Metal-halide lamp

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Testing New Lighting Technology in a Park Pedestrian Area

Testing New Lighting Technology in a Park Pedestrian Area

Abstract European Union directives on ecodesign requirements of discharge lamps have also their effect on street lighting. The commonly used mercury vapor lamps have to be replaced starting from 2015. Pori, a middle sized city situated on the west coast of Finland, has about 17 000 mercury discharge lamps for street lighting. This was the starting point for Pori Energia, the utility that takes care of public lighting in the city of Pori, and for Satakunta University of Applied Sciences (SUAS) to initiate an investigation of alternative lamps. This paper considers the results of a practical experiment of four lamp types applicable for street lighting: high pressure sodium lamp, metal halide lamp, inductive lamp and led lamp. The lamps were installed above a park pedestrian area and the illumination was measured in various circumstances in the winter. In addition, electric measurements were carried out in the Electric Laboratory of SUAS. Also a small scale opinion poll among the pedestrian area users was included in the research. The results show that the luminous flux of all of the new lamp types was higher than that of the old mercury lamps. This was clearly proved even when the aging factor was taken into account. The led lamp seems to be the best choice relative to illumination/power consumption ratio. The park pedestrian area users were also satisfied with the chromatic tone of the white led light. However, the led lamp technology is not in mature phase and using it widely may cause extraordinary costs in the infrastructure of electric networks.
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Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dye Methyl Orange with Phosphotungstic Acid

Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dye Methyl Orange with Phosphotungstic Acid

A certain of MO was added into two reactors, 50 mg PW and 50 mg SiW were added into respectively, stir- ring by magnetic force and irradiating under metal halide lamp, at given intervals of illumination, some reaction liquid was taken out to be detected on UV-Vis spectro- photometer. It is observed that (Figure 4) more than 90% of MO was decomposed with PW after 70 minutes, but only 21% of MO was decomposed with SiW after 140 minutes. It is suggested the photocatalytic activity of PW is better than SiW, so PW was chosen for the cata- lyst to decompose the MO. The result was the same with most literatures [1,15,17].
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Effectiveness of Light Source on Detecting Thin Film Transistor Fu-Ming Tzu 1and Jung-Hua Chou2

Effectiveness of Light Source on Detecting Thin Film Transistor Fu-Ming Tzu 1and Jung-Hua Chou2

respectively, in addition to being wide band. Hence, after colour filtering, the wavelengths of the metal halide lamp are 680 nm, 580 nm, 555 nm, 550 nm and 445 nm for red, orange, yellow, green and blue filters respectively. On the other hand, the quartz-halogen lamp of Figure 3, the spectrum is more widely distributed than that of metal-halide lamp of Figure 2. Whereas, the peaks after filtering by the red, orange, yellow, green, and blue filters occur at 690 nm, 640 nm, 555 nm (above), 560 nm, and 450 nm respectively. As these filters were designed following the Gaussian transmission curve [13, 14] to emulate the narrow spectral distribution of monochromatic LEDs, the filtered spectrum distributions conform to the filter specifications listed in Table. That is, they have a relatively focused wavelength to improve the image quality. However, for the quartz-halogen lamp, a considerable amount of noise still exists for those filtered by the red, yellow, and blue filters, especially the blue colour. In contrast, the red, green, and blue LEDs as Figure 4, the peaks occur at wavelength of 660 nm, 530 nm, and 460 nm respectively, which are close to the maximum spectral response of the TDI CCD in the range of 460 nm to 580 nm. The result demonstrates the sharpness of the focused wavelength of the monochrome LED without noise.
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Binding of Halide Ions to Bovine Serum Albumin and Hemoglobin: Studied with Ion-Selective Electrodes

Binding of Halide Ions to Bovine Serum Albumin and Hemoglobin: Studied with Ion-Selective Electrodes

