Mental Representation and Content

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X ray vision: Mental representation of the human body’s inner morphology

X ray vision: Mental representation of the human body’s inner morphology

Human Figure (HF); the other, where s/he were to portray the internal morphology of a Sick Human Figure (SF). Section Baccounts for the collection of socio-demographic data (age, gender, health sciences degree attended) on each participant. Protocol IIconcerns the Drawing Content Analysis Grid. Participants’ drawings (a total of 492 drawings in the two phases) were subject to content analysis using a grid of analytical categories specifically designed to the present study (drawings content analysis). The grid encompasses two major elementary categories: Anatomical Drawings and Metaphorical Drawings. Within the Anatomical Drawings category, nine subcategories were typified to accommodate the embryonicbody systems: (i) Neurological (brain, bone marrow); (ii) Immune (spleen); (iii) Circulatory (heart, veins, arteries); (iv) Respiratory (superior airways, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs); (v) Gastrointestinal (mouth, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus); (vi) Skeletal (skull, spine, ribs, collarbone, sternum, humerus, radius, ulna, hand, hucklebone, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, foot, joints); (vii) Musculoskeletal (deltoid, sternocleidomastoid); (viii) Urinary (kidneys, bladder, ureters, urethra); (ix) Reproductive (male: prostate, penis, testicles; female: ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina). In the present paper, we will only present and discuss results pertaining to the Anatomical DrawingCategory and related subcategories. Data concerning the Metaphorical Drawings Category will not be here examined.
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Minds, Materialism and Mental Representation

Minds, Materialism and Mental Representation

Even Ramsey’s account suffers from the same problem. On the surface, Ramsey claims representation is a 3-place relation with an interpreter. We saw in Chapter 3 that Millikan adopted the same strategy but could not see it through because her notion of mental representation failed to pass the JDC. There was seemingly nothing about the explanation which required it to be representational by being used in virtue of a particular content. I think Ramsey succumbs to the same problem with his ‘mindless strategy’. He claims that an S-representation has a particular content and is used in virtue of that content because the reasoning done on the mental model could only successfully cause behaviour if the representation did in fact represent the thing in the world reasoned about. Thus, use of the representation ensures the isomorphism exploited is the correct one. And this only happens because of the state of the world in which the subject finds itself. However, as Morgan notes, this merely pushes the question of how the representation has just that content deeper into the act of directing the mental model on that state of affairs in the first place (2015: 224). To get around this, Ramsey makes an appeal to what the explanandum in a cognitive explanation actually must be in any given situation (2007: 94). For example, a cognitive explanation of the driver’s successful navigation only makes sense if the driver actually did model that particular track navigated. In the automated car case it only makes sense that isomorphism of the internal groove with the track navigated makes the groove a representation if the groove has been designed to be isomorphic with that particular track. It is possible that the groove is accidentally isomorphic with a different track and would also succeed in navigating that track. Yet without the intentional designing element to ‘aim’ the isomorphism at that particular state of affairs then successful navigation is only accidentally achieved through the isomorphism. This then seems insufficient to qualify the groove as a representation of one particular track and not another. But, as Morgan notes, this appears to introduce a radical observer-dependence to the content of the representation, which evidently just pushes the Homunculus Regress further down the explanatory food chain (2015: 224). In a similar manner to Millikan and Dretske before him, Ramsey fails to secure determinate content or to pass the JDC by having to smuggle in an intentional notion to fix representational content on one state of affairs rather than another.
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Mental Representation of Cognates/Noncognates in Persian-Speaking EFL Learners

Mental Representation of Cognates/Noncognates in Persian-Speaking EFL Learners

of the stimuli. As some appropriate matches are found, the corresponding lexical entry opens such that its content becomes available for higher- order language processes. Having been opened, it remains in that state for a few seconds in order to allow slower processes to continue accessing the lexical database. When the presented stimuli resemble the target word sufficiently to open its entry, some processing time would be saved, as the processing of the target would be facilitated based on information stored in that entry. The reason that no facilitation happens for noncognate translations is that as these translations are listed separately, the prime and the target open separate entries.
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Representation of mental states in schizophrenia

