Recently, Turkish State Meteorological Service (TSMS) started a modernization program of observing systems including Automated Weather Observing Systems (AWOS) and Weather Radars. This program is still under process and, new and modern observing systems have been installed for renovation the existing observing network of TSMS. As an important component of that modernization program, a project of training of trainers was implemented and the key staffs of TSMS have received training courses from manufacturers and international experts on both operation/interpretation and maintenance/calibration of the systems. As a result of those activities, TSMS has caught a very important level on meteorologicalinstruments and observing systems. And then, as an active member of WMO on Regional Metrological Training Activities, TSMS has planned to organize regular training courses on weather observing systems in line with the general training policy of TSMS to train its own staff for operating the systems more efficiently to increase the meteorological service given as well as to support the activities of Expert Team on Training Materials and Training Activities established by CIMO Management Group (OPAG on Capacity
The YOUNG 85000 Ultrasonic Anemometer is a 2-axis, no- moving-parts wind sensor. It is ideal for general meteorological applications requiring accurate and reliable measurement. The sensor features wide operating range, compact size, easy installation and low power operation. Analog and digital signal outputs are available in several popular formats.
In this case, ‘standard’ readings – as near standard as are obtainable at this site at least - were obtained from a Vector Instruments A100L2-PC3 anemometer and W200P wind vane exposed atop a dedicated mast on the south wall of the nearby house at 11.1 m AGL and 2.7 m above the apex of the roof-line. The rooftop mast position is the best available on the site; the only obstructions higher than the top of the mast and closer than 3x their height are two oak trees, one 20 m tall, 55 m distant at 310 deg and one 22 m tall, 50 m distant at 340 deg. Apart from these trees the horizon is almost clear above mast level. Both sensors are sampled every second and logged every minute (logging vector mean wind direction, scalar mean wind speed and highest gust i.e. the highest 3 second running mean wind speed). Because the rooftop mast is not easily accessible, the VP2 anemometer/wind vane unit had to be mounted in a position where it could be reached from the ground: a true side- by-side comparison was therefore not possible. From tests with a sensitive hand-held
Wind speed signals vary among sensors. The signals may be frequency related for magnet/coil and photochopper transducers or voltage related for tachometer generator transducers. Wind direction signals from potentiometer transducers are voltage related and are dependent upon stable excitation voltage. To monitor wind speed and direction signals, use a suitable indicator. It may be a frequency meter, voltmeter, calibrated wind indicator, data logger with display, or some combination of these instruments. As a general rule the resolution of the indicator should be equal to the smallest unit being measured and the accuracy of the indicator should be 5 to 10 times better than that required by the calibration. If necessary quantifiy and account for any additional error introduced by the indicating device.
The Chlorophyll Fluorescence Module (CFM), developed in cooperation with Hansatech Instruments, provides measu- rement of chlorophyll fluorescence using the pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) technique. The CFM easily attaches to the PLC6 (U) Automatic Universal Leaf Cu- vette with the signal conditioning board integrated into the CIRAS-2 main console. The CIRAS-2 User Interface provides powerful software control and program- mable automation of the measurements permitting fully integrated gas exchange & chlorophyll fluorescence data to be simultaneously collected, displayed and saved as a single record. The user has full control over all light intensities and durations, modulating beamlevels and fluorescence detector gain.
stations, ozone and radiation observatories and meteorological radar stations. Additional data is received from India’s constellation of satellites, such as Kalpana-1, Megha-Tropiques and instruments on board the IRS series and the INSAT series of satellites. IMD was the first weather bureau of a developing country to develop and maintain its own satellite system. Data and observations are also reported into the IMD network from meteorologicalinstruments on board Indian merchant marine and Indian Navy ships. IMD has always used contemporary technology. In the telegraph age, it made extensive use of weather telegrams for collecting observational data and sending warnings. Later IMD became the first organization in India to have a message switching computer for supporting its global data exchange. One of the first few electronic computers introduced in the country was provided to IMD for scientific applications in meteorology. IMD has continuously ventured into new areas of application and service. It has simultaneously nurtured the growth of meteorology and atmospheric science in India. IMD is also one of the six regional specialized meteorological centres of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). It has the responsibility for forecasting, naming and distribution of warnings for tropical cyclones in the Northern Indian Ocean region, including the Malacca Straits, the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf. Today, meteorology in India is poised at the threshold of an exciting future.