It is worth mentioning that the binding constants of the interactions of F – with BSA and with Hb first decrease and then increase when the temperature increases from 298.15 K to 308.15 K, which is not consistent with the above rules. The major cause of the behavior is its own characteristics of F – . In fact, the ionic hydration structure includes two layers. The first layer which is close to the ions has the compact structure, is also called chemical hydration layer. The second layer next to the first has the unfirm structure, which is also called physical hydration layer. The size of F – is the least among the three halide ions, so its charge density is the largest, and its chemical hydration structure is the thickest. When the temperature is lower, the chemical hydration layer of the ions is difficult to be destroyed completely by the interactions of ions with proteins. However, as the temperature increases gradually, the thermal motion of ions and molecules not only result in the instability of the binding of ions to proteins, but also the instability of the ionic hydration structure. The latter effect will make the water molecules depart from the ions easily. Therefore, this effect will impel the binding of ions to proteins stronger and the binding constants increase. The complexity of the change of the binding constants for the interaction of F – with the two proteins is caused by the competition of the above two effects.
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Synthesis, Structure and Photophysical Properties of [UO2X2(O=PPh3)2] (X = Cl, Br, I)

Synthesis, Structure and Photophysical Properties of [UO2X2(O=PPh3)2] (X = Cl, Br, I)

The chemistry of the actinides has undergone a resurgence of interest over the past decade, with small molecule activation at the forefront of this revolution. 1 Reactivity patterns have been developed that have no analogue in transition metal chemi- stry. 2 This has fuelled a deeper understanding of the bonding in these compounds, particularly the role the 5f and 6d orbi- tals play in metal – ligand interactions. 3 One class of com- pounds that has known covalency is the uranyl ion, {UO 2 } 2+ . 4

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LAMP-2 deficiency leads to hippocampal dysfunction but normal clearance of neuronal substrates of chaperone-mediated autophagy in a mouse model for Danon disease

LAMP-2 deficiency leads to hippocampal dysfunction but normal clearance of neuronal substrates of chaperone-mediated autophagy in a mouse model for Danon disease

Oligonucleotides were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (Steinheim, Germany) and siRNA sequences were deter- mined using the DSIR program (http://biodev.extra.cea. fr/DSIR/DSIR.html). The corresponding scramble RNA sequence was created using siRNA wizard (www.sirnawizard. com/scrambled.php). Oligonucleotide sequences used were as follows: forward primer LAMP-2 shRNA 5’-3’ [gatcccc GGAGATGAATTTCACAATAttcaagagaTATGTGAAAT TCATCTCCttttta], reverse primer LAMP-2 shRNA 5’-3’ [agcttaaaaaGGAGATGAATTTCACAATAtctcttgaaTAT TGTGAAATTCATCTCCggg], forward primer scmbl shRNA 5’-3’ [gatccccGATTGCTAAGACAAGTAAttcaaga gaTTACTTGTCTATAGCAATCttttta], reverse primer scmbl shRNA 5’-3’ [agcttaaaaaGATTGCTATAGACAAG TAAtctcttgaaTTACTTGTCTATAGCAATCggg]. Short hair- pin sequences were transferred between the BglII und HindIII sites in the pSUPER vector (OligoEngine, Seattle, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Mouse neuroblastoma cells (N2a) were transfected using poly- ethylenimine [31]. Stable transfection with G418 (PAA, Pasching, Austria) was initiated 48 hours post-transfection at a concentration of 100 μg/ml and increased by 100 μg/ ml every 48 hours until a maximum of 400 μg/ml G418 was reached. Cells were maintained for at least 2 weeks in stable media before preparation for immunoblotting. Cells were harvested in ice cold PBS with protease inhibitors (complete® from Roche, Mannheim, Germany). Messenger RNA was isolated from HeLa cells using the NucleoSpin® RNAII kit (Macherey-Nagel, Düren, Germany) according to the manufacturer’ s instructions. Subsequently, LAMP-2A was cloned in to the pcDNA3.1 Hygro + vector (Invitrogen, Darmstadt, Germany) from cDNA transcribed using the RevertAid cDNA synthesis Kit (Fermentas, St. Leon-Rot, Germany).
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Corrosion Inhibition behavior of 3-Hydroxy flavone on  Aluminium metal in the Presence of Halide ions in NaOH medium

Corrosion Inhibition behavior of 3-Hydroxy flavone on Aluminium metal in the Presence of Halide ions in NaOH medium

efficiency was ascribed to the synergistic effect. The inhibition efficiency of the inhibitor increases with the addition of the halide ions with the highest inhibition efficiency with iodide ion at all temperatures studied. This can be attributed to the stabilization of adsorbed halide ions by electroststic interaction with the inhibitor which leads to greater surface coverage and inhibition efficiency. Aluminium can form compounds with halide ions, thereby inhibiting the corrosion of Aluminium in the presence of the inhibitor. The syngersitic effect increased in the order Br P
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The effect of emulsion stabilizers on the rate of solution of silver halide grains