Representation of mental states in schizophrenia

We saw in Chapter 2 that much evidence points towards a schizophrenic impairment in the generation of output, whilst input processing may be relatively intact. In line with this, Frith (1987) proposed that route A (Figure 3.1) is largely intact in schizophrenic patients, whereas patients with negative behavioural signs are impaired in the generation of willed actions by route B l. This deficit may underlie the typical signs of poverty of action, speech and thought, flat affect and social withdrawal. It may also explain the observation that patients with poverty of speech are able to respond to questions (i.e external stimuli), but usually give short answers without any (self-generated) extra comments (Frith, 1992). As we saw in Chapter 2, some of the negative signs have been investigated neuropsychologically, and results generally support Frith’s proposal that they are associated with problems in the initiation of willed actions. For example, in their verbal fluency experiment, Allen et a l (1993) found that schizophrenic patients with negative features were impaired in the generation of words, and this was ascribed to a problem with word retrieval from an intact semantic store. Similarly, Liddle & Morris (1991) showed that the psychomotor poverty syndrome was associated with slowness of mental activity, including word generation on a verbal fluency task. Braun et a l (1991) found that chronic hospitahsed schizophrenics (who may be assumed to have had some negative signs) had an impaired abihty to express facial affect when given a verbal command, but were relatively less impaired in copying the affect demonstrated by a model. This effect was independent of non-affective bucco-facial dyspraxias such as grimacing and dyskinesia, and was not related to differences in task difficulty. As copying of demonstrated facial affect may be more ‘stimulus-driven’ than generation of affect on the basis of verbal cues, these data are consistent with Frith’s hypothesis.
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The mental representation of true and false intentions: a comparison of schema-consistent and schema-inconsistent tasks

The mental representation of true and false intentions: a comparison of schema-consistent and schema-inconsistent tasks

Drawing on the findings of Wegner et al. (1984), Cal- deron et al. (2017) argued that both those stating true, and those stating false intentions, may hold relatively abstract mental representations when the tasks are non-disruptive. However, if a task is disruptive, truth tellers may adopt a more concrete construal level as it will be more functional for future action implementation. Those stating a false intention, on the other hand, who do not plan to perform their claimed intention, have little to gain by adopting a more concrete construal, even for schema-inconsistent tasks. To test this assumption, we asked the participants in the current study to prepare for a future task (i.e., true intention) or to plan a cover story to mask a secret mis- sion (i.e., false intention). In order to examine the influ- ence of the more theoretical concept of task disruptiveness, which comes in many guises (Vallacher & Wegner, 1987), we manipulated the specific case of schema consistency: The future task was either schema- consistent (i.e., collect office supplies from an office) or schema-inconsistent (i.e., collect random objects from an office). Construal level was measured as the number of thematic categories participants grouped the objects into, where a higher number of categories represents a more concrete construal (see, for example, Wakslak et al., 2006, “Exp. 1”, who used this dependent measure). We predicted that participants with a true intention would categorize these objects into more groups (indicative of a lower, more concrete level of construal) than those with a false intention, particularly for the schema-inconsistent task. Specifically, we predicted an interaction effect, such that the difference in construal level between true-intention and false-intention participants would be larger in the schema-inconsistent conditions than in the schema- consistent conditions.
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The depiction of mental illnesses in series: Representation of bipolar disorder in the web show "Skam France"

The depiction of mental illnesses in series: Representation of bipolar disorder in the web show "Skam France"

