Rural Development is need of great importance for a nation like India, which is heading for being a developed nation. However, this of dream being a developed nation can be become reality only when India turns into a nation with no interior frictions and hardship, a nation with solid financial framework and cohesive social order. The embodiment of improvement lies in comprehensive and exhaustive development in which everybody assumes participatory role. The journey for rural development must lead us toward engaging those areas of society who are in the need of being enabled. The print media has a big role to play in the development communication of both developed and under developed countries (Patil, 2011). The motivation behind this research is to discover what part media can play in rural development and to what degree is the print media, and especially the daily paper, serving or advancing rural advancement. Media are great devices to build information. Regularly rural people in creating nations are barred from the media-based political discussion and do not have a source of specialized information. With the appearance of the Internet time, the ‘digital divide’ among industrialized and creating nations has turned into a noteworthy issue of worldwide imbalance. However, we ought to consider the all-pervasive Internet, as well as the conventional media for information. Print Media work well with participatory approaches. They include newspapers, posters, photo albums, wrappers, folders, stickers, calendars etc. The general use of print media in development is to provide information, to sensitize, reach and stabilise groups of rural people. 1
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Nigeria is in the tropics and the effects of climate change have already been felt and have impacted on the national economy. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, with about 65% of the populace engaged in farming activities and residing in rural areas (UNDP/NPC, 1998/1999 Report, 2001). As the nation struggles with the challenges of increasing food production and reducing hunger and poverty, the issue of climate change is a major and serious threat to agricultural development. Several agencies of government, the Ministries of Agriculture, the Agricultural Development Programmes (ADPs), the Meteorological Stations, the various Emergency Response Centres, scientists and farmers have directly or indirectly responded to this climate change phenomenon. Climate change has been predicted to be more pronounced in developing countries like Nigeria, which already experiences lower agricultural yields and suffers more extreme weather events (Wilson, 2001). The author noted that though global food security may not be imperiled; climate change is likely to cause hunger and displacements in many parts of the world. Agriculture according to Wilson produces about 18 to 24% of the greenhouse emissions that are responsible for global warming. At the same time, climate change has severe and negative consequences on agriculture. Machhi (2008) reported that rural communities who live in marginal lands and whose livelihoods are highly dependent on natural resources are among the most vulnerable to climate change. While climate change situations persist and affects the rural farmers who produce three-quarter of the food consumed in the country, the extent to which they perceive this problem and thus evolve response mechanisms has not been adequately analyzed. Moreover, Darwin (2001) noted
The research paper depicts the role of hyper local newspaper in the growth and development of the rural area of Chitrakoot region of Uttar Pradesh (India). Although a large Indian population lives in the villages and has limited access to print and digital media, efforts are being made to create a GLOCAL communication climate. The local, regional, economical and developmental issues which are unique to the region don’t find place and significance in main stream newspapers. Hence the local women decided to bring out their own newspaper.
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Considering that cooperatives play an important role in community economic development and emphasized the economy get out of reliance on oil and the need to consider the agricultural sector as a driver of economic growth and also highlight the role of the media in contemporary society and its impact in various parts of the country and was found industry in the investigation of this correlation. In this regard, based on studies and the results obtained in this study, proposals to increase and improve the effectiveness of the capacity of the media in the development of the rural cooperatives. Development of rural cooperatives will be effective only if all parties involved and do their best to progress. In the meantime education played a major role in the learning process and empowers members of the cooperative plays. Training managers and employees about the impact of modern methods and explaining the prospects of development and its benefits on their lives destroys resistance and it can lead to internal commitment.
A rural library is a library or library system that serves a rural community or population that primarily lives on farms and ranches, and in remote communities (Reitz 2004). Kempson (1986) lists three guidelines for creation and operation that should be considered as a definition of rural libraries: the rural library should not solely be based on the provision of printed materials; the rural library should be rooted in the community and for the most part, facilitated by members of that particular community; and the rural library service should be a channel for transferring information both to and from the local community. It is believed that a rural library has an advantage over other communication channels such as media and printed materials in that it can deliver highly personalized services to the village. Dent (2006), writing in an African context, states that there are several general objectives why rural libraries are being developed:
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In order to answer these questions, the RIGA Project developed a standardized income calculation method that is applied only to country surveys that meet strict criteria of data requirements. The definition of income utilized closely adheres to the one set out by the International Labour Organization. The "Resolution Concerning Household Income and Expenditure Statistics" passed by ILO outlines that household income includes all monetary and in -kind receipts that a household receives, which should include income from wage employment, self-employment, property, own consumption of household goods, and both public and private transfers. Since agriculture remains the principal activity for rural households, the RIGA Project also considers income generated from on-farm activities, both those sold and consumed by the household.