The effect of emulsion stabilizers on the rate of solution of silver halide grains

17 ANALYSIS OF DATA For the effects the result of stabilizers, looking of solubility the rate a deposition of halide a silver at figure 6 it is halide increased the bromide, rate silver [r]

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Dehydrohalogenation of ethyl halide

Dehydrohalogenation of ethyl halide

that the phenyl group provides anchimeric assistance through lowering the activation energy of the elimination reaction; i.e., by the involvement of benzene rings in the transition stat[r]

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Energy Efficient Lighting System in Gaza Strip Buildings

Energy Efficient Lighting System in Gaza Strip Buildings

In the life of human-being, lighting is something needed during nighttimes or daytimes. However, human-beings always give a little attention only to the operation of the lamp; they always forget to switch the lamp off as the room is empty or to decrease the number of lamps to be switched on, if the incoming light to the room is brighter. In general, the electricity consumption for the lighting will be around 25% - 50% [8]. One of the lighting energy efficiency researches is using lighting control method. The controller will control the number of lamps to be switched on while
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Cs7Sm11[TeO3]12Cl16 and Rb7Nd11[TeO3]12Br16, the new tellurite halides of the tetragonal Rb6LiNd11[SeO3]12Cl16 structure type

Cs7Sm11[TeO3]12Cl16 and Rb7Nd11[TeO3]12Br16, the new tellurite halides of the tetragonal Rb6LiNd11[SeO3]12Cl16 structure type

Differences vs. similarities in the structures of Se and Te compounds. The structures of the new compounds add one more global similarity to the crystal chemistry of layered Ln--Se and Ln--Te oxide halides. New differences, however, are found, of which the first concerns chemistry: while for selenites, the structures involving metal-halide slabs have been hitherto found only among oxide chlorides and not oxide bromides (Table 1) such restrictions seem not to exist for the tellurium compounds.

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HAND TELEPHONE SET-- 220A AND 1220A IDENTIFICATION, INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE, AND CONNECTIONS

HAND TELEPHONE SET-- 220A AND 1220A IDENTIFICATION, INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE, AND CONNECTIONS

(a) Dial Lamp: To replace a defective dial W'.t:,'iTING. lamp (Fig[r]

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CHEMICAL OXIDATION OF PHENYLEPHRINE BY USING CHLORAMINE T IN ACID MEDIA: A KINETIC AND MECHANISTIC STUDY

CHEMICAL OXIDATION OF PHENYLEPHRINE BY USING CHLORAMINE T IN ACID MEDIA: A KINETIC AND MECHANISTIC STUDY

This shows an approximately zero order dependence on Cl- & rate constants of the oxidation of PHE by CAT does not depend on halide ions concentration, hence halide ions showed no effect [r]

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SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF BENZYL CHLORIDE AND BENZYL BROMIDE IN ENTECAVIR BY USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF BENZYL CHLORIDE AND BENZYL BROMIDE IN ENTECAVIR BY USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

Considering the allowable limit of 1.5 μg per day of benzyl halide, the concentration limit ppm of benzyl halide varies for different Pharmaceutical products based on the daily dose of t[r]

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NDA-24318 ISSUE 1 STOCK # 200818 IPTRK Circuit Card System Manual

NDA-24318 ISSUE 1 STOCK # 200818 IPTRK Circuit Card System Manual

When using an IPTRK circuit card for FCCS Networking via IP [F-36] (Point-to-Multipoint Connection), connect an Ethernet cable from the IPCON connector to the router. Next, connect another Ethernet cable from FCON connector to LANI card (CPR, PCI slot 00/03) via HUB. The following figure is an example when connecting the IPTRK circuit card to the LANI of CPU0, PCI slot 0. When 100BASE-TX Ethernet cable is connected to IPCON/FCON connector, IP100M or F-100M lamp lights green, respectively. When using 10BASE-T Ethernet cable, the lamp does not light.

