Metal complexes as anti-cancer agents

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Speciation of precious metal anti cancer complexes by NMR spectroscopy

Speciation of precious metal anti cancer complexes by NMR spectroscopy

The successful clinical application of cisplatin and its second (carboplatin) and third (oxaliplatin) generation derivatives to treat cancers has greatly stimulated interest in metal-based anti-cancer agents. Many precious metal (Ru, Rh, Os, Ir, Pt and Au) coordination complexes are now showing promising anti-tumor activity [1,2]. Understanding the thermodynamic stability of metal complexes and the kinetics of their reac- tions with biomolecules is crucial for elucidating their mech- anisms of action. Both the ligand and metal ion can play important roles in the anti-cancer effects. Nuclear magnetic
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SYNTHESIS, GREEN METRICS EVALUATION AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF 3,4,5 TRIMETHOXY–N  [SUBSTITUTED (ARYL/HETEROARYL) METHYLENE)BENZENAMINE DERIVATIVES

SYNTHESIS, GREEN METRICS EVALUATION AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF 3,4,5 TRIMETHOXY–N [SUBSTITUTED (ARYL/HETEROARYL) METHYLENE)BENZENAMINE DERIVATIVES

hybridized orbital of the nitrogen atom of the azomethine group, which makes them chemically and biologically important compounds. [6] They are used as intermediates for the formation of various heterocyclic compounds such as oxazoles, thiadiazolines, thiazolidones. [7,8] Schiff bases, such as nitrofurantoin or nifuroxazide, are commonly applied in medicine as antibacterial agents. [9] They are well known for their biological application as antibacterial [10] , antifungal, antiviral, anti-HIV [11] , anti-protozoal [12] , anti-cancer agents. [13] A large number of different Schiff base derivatives have been used in the field of materials science like solar shell [14] , optical switching [15] , third order non-linear optics (NLO) [16] , electrochemical sensing [17] , Langmuir films and photo-initiated polymerization [18] , Schiff bases have been used as ligands for the formation of metal complexes such as with Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Pd(II), Pt(II). [19] These complexes are relevant for bioinorganic chemistry, biomedical applications, supramolecular chemistry and catalysis. [20-23]
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Anticancer activity of various transition metal complexes: a review

Anticancer activity of various transition metal complexes: a review

Cancer is one of the leading health threats which are affecting a wide majority of world population. Various anticancer agents (also referred as antitumor, anti-proliferative and antineoplastic) reported for treatment of different types of cancers act through different mechanisms. However, cytotoxicity towards ordinary cells is the most important side effect related with these agents and it is due to lack of selectivity for the abnormal cells. Therefore exploration on anticancer agent has been in continuum since many years (Bansal et al., 2012). Plants (fruits, vegetables, medicinal herbs, etc.) may contain a wide variety of free radical scavenging molecules, such as phenolic compounds (e.g. phenolic acids, flavonoids, quinone’s, coumarins, stilbenes, tannins), nitrogen based compounds (alkaloids, amines, betalains), vitamins, terpenoids (including carotenoids), and some other endogenous metabolites, which show good antioxidant activity (Cai et al., 2003). According to epidemiological studies that many of these antioxidant compounds possess anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, antitumor, anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic, antibacterial, or antiviral activities to a greater or lesser extent (Owewn et al., 2000; Sala et al., 2002; Mitscher et al., 1996).
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Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization, Photocatalytic And Anti Bacterial Activities Of Transition Metal Complexes Of Flavonol Base Ligand

Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization, Photocatalytic And Anti Bacterial Activities Of Transition Metal Complexes Of Flavonol Base Ligand

ul organic pollutants are discharged ious industries (Capinera, 2000; em, organic dyes play a vital role nd in textile, paper and printing MB) is a heterocyclic organic dye, ile, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical ermanent injury to humans and n and ingestion and the risk of the may be arisen from the burning ng and diarrhea (Kumar Maji, e authors have reported the photo rjee, 2011; Kumar Maji, 2011). mi conductor and gained much ic degradation of dyes for the past toxicity and low cost (Chu, 2011; theless, the wide bandgap of TiO2 tic activity under visible light, which tes more than 50 % of solar spectrum. Recently, have studied the photocatalytic activity of otocatalyst for the degradation of diation and they have reported tic activity of the metal oxide improved after modified with metal complex. H.Zhang and C.Hu (7) have evaluated the tion and radial micro channels of TiO 2
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“Synthesis, DNA Binding, Cleavage and Antimicrobial Properties of Novel Mannich Base and its Metal Complexes” by M. Sivakami, B. Natarajan, M. Vijayachandrasakar, S. Rajeswari, S. Ram Kumar Pandian, India.

