Open-pit mining is a mining process that takes place on the surface in order to mine ores. During its service life, the entire mining process is carried out open-air. You want to peel and mine ore, usually need to peel off a lot of waste rock. In particular, deep open-pit mines often occupy more farmland and have higher equipment purchase costs, so the initial investment is larger. In addition, open-pit mining is more affected by the weather and has some impact on equipment efficiency and labor productivity. The most important operational goal of any effective mine is to obtain the maximum benefit from the lowest mining cost  . The choice of physical design parameters and ore and waste mining work schedule is a great economic significance of complex engineering decisions. Therefore, the planning of an open-pit mine is basically an economic operation, subject to both geological and mining engineering considerations. Open pit mining usually requires significant capital investment, but also high productivity, lower operating costs and a higher safety factor manufacturing environment. With the deepening of operations research and applied research, how to extract the key factors from the many limiting factors in production practice in mining, establish a scientific and effective mathematical programming model, compare and quantify various factors, and then use computer software Solving the problem to assist mine development decision-making is a very worthwhile issue to study [2,3] .
In metallurgicalengineering, the residence time distribution (RTD) of the fluid is used as an index of the performance of the reactors. The RTD characteristics of a given tundish can be studied through the pulse injection of inert tracer at the inlet in the water model experiment and monitored by the change of tracer concentration at the outlet. The RTD analysis e.g. the mean residence time, the plug flow volume, the dead volume and the mixed volume are used to estimate the tundish performance. The dye tracer visualizes the flow pattern, which may put the results obtained by the RTD analysis in proper perspective. These experimental studies provide useful input data to validate the developed mathematical model.
Ukrainian iron and steel industry accounts for around 5 to 6 % of the national gross domestic product and 33,2 % of Ukrainian export revenue in 2009 (40,25% in 2008). Large as these numbers may already be, indirectly steel is even more important because many other economic activities depend on the steel sector. Figure 2 shows graphical interpretation of the importance of Ukraine’s metallurgical sector in total export revenue, as we can see global economic downturn and slump in world trade, particularly in world steel markets, resulted in fall of the revenue from domestic steel and iron industry during seven quarter (from second quarter 2008 till fourth quarter 2009). There was a breaking point in fourth quarter 2008 –export revenue from domestic metallurgical sector in percentage term in the structure of total export revenue began to rise, which can be connected with a start of recovery of world economy.
This study focuses on the characterization of train brake blocks. The brake blocks are an essential organ of train speed control system to ensure comfort and safety to passengers and crew. However, poor quality soles can cause a premature wear of the wheels whose consequences are on the one hand, a damaged brake function, and also high repair costs. Samples were carried out on 3 different batches of brake blocks. Their metallurgical characterization consisted of a study of the hardness and microstructural analysis (micro- structures and chemical analyzes) of the different samples. The results show that the hardness of some soles is greater than that of the wheel, mainly asso- ciated with a cementite microstructure. This can lead to a premature wear of the wheels at the expense of brake blocks.
A metallurgical coating can be defined as a near-surface region having properties differing from the bulk metals and alloys by metallurgical procedures involving deposition, conversion of ion, thermal, mechanical, or chemical treatments, which alter the surface composition or properties. Due to their high hardness, chemical stability including corrosion/oxidation resistance, wear resistance and low friction coefficient to improve tool lifetime and higher surface quality [2-8], metallurgical coatings have been widely used in modern machinery and automotive industry. Typical machinery applications include cutting [9-12], drilling [13-16], milling [17-19], stamping [20, 21], die casting [22-25], etc. In the automotive industry, metallurgical coatings are now widely used to increase load capacity (mechanical, thermal, etc.), extend lifetime, reduce weight, reduce friction and resist corrosion in mass production. Thermal spray (TS), physical vapor deposition (PVD), chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and thermal- chemical heat treatment such as nitriding/nitrocarburizing are utilized to coat the engine components such as piston rings, piston bores, connecting rods, bearings, gears, ball pivots and brake discs, etc.
The Union of Myanmar has a promising potential of mineral resources. But, comparison with other mines in the world most Myanmar Mines can be classified as small- scale mines. Most of the mineral processing methods are gravity concentration and flotation. Some private mines have been used artisanal methods. The mineral exploration, mining and metallurgical sectors play a dominant role in the economic development of the country. As the government is at the present allowing more foreign investors to invest in the mineral industry, it is certain that this industry will fast grow with momentum and be very promising in the near future in Myanmar.
Cryogenic Processing is not a substitute for heat-treating. Cryogenic Processing is not a coating. It affects the entire volume of the material. It works synergistically with coatings. These benefits extend to cast iron, aluminum, stainless steels, and other materials. The scope of cryogenics has expanded widely from basic military and space applications to various civil applications. Cryogenic processing is mainly applicable to steels. Cryogenic treatments can produce not only transformation of retained austenite to martensite, but also can produce metallurgical changes within the martensite. this offers many benefits where ductility and wear resistance are desirable in hardened steels While various experts dispute the benefits of time-at-temperature control; available research, along with a correlation with standard heat treating processes indicates that this control is the key to maximizing the potential of cryogenic tempering. As is the case with many scientific discoveries, the cost factor limits the usefulness of this process in the production phase of the materials industry.
Chemical and Reagent: Geosyn Cold Mounting (GCM) compound and liquid, Grease, aluminium powder, nitric acid, acetic acid, ferric chloride. Apparatus Requirement: Mounting socket, plane glass plate, glass rod, spatula, petri dish, cotton cloth, applicator stick, grinding machine with emery belt, polishing machine and metallurgical electronic microscope with the attached computer. The following Samples were used for the Metallographic Study: Ashodhita Srotonjana (AS), Shodhit Srotonjana with bhringraja swarasa (SSBS), Shodhit Srotonjana with triphala kwath (SSTK).
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Cerriet al  developed a WC and TiC which are mixed with metallic alloys are deposited on a low alloy steel AISI 4140 using laser cladding. The coated layers obtained have been characterized by metallurgical examination. They show low dilution, absence of cracks, and high abrasion resistance. Gasser et al  investigated the densification of surface coatings by remelting with continuous wave CO 2 laser radiation as