The Metal-processing Industry Association is a branch association organised within the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Slovenia (CCIS). The Association formulates standpoints and policy towards legislative bodies, governmental institutions along with other international and national associations and social partners. To increase the competitiveness and financial efficiency of its members, the MetalProcessing Industry Association organises joint promotional activities, promotes consulting and development projects, participates in the development of the professional training system and implements statutory authorisations in connection with the protection of domestic industrial production. The Association co-operates in the drawing up of strategies and policies on national and international level. It also represents the interests of its members and provides them with a range of information and consultations.
The study was conducted on 508 enterprises in the metalprocessing industry, of which 502 (98,8 %) are private, and 6 (1,2 %) are state-owned. Indicators and data about the enterprises are downloaded from the portal Business Croatia . Central year of establishing of the enterprises is 1997 (interquartile range from 1992 to 2007, which means that 50% of surveyed enterprises were established in this interval), the oldest company was founded in 1921 and the youngest in 2014. The number of board members ranges from 1 to 6 members, the mean 1 (interquartile range 1÷2), while the average number of employees is 7 (interquartile range 1÷33), including enterprises that do not have employees, to companies with 1698 employees. Average net wage is 3780 HRK (interquartile range 2070 to 5065 HRK). Most of them - 492 (96,9 %) is privately owned. Mostly private property has got 7 (1,4 %) enterprises (more than 50 % of private capital). Two companies (0,4 %) are in state ownership which has not started conversion (0,4 %), and two in the state ownership are in the process of conversion. The cooperative ownership has only 2 (0,4 %) companies.
while the Si particle remain as solid, therefore the initial Si structure is retained in the final semisolid castings [4,5]. Moreover, using semisolid casting, the casting temperature and heat content are very much reduced, which results to less die wear and total shrinkage. Production of hypereutectic Al-Si alloy with small primary silicon particles has been reported using electromagnetic stirring , mechanical stirring  and ultrasonic treatment . This paper presents the results of producing in-situ Si/Al composite by semisolid metalprocessing.
The aim of this study was to test whether the mineral oil-based waste effluents of the metal- processing industry, generated upon technologi- cal processes as oily emulsions with high organic load, can be biologically treated using auto- and/ or allochthonous bacterial communities. This aim was achieved by examining toxicity of the emul- sions, evaluating their colonization with indige- nous microorganisms, and testing both the condi- tions and growth potential of autochthonous and allochthonous bacteria.
Semi-solid metalprocessing now covers a whole family of processes. These days whole forming processes can be done by using semi-solid processing techniques without any difficulty. These processing technologies can be grouped into two main categories based on the status of the starting material: rheo-routes and thixo- routes. The rheo-route refers to the preparation of a SSM slurry with spheroidal microstructure from a liquid state, which is injected directly into a die or mould for component shaping without an intermediate (solidification) stage. The thixo-route refers to processes where the molten metal is solidified initially (in an intermediate solidification step) during which time the material in the form of a billet was treated in such a way that when it is heated into the semi-solid state it has a non-dendritic microstructure and is then injected into the die or mould for component forming. There is still a lack of consensus regarding whether rheoforming or thixoforming is the best available method. The differences between rheoforming and thixoforming are illustrated in Figure1. The rheo- and thixo-related terminology is discussed in the following sections.
Various mechanisms can be used to explain the role of grain boundaries in the tribolgoical properties of oxide scale during metalprocessing at high temperature. Our previous study  implies that grain boundary sliding contributes significantly to dissipation in oxide lay- ers during hot rolling. If the oxidised grain boundary is under tension, both the metal and the oxide scale during thermal cycling tend to facilitate crack initiation . A mechanism has been addressed for stress-aided grain boundary oxidation ahead of cracks. Oxygen embrittle- ment can therefore serve as the form of dynamic embrittlement or oxidation-induced grain boundary cracking during services at elevated temperatures . In essence, the role of anisotropy needs to be investigated to clarify, which anisotropy (grain boundary energy or mobility) is dominant at which conditions. The local grain boundary planes can be dominated by the growing side of the boundary.
Gostol – Gopan is a follower of more than 50-year old company with tradition in the field of bakery equipment production. We are specialized in equipping all sizes of bakeries, from small ones to the biggest ones, real factories of bread. Our production also includes all types of machines and devices for processing of different kinds of materials, such as liquids, pasting materials, bulk materials, etc.
simplicity of manufacture, ease of assembly and ease of part removal. The mold for the casting method is a gravity fed design made of carbon steel, with a mold cavity of 121 mm 144 mm 54 mm. The mold for the PM method was made from 304 stainless steel, with a mold cavity of 51 mm 51 mm 89 mm. Prior to processing, the surfaces of the molds are cleaned and then coated with a boron nitride mold release to prevent bonding between the sample and the mold and to facilitate removal from the mold. To avoid the build- up of oxides from inside the mold, non co-linear holes were drilled into the spacer and mold cap. This allows venting of the atmosphere and any outgassing inside the mold, but holds the powder in place.