“Synthesis, DNA Binding, Cleavage and Antimicrobial Properties of Novel Mannich Base and its Metal Complexes” by M. Sivakami, B. Natarajan, M. Vijayachandrasakar, S. Rajeswari, S. Ram Kumar Pandian, India.

annich reaction consists of amino alkylation of an acidic proton placed next to a carbonyl group with formaldehyde and ammonia or any primary or secondary amine. The final product is a β- amino carbonyl compound. Reactions between imides and aromatic aldehydes have also been considered as Mannich reactions. A review of literature regarding Mannich reaction shows extensive volume on chemical, biological and toxicological feature of Mannich bases 1-6 with vast applications as polymers, dispersants in lubricating oil and pharmaceutical agents. It is well known that compounds containing amide moiety as functional group have been found to possess donor properties and exhibit a wide range of biological activities. 7-13 Transition metals are essential for normal functioning of living organisms and are, therefore, of great interest as potential drugs. 14 The coordination chemistry of nitrogen donor ligands is an interesting area of research. A great deal of attention in this area has been focused on the complexes formed by 3d metals with bidentate ligands using both the nitrogen atoms of the substrates. The study of structural and binding features of various Mannich base complexes can play an important role in better understanding of the complex biological processes. Several drugs showed increased activity as metal chelates rather than as organic compounds. 15 It has been reported in the literature survey, that Co(II) complexes with octahedral geometry show remarkable intercalative binding affinity as well as DNA cleavage properties. 16-17 Further cobalt is an element of biological interest which is present in the active center of vitamin B 12 , which
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Metal complexes as potential anticancer agents

Metal complexes as potential anticancer agents

Despite its success, cisplatin has a num ber o f draw backs. Testicular cancer accounts for less than 1% of all malignancies encountered, thus its actual spectrum of activity is limited. Dose limiting toxic side effects are also a problem associated with the use of cisplatin. It is nephrotoxic27»29 and neurotoxic20, although its nephrotoxicity can be largely overcome by the administration o f large amounts of intravenous fluids and by the introduction of diuretics such as D-mannitol31 and furosemide29»32»33. The neurotoxic effects are manifested as demyelenation and axonal degeneration o f peripheral nerves when high or prolonged doses of the complex are administered. High frequency hearing loss (ototoxicity) can also occur, due to damage to the hair-cells o f the organ o f Corti. This occurs especially in young children and in some cases has resulted in total hearing loss. O ther side-effects that have been reported include Raynauds phenom enon (a disorder causing chilblain like symptoms), im pairm ent o f sex horm one production, psycho-sexual difficulties, elevated blood pressure and elevated levels o f blood ch o lestero l34. Cisplatin also displays the toxic effects, which are common to other anticancer drugs, such as severe nausea and vomiting. M ild haematological toxicity is observed as well, but this is not as severe as is observed with other anticancer drugs or with radiation therapy35.
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NATURAL PRODUCTS USED AS ANTI-CANCER AGENTS

NATURAL PRODUCTS USED AS ANTI-CANCER AGENTS

Contains curcumin, which inhibits the growth of cancer by preventing production of harmful eicosanoid such as PGE-2. The anticancer effect of curcumin has been demonstrated in all the steps of cancer development, i.e. initiation, promotion and progression of cancer. Data obtained from several studies suggest that curcumin inhibits the genesis of cancer as well as promotes the regression of cancer. Curcumin suppresses mutagenic effect of various mutagens including cigarette smoke condensates 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) and benzopyrene. Curcumin is found to decrease levels of urinary mutagens. It also possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The protective effects of Curcuma longa and its derivatives are partially due to direct antioxidant effect. Studies have revealed that Curcuma longa inhibits production of nitrosamine that enhances natural antioxidant functions of the body. Curcuma longa increases levels of glutathione and other non-protein sulfhydryls. It acts directly on several enzymes. Curcumin is used to treat squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and the ulcerating oral cancer. Curcuma longa also prevents malignant transformation of leukoplakia 23,24 .
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Schiff base metal complexes of Ni, Pd and Cu