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Design of an OLED lamp

Design of an OLED lamp

A thorough analysis is one of the essential requirements for this bachelor project. Light, the usage of light and its effects on the humans have been first studied. Then the OLED technology is examined to understand the characteristics of OLEDs for being able to use them in lamp designs. The results from both studies are essential for being aware of which purpose OLED lamps can be used for. Moreover the current market has been analysed via internet, magazines and fair trades. The visit of two fair trades in Cologne and Bad Salzuflen was used for getting knowledge on the usage of light in furniture designs and for talking with members of lighting companies. This is essential for getting to know the currently available OLED panels, their characteristics and their place on the market. The design office OTT-DESIGN is also studied shortly within the analysis section. Finally all achieved knowledge is summed up in a list of requirements.
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Synthesis and Characterization of Metal Doped (Ni, Co, Ce, Sb) CdS Catalysts and Their Use in Methylene Blue Degradation under Visible Light Irradiation

Synthesis and Characterization of Metal Doped (Ni, Co, Ce, Sb) CdS Catalysts and Their Use in Methylene Blue Degradation under Visible Light Irradiation

[19] [20], proving that the photoluminescent and electrical features of sulfide nanocrystals. Continuous attempts are being made to synthesize sulfide nano- materials with controlled sizes, shapes, and phase purity by various chemical routes [21] [22] [23]. Doping cadmium sulfide has attracted considerable atten- tion as it is a convenient way to tailor its physical properties. Recently, spectros- copic studies of transition metal and rare-earth doped nanocrystalline CdS have motivated to develop new and more efficient multicolor phosphor materials [24]. Similarly, the mixed Cd 1−x Zn x S [25], Cd 1−x Mn x S, and CdS x Se 1−x nanopar-
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Studies of copper halide lasers

Studies of copper halide lasers

In the first experiment to determine the effect of metal segments on a high repetition rate discharge, the segments are placed in the quartz tube such that they are separated by 2cm. The ends of each segment are smoothed so that they have no rough or projecting points which will give electric field enchancement and aid inter-segment breakdown. The establishment of a discharge in this tube is straightforward if the buffer gas (helium or neon) pressure is below 50 Ton*. Above this pressure, spurious arcing between segments and axial discharges over part of the tube length may be seen. Towards the high pressure end of the range noted above it is also helpful to have a pulse repetition frequency above a few kiloherz. The high repetition frequency allows ionization to spread into the segments, reaching further with each pulse until an axial discharge path is established and has a lower breakdown voltage than the sum of the segment-segment and electrode-segment gaps (ref 8). On dismantling the tube after a few hours of operation with a flowing buffer gas (neon at 25 Torr) it is found that inter-segment arcing has deposited copper on the wall of the quartz vacuum envelope and subsequent heating has caused this copper to diffuse into the wall, devitrifying it. The laser head is re-assembled with copper segments of the same length as before but of 44mm outside and 42mm inside diameters. The copper segments are supported at each end by an alumina sleeve (fig 6.14) which also protects the quartz wall.
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Hydrogen bonding in substitutionally disordered di μ hydroxido bis­­{aqua­tri[bromido/chlorido(1/2)]tin(IV)} acetone disolvate

Hydrogen bonding in substitutionally disordered di μ hydroxido bis­­{aqua­tri[bromido/chlorido(1/2)]tin(IV)} acetone disolvate

the molecule being generated by inversion symmetry. The other sites of the distorted octahedral coordination geometry are occupied by halide atoms and water molecules. The structure exhibits substitutional disorder of the halide atoms bonded to the Sn atom, with 0.672 (4) occupancy for Cl and 0.328 (4) for Br for each halide position. The compound crystallizes with two acetone molecules, which are involved in intra- and intermolecular O—H O contacts. The water molecules coordinated to the Sn atoms are also involved in O—H O and O—H X contacts, leading to a polymeric array along the a axis.
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Comparison Between Fluorescent Lamp And Led Lamp Using AC Supply

Comparison Between Fluorescent Lamp And Led Lamp Using AC Supply

After the wiring had been done, a set of data had been taken from each type of lamp. The data consist 15 sets of reading from each type of lamp. The parameters in the data are voltage, current, power factor, power, lux and total harmonics distortion (THD). Then an analysis from the data had been done. Each parameter had been compared from each type of lamp. From the analysis, a result and conclusion on the best type of lamp had been made. By guiding from the result, consumer can chose and decide which type of lamp are the most suitable and efficient to be used.
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