Long-term time series often contain gaps due to failures of the measuring instruments or radio-software systems acquiring data from them. This issue is particularly acute in meteorological and climatological fields where monitoring station networks are frequently used to detect key variables such as temperature, precipitation, pressure, humidity, radiation, etc. Studies began some decades ago on models, to provide as accurate as possible climatological data reconstructions. The arrival of computers made it possible to significantly increase their performance; they enable models to making use of more sophisticated mathematical and statistical methods supported by important algorithmic structures.
in the limits of 1500m and 2000m. A gradual decrease in episode events was also found after 2- day duration except in few cases within the mixing limit of 500m. The higher numbers of events of episodes (181) were recorded in 1 – day duration in the limits of mixing depth of 1500m and 4.0ms -1 wind speed. Most of the occasions in all the durations pertaining to 2ms -1 wind speed limit showed zero values. For both 4 day and 5 day duration, no episode were present both in the mixing limits of 250m and 500m with all the wind speed limits except in 4- day duration with Hl, 500m and Ul, 6ms -1 .It is an important point to note that the highest numbers of episode events are above the mixing depth limit of 1000m which signifies the non severe episodes over the station. However, it should not be disregarded, and care should be taken while discharging the higher pollutant concentrations even in such episodes. During summer season, 30 th May of 2012 bags the worst dilution of one day duration with 394.3 m 2 s -1 in the limiting values of 250m and 4.0ms -1 . In addition to this, the same day and month of 2011 had shown the ventilation value of 443 m 2 s -1 in the limiting values of 250m and 4.0ms -1 . With these two lowest values of episode days occurred, one may infer that a peculiar phenomenon observed during summer season over Visakhapatnam with lower mixing depths leading to the worst stagnant condition. June 1 st , 2011 recorded the second and third worst stagnant conditions occurred with 692.2 m 2 s -1 respectively. It may be due to the stand still condition prevailed after a significant precipitation. The synoptic wind is such situation inhibits the sea breeze condition. These conditions were also verified with the synoptic conditions from Indian Daily Weather Report (IDWR) published by the Indian Meteorological Department.
The data on the use of instruments is based on clinical ex perience. Medical science is subject to a process of perman ent change based on research and clinical experience. Therefore the products are subject to alterations in design and technique. Because of production tolerances dimensions in the catalogue may marginally differ.
TIP: When soaking
laparoscopic instruments, soaking the instruments vertically allows fluid to enter at the distal tip and rise up. Fluid will seek it’s own level, and this, in conjunction with an enzymatic cleaner, will assist with the cleaning process.
3. Framework for Supporting Globalization Efforts of SMEs
Organization of JBIC’s Finance Groups (from April 2012)
Country Local Financial Institutions in Developing Countries When MOU was signed Number of participating Japanese Regional Financial Institutions
1. Financial Instruments
Counter Guarantees for Export Credits
When Japanese exporters export machinery and equipment with other country’s fi rm(s), JBIC provides a counter guarantee for the guar- antee provided by that country’s Export Credit Agecy (ECA), thereby participating in a multilateral mutual guarantee scheme.
The pressure is measured by a barometer, with a correction then being made to give the equivalent pressure at sea level. Meteorologists measure pressure in units of millibars (mb), though instruments sometimes give pressures in terms of inches of mercury. The term hectopascal (hPa) is often used instead of millibar, where 1 millibar equals 1 hectopascal. In the British Isles the average sea-level pressure is about 1013 mb (about 30 inches of mercury), and it is rare for pressure to rise above 1050 mb or fall below 950 mb.
Armed with these definitions, we now compare the spread of each stochastic ensemble, σ i 2 , with its average distance from other stochastic ensembles, S i 2 , for different values of the spatial and temporal reliability scales and for the four events considered. The statistics represented in the follow- ing figures are based on the spatio-temporal RMS distance between the downscaled fields. Spatial and temporal depen- dence appear in the choice of the reliability scales. Fig- ure 3 shows that, for most of the events considered, varia- tions in the reliability scales do not significantly affect the spread of individual stochastic ensembles. Note that increas- ing the reliability scales leads to a reduction in S i 2 . Indeed, by construction of the RainFARM procedure, the center of each stochastic ensemble roughly corresponds to the field ob- tained by aggregating the original meteorological forecast at the reliability scales. Increasing L o and T o thus leads to a
From the beginning in 1920, the Sokkia development team has not only been developing construction instruments, surveying instruments and industrial measuring solutions. They developed visions and translated them to the needs of the user. To ensure Sokkia continues to innovate and lead the world construction market, thinking and acting with vision is more important then ever. Sokkia keeps on developing new solutions to simplify people’s jobs all around the world.