Schiff base metal complexes of Ni, Pd and Cu

Nickel catalyst are of great interest due to the fact that it’s cheap. Different nickel (II) complexes has been synthesised over the past few decades which had high efficiency and selectivity. Nickel complexes has been identified as most the effective catalyst in oxidation of alcohols into carbonyl compounds, which is one of the most pivotal functional group transformations in organic synthesis [22]. A series of nickel (II)-triphenylphosphine complexes with derivatives of N-(2-pyridyl)-N’-(salicylidene) hydrazine has been synthesised (NiL1-NiL5) and their application in oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds in ethyl-methyl imidazolium (EMIM) ionic liquid has been investigated. To study the catalytic activity a solution of nickel complex ( 0.02 mmol) in 0.1 mL EMIM was added to the solution of benzyl alcohol (1 mmol) and NaOCl ( 1 mmol) and periodically reaction mixture was removed and analysed using Gas chromatography. It has been observed that total reaction time was only 15 min even at room temperature. This proves that Ni (II) complex/EMIM-NaOCl system showed great efficiency. It has also been observed that catalytic activity reduces dramatically with increase in the size of substituents. To find out the effect of concentration of catalyst with respect to substrate, the reaction was carried out in different substrate to catalyst ratio and it has been found that 0.02 mmol of catalyst was sufficient for maximum conversion of benzyl alcohol to corresponding carbonyl group. This observations shows the catalytic activity of Nickel (II) complexes. Same reaction was studied under different substrates and all the alcohols were oxidized from good to excellent conversions without adding any additives. All nickel complexes were found to catalyse the oxidation of alcohols to corresponding carbonyl compounds in a conversion range of 60-96%. Experimental data’s are given in table 3 below [22]
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. Various studies that biologically active compounds become more bacteriostatic and carcinostatic by chelation. Such metal ions with amino acids and peptides is of immense biological significance 21–23 . For the tine and ophthalmic infections, scalds, ulcerative colitis they are also effectively applicable 24 . various sulfaonamides compounds are used as an and in Alzheimer’s disease 27 . The compound basedprepared from succinic anhydride derivatives with Sulphathiazol has not been noted for metal complaxation so far. Therefore we prepared one compound which contains succinic anhydride and Sulphathiazol moieties, which may afford some good biologically active compound. In resent research paper we discuss about synthesizes, characterization and biological studies of 4-oxo-4-[{4-(N-
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Cancer cell bioenergetics in response to anti cancer agents

Cancer cell bioenergetics in response to anti cancer agents

Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapeutic drugs used clinic to treat solid cancers (Andrews and Howell, 1990) Cisplatin often yields modest and temporary clinical effects but its usefulness is limited by the acquisition of resistance, leading to drug relapse and therapeutic failure (Johansson et al., 2009, Michels et al., 2013, Locasale, 2012). Resistance can arise through a multitude of mechanisms including decreased drug accumulation, alterations in drug metabolism and mutations of drug targets (Longley and Johnston, 2005, Gottesman et al., 2002). One approach to possibly uncover the root cause of cisplatin resistance is to investigate the metabolic differences of the sensitive and cisplatin resistance cancer cells. In the second part of my study I set out to determine the metabolic changes behind acquired cisplatin resistance in the non small cell lung cancer cell line, H1299 and a mesothelioma cancer cell line, P31. Cell surface marker expression was assessed by flow cytometry. Analysis of the bioenergetic differences between the parental sensitive cell line and resistant sub-line was determined by the seahorse extracellular flux analyser. Determination of mitochondrial abundance was assessed by the citrate synthase assay. The effect on reactive oxygen species production levels was assessed by dihydro-fluorescein diacetate staining and flow cytometry. The effect of acquired cisplatin resistance on mitochondrial biogenesis was assessed assaying key components of the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway, namely sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), sirtuin-3 (SIRT3), transcription factor A, mitochondrial (TFAM) and peroxisome-proliferator activator receptor-γ co-activator 1-alpha (PGC1α) expression as determined by western blotting.
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Effects Of Metals And Anti-Browning Agents On Polyphenol Oxidase Activity From Sorrel (Rumex Acetosa)