Furthermore, having one’s own voice was strongly addressed in regards to representation of MI due to the fact that Eliott’s ex-partner spoke for him and ‘knew’ better what is good for him. This was also criticised in terms of self-management and empowerment since clients barely have the chance to state their own voices about their experiences (Wilson, Crowe, Scott, & Lacey, 2018a). Moreover, social isolation was discussed in the representation and the posts regarding Eliott’s change of schools, which depicts social isolation from his former social environment. Furthermore, this was also addressed in the context of self- management when members of a support group consider each other as the only friends they have (Weiner, 2011) The same applies to the difficulties with medication as explained by Eliott and in the posts and mentioned in the article (Weiner, 2011). These aspects exemplify the need for normalising MIs not only in representation but even more in our daily life, which was strongly demanded in the posts as well. Therefore, interventions to increase education on MIs for our entire society. This could for example be done by addressing issues like this in school classes and interoffice on-the-job trainings, potentially even governmentally mandated every few years.
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Mental health nurses’ medicines management role: a qualitative content analysis

Mental health nurses’ medicines management role: a qualitative content analysis

It has been declared that the MM in mental health care needs to be the business of all stakeholders (Health Care Commission-HCC, 2007). MHN participants gave examples how they interacted and liaised with other health care professionals (HCPs) in conducting the business of MM. In the inpatient setting, nurses use expert knowledge when collaborating with multidisciplinary team members: “We know the people [service users] more; we spend more time with them than they (doctors and pharmacists) do. So if you’ve got, kind of, a knowledge regarding the medication that can be used, you can always discuss with the service user how, and with the doctors and pharmacist, depending on how they present, how you see them”. People admitted to the PICU often have acute symptoms of mental illness; therefore, subsequent interactions with other HCPs are wide-ranging: “There’s a lot of multidisciplinary discussion, a lot more professionals are involved. There are a lot more discussions about how we best treat people”. Within a medium secure setting, iatrogenic physical health complications can arise from taking high doses of antipsychotic medication; therefore, a team approach is needed: “All that’s (monitoring side effects) carefully monitored and kept an eye on by the nursing and the medical team”.
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A Content-Adaptive Analysis and Representation Framework for Audio Event Discovery from "Unscripted" Multimedia

A Content-Adaptive Analysis and Representation Framework for Audio Event Discovery from "Unscripted" Multimedia

We proposed a content-adaptive analysis and representation framework for audio event discovery from unscripted multi- media. The proposed framework is based on the observation that “interesting” events happen sparsely in a background of usual events. We used three time series for audio event discovery, namely, low-level audio features, frame-level au- dio classification labels, one-second-level audio classifica- tion. We performed an inlier/outlier-based temporal seg- mentation of these three time series. The segmentation was based on eigenvector analysis of the affinity matrix obtained from statistical models of the subsequences of the input time series. The detected outliers were also ranked based on devi- ation from the background process. Experimental results on a total of 12 hours of sports audio from three different gen- res (soccer, baseball, and golf) from Japanese, American, and Spanish broadcasts show that unusual events can be effec- tively extracted from such an inlier/outlier-based segmenta- tion resulting from the proposed framework. It was also ob- served that not all outliers correspond to “highlight” events and one needs to incorporate domain knowledge in the form of supervised detectors at the last stage to extract highlights. Then, using the ranking of the outliers a summary of de- sired length can be generated. We also discussed the pros and cons of using the aforementioned three kinds of time series for audio event discovery. We also showed that un- usual events can be detected from surveillance audio with- out any a priori knowledge using this framework. Finally, we have shown that such an analysis framework resulting in an inlier/outlier-based temporal segmentation of the content postpones the use of content-specific processing to as late a stage as possible and can be used to systematically select the key audio classes that are indicative of events of inter- est.
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QUANTUM MECHANICS REQUIRES AN OBSERVER CONTEXT DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN REALITY AND ITS MENTAL REPRESENTATION

QUANTUM MECHANICS REQUIRES AN OBSERVER CONTEXT DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN REALITY AND ITS MENTAL REPRESENTATION