Metal matrix composites (MMCs) reinforced with nano-particles, also called Metal Matrix nano-Composites (MMnCs), and are being investigated worldwide in recent years, owing to their promising properties suitable for a large number of functional and structural applications. The reduced size of the reinforcement phase down to the nano-scale is such that interaction of particles with dislocations becomes of significant importance and, when added to other strengthening effects typically found in conventional MMCs, results in a remarkable improvement of mechanical properties [1–4]. The main issue to be faced in the production of MMnCs is the low wettability of ceramic nano-particles with the molten metal matrix, which do not allow the production of MMnCs by conventional casting processes. Small powder aggregates are in fact prone to form clusters, losing their capability to be homogeneously dispersed throughout the
Mean metal concentrations in fish samples are expressed in table1. Method of processing had a significant (P<0.05) effect on the trace metal content of fish samples. Among the three processing methods studied, SMKD samples had the highest trace metal content. The slightly higher concentration of concentrations in SMKD can be due to weighing error or the possibility of contamination from smoke particles used for the preservation process. This is in line with the observation of Essuman (2000) who suggested that salt and other materials used during preservation may be sources of heavy metals in fish. The high concentration of Fe and Zn in the fish samples analysed can be due to the natural abundance of the metals in Nigerian soils, and since the source of metal depositories are aquatic systems (Adefemi et. al., 2000). The content of all Fe, Zn and Cd in all processed fish samples were lower than the maximum allowable limit set by the World Health Organisation (2008) and the Nigerian Federal Environmental Protection Agency (2003). The concentrations of Fe, Zn and Cd had no correlation with the duration of storage and remained almost constant throughout the period of study.
Aluminum (Al) and its alloys have been the prime materials of construction for many industries. The Al alloys are readily weldable and have excellent formability, good strength and excellent resistance to corrosion. While Al alloys are very strong and exhibit a high strength to weight ratio, they exhibit limited capabilities for wear and abrasion applications. The reinforcement of Aluminum and its alloys with various reinforcing powders has engineered a new type of material regarded as metal-matrix composites. The reinforcement of pure Al and its alloys with ceramic particles is expected to result in an improved mechanical property-to-weight ratio, as well as a superior resistance to wear, and to a high specific hardness. However, these composites suffer from a great loss in ductility and toughness due to the incorporation of non-deformable ceramic reinforcements as a result of inappropriate fabrication process and process parameters. The fabrication process used in this study is known as the friction stir processing technique.
mechanical properties of the matrix. Usually the reinforcing component is distributed in the continuous or matrix component. When the matrix is a metal, the composite is termed as a metal-matrix composite. In MMCs the reinforcement usually takes the form of particles, whiskers or short fibers, or continuous fibers. Metal matrix composites (MMCs) are finding increasing applications in many of today‟s industries. Magnesium and its alloys have gained widespread attention in scientific research as well as commercial application as energy conservation and performance demands are increasing because of their low density, approximately two-third of that of aluminium, and high specific strength as compared to other structural metals .
It can be seen from the figures that there is an increase the particles cluster corresponding to an increase in the processing temperatures. Which were stirred for a con- stant speed with longer period at higher temperature, the particles were agglomerated in the melt. Although there is an increase in the particle clustering with increase processing temperature, it was observed that the ten- dency for formation of particle cluster was greater in the higher holding time than in the low holding time. During the higher holding time with temperature, the geometry of the capturing of the particles does not restrict their movement inside the liquid metal as well as solidification. Also the presence of a low viscosity of liquid metal tents to physically not restricts growth of porosity. Thus, the tendency for particle cluster or porosity is high in the higher temperature with prolonged contact between ma- trix and reinforcement.