Effects Of Metals And Anti-Browning Agents On Polyphenol Oxidase Activity From Sorrel (Rumex Acetosa)

Effects of various metals and other chemical reagents on the enzyme activity were studied by using catechol as the substrate (Table 3). It is clear that glutathione (GSH) was found to be the most potent anti-browning agent followed by L-ascorbic acid, L-cysteine and EDTA at 10 mM concentration (Table 3). Among the anti-browning agents, L-Cysteine was reported to be a strong inhibitor of apple PPO [20] and ascorbic acid is effective inhibitor for different PPOs [2, 7, 10]. Since cysteine and ascorbic acid are naturally occurring substances and non-toxic, they may be useful for preventing the enzymic browning of sorrel. L-cysteine and reduced glutathione (GSH) which are reactive thiol compounds are also excellent inhibitors of browning of plants PPO [13, 14]. One of the effective anti-browning agent is EDTA which is a well-known chelating agent permitted for use in the food industry as a chemical preservative. EDTA showed minimum inhibition to sorrel PPO activity like cherry PPO [20].
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Metal Complexes Of Compartmental Ligands, Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization And Chemotherapeutic Studies

Metal Complexes Of Compartmental Ligands, Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization And Chemotherapeutic Studies

The ligand (1) and its metal complexes have been screened for their antifungal activities. The results show that, complexes (3), (4), (10), (11), (12), (16) and (17) have no effect on Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigmatus. The order of the metal complexes is as shown in Table (10) and Figure (12). This enhancement in the activity can be explained on the basis of chelation theory. Chelation reduces the polarity of the metal ion considerably, mainly because of the partial sharing of its positive charge with donor groups and possible π-electron delocalization on the whole chelation ring. The lipid and polysaccharides are some important constituents of cell wall and membranes, which are preferred for metal ion interaction. In addition to this, the cell wall also contains many amino phosphates, carbonyl and cystenyl ligands, which maintain the integrity of the membrane by acting as diffusion and also provide suitable sites for bonding. Chelation can reduce not only the polarity of the metal ion, but also increases the lipophilic character of the complex and the interaction between metal ion and the lipid is favored. This may lead to the breakdown of the permeability barrier of the cell resulting in interference with the normal cell processes. Some important factors such as the nature of the metal ion, nature of the ligand, coordinating sites and geometry of the complex, concentration, hydrophilicity, lipophilicity and presence of co-ligands have considerable influence on antifungal activity. Certanly, steric and pharmacokinetic factors also play a decisive role in deciding the potency of an antifungal agent. Apart from this, the mode of the action of these compounds may also invoke hydrogen bond through the ˃C=N-N-CH- group with the active centers and thus interfere with normal cell process. The presence of lipophilic and polar substituents is expected to enhance antifungal activity. The antifungal activity of the ligand and its metal complexes were screened using the disk diffusion. The variation in the activity of different complexes against different microorganisms depends either on the impermeability of the cells of the microbes or differences in ribosomes in microbial cells.
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METAL COMPLEXES OF N [MORPHOLINE 4 YL (4  NITROPHENYL) METHYL] BENZAMIDE: SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF PESTICIDAL AND LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY

METAL COMPLEXES OF N [MORPHOLINE 4 YL (4 NITROPHENYL) METHYL] BENZAMIDE: SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF PESTICIDAL AND LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY

A research on Mannich base reactions by the synthetic chemists is due to their widespread pharmaceutical applications including antibacterial, anthelmintic, antifungal, anti- inflamatory, antiviral and analgesic properties. [5,6,7,8,9,10,11] The worthwhile biological activities of Mannich bases have been guiding for the synthesis of novel Mannich bases. In addition to their biological importance, Mannich bases form stable complexes with various transition metals. [12] The metal complexes of Mannich bases have been studied extensively in recent years due to the selectivity and sensitivity of the ligands towards various metal ions. The electrochemical behaviour and catalytic activity of various Mannich bases were also reported in literature. [13,14,15] Mannich base is a three-component condensation product of active hydrogen containing compound, an aldehyde and a secondary amine. The formation of product depends on the nucleophilicity of substrate and pH of the reaction medium. [16] Besides, Mannich base ligands were also found with special attention in synthetic plants because of their role as catalysts in several reactions such as polymerization reaction, reduction of thionyl chloride, oxidation of organic compounds, reduction reaction of ketones, aldol reaction and epoxidation of alkenes. The deep literature survey motivated us to synthesis a new compound from the combination of p-nitrobenzaldehyde, morpholine and benzamide as they were not yet condensed for synthesizing a Mannich base. The organic chelating agents containing amide moiety as a functional group have strong ability to form metal complexes and exhibit a variety of biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti T.B activity, anti HIV activity, antiviral, antiulcer and anti- hypertensive. [17,18,19,20,21,22,23] Hence, our research article explore the synthesis, characterization, pesticidal and larvicidal studies of a Mannich base, N-[Morpholine-4-yl-(4-nitrophenyl)-methyl]-benzamide and its complexes with a variety of transition metals such as Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II).
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Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Metals Complexes of [N-(4-Nitrobenzoyl Amino)-Thioxomethyl] Phenylalanine

Basima M. Sarhan | Mohammed A. Al-karboly | Dena H. Zaidan

Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Metals Complexes of [N-(4-Nitrobenzoyl Amino)-Thioxomethyl] Phenylalanine Basima M. Sarhan | Mohammed A. Al-karboly | Dena H. Zaidan

University of Al al-Bayt, Jordan. Melting point was recorded by using Stuart- melting point apparatus. FT-IR spectra were recorded as KBr disc using 3800 Shimadzu in the range of 4000-400 cm -1 . Electronic spectra were obtained by using UV-160 Shimadzu spectra photometer at 25 ºC in (1x10 -3 ) M DMSO. Conductivity was measured by using Philips Pw. Digital. Micro elemental analyses (C.H.N.S) were performed by using acrlo Erba 1106 elemental analyzer. Magnetic susceptibility measurements were obtained by balance magnetic susceptibility by model MSB-MKI. Metal contents of the complexes were determined by atomic absorption technique by using Shimadzu (AA680G ).
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<p>One-Pot Synthesis of Novel Thiazoles as Potential Anti-Cancer Agents</p>

<p>One-Pot Synthesis of Novel Thiazoles as Potential Anti-Cancer Agents</p>

Thiosemicarbazones are a large class of compounds, which represent great therapeutic value against parasitic diseases 8,9 and microbial diseases. 10 They were also iden- ti fi ed to be among the most interesting antitumor inhibitors due to induction of oxidative stress and ROS-mediated cell injury. 11,12 Thiazole heterocycles, derivatives of thiosemi- carbazone, are scaffolds of many natural, synthetic and semi-synthetic drugs which exhibit numerous remarkable pharmacological activities including antiparasitic, anti- in fl ammatory and antineoplastic activities. 13 – 17 Thiazole derivatives are also known to have potential anticancer activity with a mechanism of action related to inhibition of matrix metallo-proteinases, kinases and anti-apoptotic BCL2 family proteins. 18 – 21
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SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION OF MIXED METAL COMPLEXES OFFe-W WITH SCHIFF BASES OF TRIETHYLENE TETRAMINE

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION OF MIXED METAL COMPLEXES OFFe-W WITH SCHIFF BASES OF TRIETHYLENE TETRAMINE

Mixed metal complexes of Fe-W have been synthesized with Schiff bases of triethylene tetra amine (trien) formed from acetophenone, benzaldehyde, acetyl acetone and salicylaldehyde. The complexes were characterized by elemental and thermal analysis, IR, UV-Vis spectral studies and magnetic susceptibility studies. The anti bacterial and anti cancer activities of trien salicylaldehyde Schiff base complex were studied which indicates potential application of tungsten based complexes in biological field.
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Sulfonamide derivative and maleic anhydride based transition metal complexes: As potent antimicrobial agents

