponding users’ invariant features. We fit the model by optimizing a surrogate metric learn- ing objective over a large corpus of unlabeled social media content. Once learned, the map- ping may be applied to users not seen at train- ing time and enables efficient comparisons of users in the resulting vector space. We present a comprehensive evaluation to validate the benefits of the proposed approach using data from Reddit, Twitter, and Wikipedia.
Despite the connection between discourse and material practices, Jorge Bustamante (1983) observed already a quarter century ago that a considerable discrepancy exists between facts and public opinion in respect to immigration in the United States. For example, contrary to popular stereotypes, migrants in the United States tend to consume less in comparison to non-migrants, and their consumption patterns exert relatively little pressure on public resources (Sassen, 1989). Latino stereotypes continue to persist in the popular imagination of the United States (Berg, 2002). When elite discourses articulate negative stereotypes and anti-immigrant sentiments they often cite economic reasons (Burns and Gimpel, 2000). Media coverage tends to contribute to the perpetuation of stereotypes, the discrepancy between facts and public opinion, and the association of immigrants with economic costs (Henry and Tator, 2000; Mahtani, 2001). In addition, negative and exaggerated images of migrants project a sense of crisis and instil fear among the readership (Hier and Greenberg, 2002). The United States media has a long history of representing Latino immigrants in a light that facilitates and reproduces practices of exclusion (Flores, 2003). In a contemporary context, media coverage in the United States often blames migrants for increasing unemployment rates and draining social security coffers. Latin American women are often represented as hyper fertile and reported statistics of Latino families invoke images of welfare dependency, although empirical facts suggest otherwise (Chavez, 2004). Such media coverage undoubtedly shapes public opinion about Latino immigration in the United States.
One of the factors, influencing the formation of country’s image, is the understanding of own citizenship and the level of identity with its population. The evaluation of civic identity realized by three parameters: identification with the community of Russians; identification with Russian culture; and emotional perception of the two given factors. According to the data, 93.2% of respondents (sum of those who ‘most likely agree’ and ‘absolutely agree’) consider themselves Russians. In varying degrees, 88.0% of respondents feel themselves as a part of Russian culture. 85.9% of respondents feel proud about being Russian, 73.4% – feel happiness about it. Central idea of any nation-state are national symbols. They present visual representations of the collective, its history and achievements. Considering the idea about the state as social construct [11, 12], national symbols help to materialize nation and nation-state. National symbols obtain symbolic meaning, including symbolic characteristics. However, the most important, national symbols gain in importance through the inclusion into various cultural practices . Therefore, the symbolic of the state has a significance for contemporary Russians: the most of them feel proud than the state anthem plays or the state flag rises (table 1).
Community-based mentalhealth services for children and young people (CYP) can offer alternatives to inpatient settings and treat CYP in less restrictive environments. However, there has been limited implementation of such alternative models, and their efficacy is still inconclusive. Notably, little is known of the experiences of CYP and their parents with these alterna- tive models and their level of satisfaction with the care provided. Therefore, the main aim of this review was to understand those experiences of the accessibility of alternative models to inpatient care, as well as overall CYP/parental satisfaction. A searching strategy of peer-reviewed articles was conducted from January 1990 to December 2018, with updated searches conducted in June 2019. The initial search resulted in 495 articles, of which 19 were included in this review. A narrative synthesis grouped the studies according to emerging themes: alternative models, tele-psychiatry and interventions applied to crisis, and experiences and satisfaction with crisis provision. The identified articles highlighted increased satisfaction in CYP with alternative models in comparison with care as usual. However, the parental experiential data identified high levels of parental burden and a range of complex emotional reactions associated with engagement with crisis services. Furthermore, we identified a number of interventions, telepsychiatric and mobile solutions that may be effective when applied to urgent and emergency care for CYP experiencing a mentalhealth crisis. Lastly, both parental and CYP experiences highlighted a number of perceived barriers associated with help-seeking from crisis services.