The extrapolation of physical formalism to the beginning of the Universe leads to a singularity in which physical laws lose their meaning. Since the Big Bang is considered the precursor to both time [36] and space, this view presupposes that there was absolutely nothing before the singularity, suggesting that the Universe was created out of nothing. However, a creation from nothingness was already refuted by Ancient Greeks. As Sorensen [37] asserted, “All Greek philosophy had presupposed creation was from something more primitive, not nothing. … Creation out of nothing presupposes the possibility of total nothingness” (15). It indeed seems illogical that absolute nothingness would allow the creation of something. In terms of the bio-psychological definition of reality, total nothingness can never be observed and is therefore an unverifiable mental representation phenomenon relying on uncertain potentiality.
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The Virtual Museums of Caen : a case study on modes of representation of digital historical content

The Virtual Museums of Caen : a case study on modes of representation of digital historical content

and digital representation within a single museum context where the virtual and physical are within a unified framework. Timespan (Fig 1) is situated in the far north of Scotland in Helmsdale, Sutherland. Coined as a meeting place between the past, the present and the future, their work focuses on relationships with people and long-term creative development; they believe in new ideas and creative exchange, in access to excellence, technology and innovation, in promoting ed- ucation and facilitating vibrant community dialogue. They aim to challenge perceptions of what can be delivered by a cultural organisation rooted in the distinctive, but fragile, socio-economic ecology of a large, rural and remote area.
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"Infinity Goes up on Trial": Sanism, Pretextuality, and the Representation of Defendants with Mental Disabilities

"Infinity Goes up on Trial": Sanism, Pretextuality, and the Representation of Defendants with Mental Disabilities

Some years later, after I became Director of New Jersey’s Division of Mental Health Advocacy, I read a story in the New York Times magazine section that summarised for me many of the frustrations of my job. 25 The article dealt with an ex-patient, Gerald Kerrigan, who wandered the streets of the Upper West Side of Manhattan. Kerrigan never threatened or harmed anybody, but he was described as ‘different,’ ‘off,’ ‘not right,’ somehow. It made other residents of that neighbourhood  traditionally home to one of the nation’s most liberal voting blocs  nervous to have him in the vicinity, and the story focused on the response of a community block association to his presence. The story hinted darkly that the social ‘experimentation’ of deinstitutionalisation was somehow the villain. Soon after that, I read an excerpt from Elizabeth Ashley’s autobiography in New York magazine (a magazine read by many of those same Upper West Siders). Ashley  a prominent (and not unimportantly) strikingly attractive actress  told of her institutionalisation in one of New York City’s most esteemed private psychiatric hospitals and of her subsequent release from that hospital to live with the equally-prominent actor George Peppard, and to co-star with Robert Redford on Broadway in Barefoot in the Park. 26 Ashley was praised for her courage. Kerrigan was emblematic of a major ‘social problem.’ Both were persons who had been diagnosed with mental illness. Both of their mental illnesses were serious enough to require hospitalisation. Both were subsequently released. Yet their stories are presented  and read  in entirely different ways. 27
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Big Five Content Representation of the Japanese Version of the Ten Item Personality Inventory

Big Five Content Representation of the Japanese Version of the Ten Item Personality Inventory

personality dimensions than the German version, and was equivalent to the original English version. However, non- significant correlations between the TIPI-J scales and the facet scores of the NEO-PI-R-J were found for the Values and Modesty facets, suggesting that these facets may not be adequately covered by the TIPI-J. However, the problem may not lie with the content validity of the TIPI-J because the Value facet had particularly low reliabilities in this study. Additionally, a previous study in Japan (Shimonaka, Naka- zato, Gondo, & Takayama, 1998) reported that the Modesty facet was not successfully comprised in the Agreeableness factor, and it yielded high negative factor loading on the Extraversion and Openness factors. The correlation analyses in this study show that the Modesty facet correlated nega- tively with both the Extraversion and Openness factors of the TIPI-J, whereas the joint factor analysis indicated that it is comprised in Extraversion rather than in Agreeableness. An- other reason for the lack of correlation between the Modesty facet and Agreeableness of the TIPI-J involves the character- istics of the TIPI itself. The correlation coefficient between these scores was reported to be 0.23 for the English version (Gosling et al., 2003) and non-significant for the German version (Muck et al., 2007). Gosling et al. (2003) also re- ported that the correlation coefficient between the Modesty facet and Agreeableness of the BFI (John & Srivastava, 1999) was 0.23. This pattern suggests that the weak correlation between the scores may reflect something about the Modesty facet of the NEO-PI-R itself, rather than an inadequacy of the very brief measures of agreeableness.
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Optimal search strategies for identifying mental health content in MEDLINE: an analytic survey