Sulfonamide derivative and maleic anhydride based transition metal complexes: As potent antimicrobial agents

In the present study a novel 4-oxo-4-((4-N-(thiazol-2-yl)sulfamoyl)phenyl)amino)but-2-enoic acid (OTSPAB) was prepared by reaction of maleic anhydride with Sulphathiazol. The prepared ligand was characterized by elemental analysis and spectral studies. The transition metal complexes viz. Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ , Co 2+ , Mn 2+ and Zn 2+ of OTSPAB were prepared and characterized by metal-ligand (M:L) ratio, IR, reflectance spectroscopies and magnetic properties. All the prepared metal complexes and ligand were studies as antimicrobial agent. Among all the metal complexes, Zn 2+ and Cu 2+ metal complexes have shown significant activity.
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Natural sources as potential anti-cancer agents: A review

Natural sources as potential anti-cancer agents: A review

Natural products remain an important source of new drugs, new drug leads and new chemical entities. The plant based drug discovery resulted mainly in the development of anticancer agents including plants (vincristine, vinblastine, etoposide, paclitaxel, camptothecin, topotecan and irinotecan), marine organisms (citarabine, aplidine and dolastatin 10) and micro-organisms (dactinomycin, bleomycin and doxorubicin). Beside this there is numerous agents identified from fruits and vegetables can used in anticancer therapy. The agents include curcumin (turmeric), resveratrol (red grapes, peanuts and berries), genistein (soybean), diallyl sulfide (allium), S-allyl cysteine (allium), allicin (garlic), lycopene (tomato), capsaicin (red chilli), diosgenin (fenugreek), 6-gingerol (ginger), ellagic acid (pomegranate), ursolic acid (apple, pears, prunes), silymarin (milk thistle), anethol (anise, camphor, and fennel), catechins (green tea), eugenol (cloves), indole-3-carbinol (cruciferous vegetables), limonene (citrus fruits), beta carotene (carrots), and dietary fiber. In this review active principle derived from natural products are offering a great opportunity to evaluate not only totally new chemical classes of anticancer agents, but also novel lead compound and potentially relevant mechanisms of action.
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Anti-cancer agents from natural sources-A review

Anti-cancer agents from natural sources-A review

Cancers which are the large family of diseases leading cause of mortality to the developing and developed country. Annually more than 15 million people are victim of this morbidity due to various types of cancer. Recent data accounting for more than 8.2 million deaths in recent years 1 . Six hallmarks of cancer are by the tumor cells due to the following reasons (i) cell growth and division absent the proper signals, (ii) continuous growth and division even given contrary signals, (iii) avoidance of programmed cell death (iv) Limitless number of cell divisions (v) promoting blood vessel construction (vi) invasion of tissue and formation of metastases 2,3 . Recent data showed that 22% of the total cancer patients are tobacco users. Another 10% are coming from obesity, poor diets, lack of physical activity and excess drinking of alcohol. Environmental pollutants and ionizing radiations are also responsible for invasive cancer. Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human papillomavirus infection, Epstein–Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) etc virus infections are the culprits of the 15% cancer of the developing countries 4,5 . Classification of cancers are done by the type of cell that the tumor cells resemble. The types of cancer are as follows: (i) Carcinoma: Cancers derived from epithelial cells. This group includes many of the most common cancers and include nearly all those in the breast, prostate, lung, pancreas and colon. (ii) Sarcoma: Cancers arising from connective tissue (i.e. bone, cartilage, fat, nerve), each of which develops from cells originating in mesenchymal cells outside the bone marrow. (iii) Lymphoma and leukemia: These two classes arise from hematopoietic (blood-forming) cells that leave the marrow and tend to mature in the lymph nodes and blood, respectively. (iv) Germ cell tumor: Cancers derived from pluripotent cells, most often presenting in the testicle or the ovary (seminoma and dysgerminoma, respectively). (v) Blastoma: Cancers derived from immature "precursor" cells or embryonic tissue 6,7 .
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