In addition, the EtOH serves not only as a solvent but also as a reducing agent during the neck deposition step. This was studied by mixtures of tert-butanol-EtOH for the deposition process (Figure S12, Supporting information). Tert-butanol was used as the solvent for these studies because a tertiary alcohol does not take part in the surface redox reactions therefore it acts as a redox-inert solvent system. NF synthesis in neat tert-butanol resulted in Au deposition at the np surface and only sparse metal deposi- tion at the neck up to a well-defined distance from the SC-Au interface at the NW tip (Figure S12a). Addition of EtOH to the tert-butanol solution led to deposited metal tip which evolved gradually with the EtOH fraction show- ing increase in the Au clusters density and size. These results suggest that Au clusters nucleate at the exposed Ge surface following the MACE removing the native oxide layer at the neck region by galvanic displacement. The nuclei growth is then catalyzed by the oxidation of the EtOH over the Au nuclei surface, where the EtOH func- tion as a reducing agent towards the metal salt. We fur- ther demonstrated the role of EtOH not only as solvent but also for promoting the redox reactions by employing several other reducing agents including glucose, phenol, and ascorbic acid, all resulted in NF structures with dif- ferent morphologies while keeping similar overall dH and L dimensions (Figure S13, Supporting information). The coinage metals and Au in particular are well-known for their catalytic role in promoting the oxidation and dehy- drogenation of alcohols. 35,36 Therefore we further studied 1
The measure of neurobehavior used in this study was the RVP, a test of executive function developed by Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB, http://www.cambridgecognition.com/cantab). The test con- sists of a sequence of individual digits being presented to the participant who has to push a response pad when they detect a target sequence. The RVP task shares similarities with the Conner’s Continuous Performance Task (CCPT) , a test where decreases in performance have previously been linked to toxicant metal exposure [22–24]. The RVP measures several aspects of executive function, including: impulsivity, attention, working memory and processing speed. Two metrics of performance were used for this task: the overall percentage of responses that were cor- rect (accuracy) and the median delay to a correct re- sponse (latency) to a correct response. Study personnel administering the test used a standardized protocol and were blind to the child’s level of metal exposure. Information on covariates includes: child sex, child age at RVP assessment, socio-economic status (SES), maternal education and maternal age at recruitment. The covariates were selected a priori. The SES index was determined using the 1994 Mexican Association of Intelligence Agen- cies Market and Opinion, which classified families into 6 levels based upon 13 questions regarding the characteris- tics of the household . These 6 levels were collapsed into three SES tiers: low, medium and high.
Nickel exhibits various attractive properties such as excellent corrosion and wear resistance, ductility, toughness and has a low coefficient of thermal expansion. Owing to its properties such as heat resistance, resistant to fatigue and abrasion, resistant to oxidation and its ability to retain its shape and strength even at high temperature, nickel and nickel- based superalloys has been widely used in aerospace, petrochemical industry and numerous other processing industries. 7,8 Nickel based MMCs with ceramic reinforcement are used for various industrial applications including operations involved with cutting, stamping, punching, rolling, piercing, etc. 3
ensuring that all the ash came into contact with the acid and the resultant solution heated on hot plate until the ash dissolved. Ten (10) mL of 0.1 mol.L −1 nitric acid was added and filtered into 50 ml volumetric flask. The resultant solution was topped up to the mark with 0.1 mol.L −1 nitric acid. Blank solution was treated the same way as the sample. Buck Scientific 210VGP Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Buck Scientific, Inc. East Norwalk, USA) was used to read the absorbance values at appropriate wavelength of the interested metal in the sample solution. Cathode lamps used were As (wave- length 193.7 nm, lamp current 4.0 mA), Cu (wavelength 324.8 nm, lamp current 1.5 mA), Fe (wavelength 248.3 nm, lamp current 7.0 mA), Hg (wave length 253.7 nm, lamp current 0.7 mA), Pb (wavelength 217.0 nm, lamp current 3.0 mA) and Zn (wavelength 213.9 nm, lamp current 2.0 mA). The metal content of the samples were derived
To address the performance difference between the bulk and thermally sprayed materials, researchers have subjected Ni-Cr based coatings to different surface melting techniques. Following laser re-melting, Tuominan et al reported significant improvements in the wet corrosion and high temperature oxidation performance of a HVOF sprayed Inconel 625 coating . This was attributed to the homogenisation of the coating’s microstructure and the elimination of interconnected porosity. Liu et al demonstrated the importance of selecting the correct processing parameters during their examination of laser re-melted, HVOF sprayed, WC-Inconel 625 coatings . Experimenting with different laser powers and scanning velocities, optimal operating windows were established, outside of which the coatings were more prone to cracking. González et al compared the wear resistance and microstructural integrity of flame sprayed Ni-Cr-B-Si coatings after laser and oxyacetylene flame re-melting procedures . While tribological evaluation of the laser and flame modified surfaces revealed no significant difference in wear behaviour, microstructural examination showed that the flame treated coatings suffered from incomplete melting. This was attributed to the imprecision of the oxyacetylene flame process.
FSP of coated specimens was carried out using a TTI precision spindle friction stir welding/processing machine. The tool was produced from H13 grade tool steel and featured a concave shoulder with 2 mm pin length. A drawing of the tool can be seen in Fig. 2. Initial development work on uncoated aluminium was carried out to establish appropriate machine parameters that were capable of producing processed tracks with no voids and minimal flash. For the processing of coated specimens it was necessary to incorporate a 3 O lead angle to the