Optimal search strategies for identifying mental health content in MEDLINE: an analytic survey

As indicated in our previous papers [14-21], when search- ing with the methodologic search filters alone we found that precision was generally low and therefore of concern. This was expected given the low proportion of relevant target articles for a given purpose in a very large, multipur- pose database. This means that searchers will continue to need to spend time discarding irrelevant retrievals. As reported in this paper, we set out to test whether preci- sion would be enhanced by combining the methodologic search strategies with content specific terms using the Boolean 'AND'. We found a 3- to 17-fold decrease in the absolute number of articles that would need to be sorted through to find articles that are on target. This decrease is substantive and shows that combining empirically derived search strategies for enhancing the retrieval of rel- evant content with search strategies derived for enhancing the retrieval of scientifically sound, clinically relevant arti- cles can have a profound impact on searching.
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Perceptions of national guidelines and their (non) implementation in mental healthcare: a deductive and inductive content analysis

Perceptions of national guidelines and their (non) implementation in mental healthcare: a deductive and inductive content analysis

The importance of being a role model and of enthus- ing and arousing an interest in guidelines among mental healthcare staff was also highlighted by the managers, as was the importance of informing staff about guidelines. Still, none of this was prioritised, and the reasons given included a lack of time and a lack of resources. Feelings of stress, requirements of keeping costs down and tough priority choices concerning the needs of different diag- nostic groups were also mentioned as things that took precedence over the task of rolling out guidelines. The sub-category passing the buck became especially visible in different ad hoc and split views concerning the ways in which implementation of the guidelines could be pro- moted, preferably with the help of a facilitator of some kind. It was suggested that a compilation of verbal and written information could be helpful, as could educa- tion, a conference and the spreading of good practical examples. Furthermore, someone should be specially appointed to disseminate information about guidelines, policies and important news from state agencies, as this dissemination was perceived as something that man- agers could not possibly keep up.
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Objective coding of content and techniques in workplace-based supervision of an EBT in public mental health

Objective coding of content and techniques in workplace-based supervision of an EBT in public mental health

Increasingly, implementation efforts need to advance be- yond examining practices with providers and clients to examining “ real-world supervisors and managers ” [7]. With some exceptions [61], supervisors seem to have longer tenure at their organizations [18] and many orga- nizations support some form of workplace-based super- vision. To leverage workplace-based supervision, however, the field requires “ a better understanding of how supervisors should be trained and included in the implementation process ” [3]. We see our study as an im- portant step towards describing workplace-based clinical supervision of EBT in public mental health. We also see our study as an example of how objective coding of im- plementation strategy use in usual care settings (vs. rely- ing on self-report) can inform our understanding of specific discrepancies from efficacy trials that might im- pact provider practice. Objective coding methods may allow for better accuracy in identifying moderators and mediators of implementation outcomes, even further ad- vancing the potential impact of implementation science.
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An analysis of content free dialogue representation, supervised classification methods and evaluation metrics for meeting topic segmentation

An analysis of content free dialogue representation, supervised classification methods and evaluation metrics for meeting topic segmentation