In this empirical study of the role of health education in participatory rural health development projects in Nigeria, certain definitions and positions relevant to this study have been carefully examined and discussed. This study has revealed that it is not all the health education principles often cited in most relevant literature in the adoption of participation in health projects that are appropriate for many communities especially in traditional societies where superstition and folklores still hold sway. The unique importance of the participation principle in community-based health projects, out of all other principles, has been particularly
In other words, the higher the deficiency of infrastructure, the higher is the poverty rate and vice versa. Rajaraman (2003) in this context remarks that there are established empirical evidences on the positive growth and poverty eradication outcomes of investment in rural infrastructure, and on higher incremental returns to infrastructure provision in relatively poorly endowed regions. These findings holds good not only in case of India but also for other developing nations as well (Binswanger et al, 1989, Ahmed and Hossain, 1990, Fan et al, 2000, Fan and Hazell, 2001). Thus one can argue that poverty rate gives an indication of the extent of the need for infrastructure. Infrastructure like irrigation facilities or rural roads can reduce overall cost of irrigation and by enhancing connectivity can offer better marketing possibilities. This can check further deterioration in the economic status of the poor. If we accept this line of argument, we can then examine whether regions with higher levels of rural poverty get better allocation of funds for infrastructure development.
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Information and Communication Technology has great relevance in today’s world. If implemented properly ICT can surely bridge the gap between economically and technology backward and forward classes. With the IT boom in India technology is easily accessible to the government machineries with relevantly cheaper and convenient manner. Proper training and implementation of ICT programmes in simple way and language which is easily understandable by the rural people can surely bring about revolution in rural development.
ahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is an employment guarantee scheme enacted by legislation on August 25, 2005. MGNREGA was originally known with the name NREGA which abbreviated as National Rural Employment Guarantee Act. The UPA government added “MG” (Mahatma Gandhi) to it and becomes MGNREGA. MGNREGA is a social security employment act which guarantees employment to the poor rural people in India. Most important fact about MGNREGA is that it is considered as a right of a rural Indian citizen to work for minimum 100 days in a year if he/she is willing to work and job should be provided to him/her by authorities in his own area and also within a given time-frame (within 15 days) otherwise state government is liable for pay Unemployment allowance. Wages are also well defined in the scheme. The agenda is to provide 100 days of employment
This paper presents the study on rural development done by the different organizations in Haryana. As we know that Rural Development is conceived as strategy aimed at finding ways to improve the rural lives with participation of the rural people themselves so as to meet the required need of the rural area. It is the process of rural modernization and the monetization of the rural society leading to its transition from traditional isolation to integration with the national economy. The basic aim of this paper is to upgrade the living standard of the rural people b providing ways to develop rural parting of Haryana and improving food security including those below poverty line (BPL) by restricting the rural urban migration. However, to provide optimum benefit to the locoweed -beginning level, there is a need for coordination among various Administration government agencies and other introduction engaged in rural development.
Pertaining to North Carolina, Pages and Markley undertook a study for the NC Rural Development Center (NCRDC) to assess the state's entrepreneurial climate (2004). During twenty focus groups, including a teleconference concentrating on agritourism, a focus group aimed at value-added agriculture, groups focusing on minorities, and a group of Small Business Center (SBC) directors, they heard from over 200 individuals. The focus groups were located such that they were no more than a 30-minute drive for any resident in NC. The focus group facilitator solicited information on the key challenges facing the entrepreneurs now as well as when their business began, opportunities seen by the entrepreneurs, how they perceived the state of economic development in their community, how their business fits into the current economic situation, and finally, what would help them to grow their business. In other words, what in their e- climate could be improved? Service providers programs were cited repeatedly as ineffective, and entrepreneurs reported a sense of having to "go-it-alone" or being unheard by community and state leaders. A further breakdown of community climate factors cited in the Pages and Markley report are offered in Appendix B and are discussed in more detail in the conclusions section of this study.
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Mass media has been used for development purpose since long back. In 1950s communication scholars from the developed countries like Denial Lerner, Wilbur Schramm, Rogers asserted that mass media e.g., newspaper, radio, TV etc, can bring about positive socio-economic changes in third world counties. This approach of using mass media for development is commonly known as Development Communication and is adopted in many countries. In India, several communication projects like SITE, KHEDA etc, made use of communication media for changing people’s attitude and behavior towards various aspects of development related to society. Since independence, development has been the main agenda of our government and rural development is the thrust area as most of the India’s population resides in rural areas. Women constitute the very essence of our society but the general condition of common women in India is very pathetic. Though a meager section of women have been able to improve their socio- economic condition, a large majority is denied their basic rights of life and livelihood. Rural women in general, are the most oppressed and are subjected to exploitation, violence, discrimination and other inhuman acts of sexual harassment.
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The agriculture sector has been the backbone of the rural economy and its development as the almost 2/3 rd population got their livelihood directly or indirectly from this sector. Despites of major emphasis on industrial and service sector development during last 20 years, agriculture continue occupies a place of pride in our economy. It has played a vital role in economic development of our country especially rural areas and also contributes towards economic prosperity of the people. It has also upgrade the standards of living of the people as it generates more revenues and agriculture and its allied activities have been the single largest contributor to the gross domestic product (GDP) by contributing approximately 27% of total GDP of the nation during last 5 years.
Rural Housing project is initiated in 1985-86. The Indira Awas Yojna (IAY) is the main program for providing free housing to families in rural areas. The yojna target community of SCs, STs, and labourers. The rural housing program gives pacca house to many BPL families. The Housing of the Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO) has extended its activities to the rural areas, providing loans at a concessional rate of interest to economically weaker sections of low-income group households for construction of houses.
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Rural Areas of the Czech Republic are composed from a scattered residential scheme. There exist historically created regional differences in the density and average size of municipalities in particular regions of the repub- lic. Municipalities in borderline mountain areas are small- er and often consisting of scattered hamlets, while in the fertile lowlands, municipalities are bigger and even rich- er. In the seventies, the government tried to decrease the amount of municipalities by creating a so-called central- ized system – where rural municipalities were forcibly merged into bigger complexes. After 1989, many munici- palities disaffiliated from these complexes.
Income is essential for rural development process. It is needed in every field like agriculture, industry, health, education, communication, transportation etc. Due to this cause every people try to increase income by using available resources. Thigh income makes people’s life is easy and comfortable. But income generation activities are different in different parts of country. However, major income generation way is mobilization of available means and resources. “in this study area, there are eight community forests” 1 Out of them, five community forests are pine forests. But they are mix with sa l ( Shorea Robusta) these five pine community forests main income source is pine trees, there us 40,000 pine trees pine trees in five community forests. Among of them 4500 pine trees are tapped by the community user groups. But majority of pine trees are not tapped in the five community forests. However, there income is higher them other community forest. ”2 But this study only focuses on the income and collection of aleo-resin. It does not give impasses on what is main contribution of pine trees in development in present context. So this my article try to dig out the main role of pine trees in development in study area.
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Non-Governmental Organisation has usually defined as voluntary, autonomous, non-profit organisations or groups of citizens reputable to address many problems and disadvantages in the society. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the role of NGOs in rural development and community development. NGOs are predictable to play a vital role in all conceivable aspects of rural reconstruction and development. The primary objectives of NGOs are outlined as, development of women and rural folks socially, economically, politically through income generating activities, education programmes, awareness camps, etc., general socioeconomic development of the people living in rural areas especially in downtrodden areas, encouraging the country folks to participate actively in cultural activities, arts, sports and science activities, development of the underprivileged sections of the society such as fishermen tribes, rural women etc, running educational programmes like formal education, non-formal education and adult education programmes to decrease illiteracy rate and to improve
In Kerala, the Department of IT in association with the State Library Council has launched the first computerized rural information centre at Kallara Gram Panchayat Library in Trivandrum District. There are 14 Rural Information Centres, one in each district of the State, have also been established. These centres enable the rural citizen to have free access to the Internet. A package named 'Sevana' provides information on various government schemes, programs, general information on local bodies, links to important sites and other facts relevant to the rural population. Though the project is in its infancy, learning from the Kallara experience, we must look for similar efforts to replicate to other rural libraries across India. Perhaps the project should be less dependent on the government funding and more dependent on commercially viable alternatives than initiating a project only to see it dying.
 discuss the potential of women as household heads in rural areas or known as single mothers to become entrepreneur as a way to get out of poverty. This is in line with effort made bythe Minister of Women, Family and Community Development, to urge women to venture into business. In addition, the ministry is also working with non-governmental organizations in implementing programs to increase women's skills in particular areas of entrepreneurship so that they can be independent and become increasingly competitive in the future. Nowadays, many schemes have been trained, being assisted especially the single mothers. However, the challenges are great and many of them failed to succeed without the government assistance. Due to this problem, there are many single mothers in rural areas who were below the poverty line.