Two aspects are essential for content-free topic segmentation: classification method and feature set selection. I study these two aspects separately and introduce clas- sification schemes in this section. Content-free topic segmentation has definite fitness criteria (Chapter 5), different from classification accuracy. In this section, classifiers are evaluated with segmentation metrics. Moreover, classifier perfor- mance with correlated and unbalanced samples is of special concern. Proper clas- sifiers need to accommodate correlated instances and highly unbalanced dataset in two classes. A na¨ıve Bayes classifier generates robust predictions with inac- curate probability estimation [Domingos and Pazzani, 1996], and it is optimal if the dependencies among attributes cancel each other out [Zhang, 2004]. Con- ditional Random Fields (CRF), as a discriminative model, specifies conditional probability on all observations and precludes the independence assumption [Laf- ferty et al., 2001]. Ensemble classifiers are designed to learn a more expressive concept than a single classifier. These classifiers are assessed upon AMI data for successful topic segmentation solutions. A decision tree is a typical classification model constructed on information gain, I use decision tree segmentation results as reference to evaluate other classifiers.
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Detect Camouflaged Spam Content via StoneSkipping: Graph and Text Joint Embedding for Chinese Character Variation Representation

Detect Camouflaged Spam Content via StoneSkipping: Graph and Text Joint Embedding for Chinese Character Variation Representation

To address these challenges, we propose a novel solution, StoneSkipping (SS) model to enable Chi- nese variation representation learning via graph and text joint embedding. SS is able to learn the Chinese character variation knowledge and pre- dict the new variations not appearing in the train- ing set by utilizing sophisticated heterogeneous graph mining method. For a piece of text (a char- acter sequence), with the proposed model, each candidate character can probe character variation graph (like stone bouncing cross the water sur- face), and explore its glyph and phonetic variation information (like the ripples caused by the stone hitting the water). Algorithmically, a Variation Family-enhanced Graph Embedding (VFGE) al- gorithm is proposed to extract the heterogeneous Chinese variation knowledge while learning the (local) graph representation of a Chinese character along with the (global) representation of the latent variation families. Finally, an enhanced bidirec- tional language model, with a combination gate function and an aggregation learning function, is proposed to comprehensively learn the variation, semantic, and sequential information of Chinese characters. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to use graph embedding to learn the heterogeneous variation knowledge of Chinese characters for spam detection.
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Kerrang! magazine and the representation of heavy metal’s masculinity: A content analysis of Kerrang! cover images from 1981-1995.

Kerrang! magazine and the representation of heavy metal’s masculinity: A content analysis of Kerrang! cover images from 1981-1995.

A comparative analysis, having surveyed imagery from Smash Hits and NME, suggests that the common features highlighted in this study reflect the notion that Everything Louder Than Eve[r]

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Representation of women's health in general medical versus women's health specialty journals: a content analysis

Representation of women's health in general medical versus women's health specialty journals: a content analysis

were supplementary to the first method of identification. Third, a MEDLINE search was conducted for the following medical subject headings: "women's health," "women's health services," and "women." Limiting the MEDLINE search to the journals in our sample and the time period of study, 16 articles resulted, only 4 of which were original investigations; none of these were supplementary. Using these three search strategies, 99 GM articles with a wom- en's health focus were identified. A more detailed review (JPC) confirmed all GM and WS articles contained wom- en's health content and met the original inclusion criteria.
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A Case Study on the Content Infiltration of Positive Mental Health Education in Chinese Teaching

A Case Study on the Content Infiltration of Positive Mental Health Education in Chinese Teaching

Chinese Curriculum Standards (2017 edition) issued by the Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China, some significant ideas related to Chinese teaching are highlighted, such as “forming a high moral and cultural standard”, “setting up a positive life ideal”, helping students to “love life and enjoy life”, helping them to “develop a good foundation for their future life[3]”. Therefore, Chinese education and positive mental health education share a common education goal. Literature education is the most important part of Chinese teaching. In fact, literature reading is a double- edged sword, which may have a positive and also negative impact on readers. The meaning of literary works comes from readers' interpretation. The Chinses teacher is the compass for student who is reading. His interpretation to the works often determines the students’ understanding. Therefore, it has become one of the most important tasks for Chinese education workers to review and interpret works from a positive perspective.
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