cessibility assessment to the analysis of spatial structure and the upgrading of new transportation system and com- munication technology, and lastly how accessibility in- fluences the metropolitan spatial morphology: 1) When it comes to the definition and assessment of accessibility, all agrees that accessibility is so flexible (slippery) a concept that different scholars have different comprehen- sion of its connotation as accessibility refers to not only objectively how convenient the network transportation is, it also subjectively means the preference to which nodes to choose . Also, accessibility refers to transport infra- structure and the morphological assessment of spatial units (railway, road, aviation, terminal ports, stations and integrated transport, etc.) and public service infrastruc- tures (green parks, hospitals, shopping malls, schools, etc.) as well as the linkage of cyberspaces in communica- tion systems ; 2) The analysis on spatial accessibility shows that the urban network accessibility and the con- struction of infrastructures in transport network as well as the central cities’ level are highly interrelated. The metropolitan spatial morphology is in “hub-and-spoke” structure and is in the spatial pattern of concentric lay- ered circles [7-10]; 3) The assessment on accessibility of the ever-upgraded new transportation system and com- munication technology is mainly concentrated on the effects building freeways has on the accessibility of the
On the user side, one must contend with the complex configuration of the ATM device, and all parameters must be perfectly matched to the virtual circuit parameters of the carrier. Because ATM granularity is a 53- byte cell, the larger Ethernet packets must be broken up and reassem- bled at the remote end. In addition, the various features of Ethernet transport must be simulated to prevent connection problems. This pro- cess in the ATM world is called LAN emulation, or LANE services. To manage an ATM transport layer, the network technicians will require ex- tensive additional training in this technology, in addition to their base knowledge in Internet protocol, server operating systems, and general Ethernet operation.
Compared to the Tier-2-Comm‟s design, Tier-3- Commdesign is intended for use in metropolitan areas. Inorder to bridge the two networks for inter- BAN andbeyond-BAN communications, a gateway device, suchas a PDA can be employed to create a wireless linkbetween these two networks.As shown in Fig. 2, the beyond-BAN tier communicationscan enhance the application and coverage rangeof an E- healthare system a step further by enablingauthorized healthcare personnel (e.g., doctor or nurse)to remotely access a patient‟s medical information bymeans of cellular network or the Internet.A database is also an important component of the“beyond-BAN” tier. This database maintains the user‟s profile and medical history. According to user‟s servicepriority and/or doctor‟s availability, the doctormay access the user‟s information as needed. At thesame time, automated notifications can be issued tohis/her relatives based on this data via various meansof telecommunications.The design of beyond-BAN communication isapplication-specific, and should adapt to the requirementsof user-specific services. For example, if anyabnormalities are found based on the up-to-date bodysignal transmitted to the database, an alarm can benotified to the patient or the doctor through emailor short message service (SMS). If necessary, doctorsor other care-givers can communicate with patientsdirectly by video conference via the Internet. In fact, itmight be possible for the doctor to remotely diagnosea problem by relying on both video communicationswith the patient and the patient‟s physiological datainformation stored in the database or retrieved by aBAN worn by the patient.An ambulatory patient travelling to a location outside his/her hometown might experience a
A central application of the Smart Grid in a HAN is the thermostat. Between 35 and 60% of a home’s energy consumption can be measured and controlled through networked thermostats which control the Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning. By adding low-power Wi-Fi sensor devices and networking capability to appliances, heating systems, air conditioning systems, water heaters and thermostats, homeowners and utility providers benefit by reducing their energy consumption and supporting conservation initiatives. Homeowners can monitor and control energy consumption with minimal effort and also benefit from incentives provided by their utility providers for energy conservation. Wi-Fi technology represents a massive installed base that already exists in many homes and buildings, and utility providers, by extending a Smart Grid inside the house using Wi-Fi, can better manage peak demand.
and cumulative environmental hazard inequalities by education were then summed up and followed by unemployment. Regarding the education of the population composition, the highest neighborhoods, 67% of the population was educated, whereas the lowest neighborhoods, 2.99% of the population was educated with a standard deviation of 3.33% (Table1). Figure 3a shows that neighborhoods with higher education are mainly focused in the northern area. The minimum, mean, maximum, and standard deviation for unemployment rate were 1.54, 9.21, 22.88, and 15.61, respectively. Based on Fig. 3b, we saw that unemployment among neighborhoods of Tehran does not have a clear spatial pattern.
These indices were based on three measures of urban growth parameters; measures based on land conversion, density trends and metropolitan form. These quantitative values computed were then interpreted infer if these urban growth patterns could be regarded as sprawling as well as to check for the rate and magnitude of sprawling and thus the environmental and socio-economic implications of these for the study area. RS/GIS methods facilitated achievement of results using cartographic modeling of urban spatial growth which provided estimates used for computation of indices under review. Results revealed that Built-up Change Intensity Index (T i ) has a gradual increasing trend from 7.8% between 1967 and
A Personal AreaNetwork (PAN) is a computer network organized around an individual person. Personal Area Networks typically involve a mobile computer, a cell phone and/or a handheld computing device such as a PDA. A Local AreaNetwork (LAN) is a group of computers and associated devices that share a common communications line or wireless link. Typically, connected devices share the resources of a single processor or server within a small geographic area. A MetropolitanAreaNetwork (MAN) is a network that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large Local AreaNetwork (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a Wide AreaNetwork (WAN). A Campus AreaNetwork (CAN) is a proprietary Local AreaNetwork (LAN) or set of interconnected LANs serving a corporation, government agency, university, or similar organization. A Storage AreaNetwork (SAN) is a high-speed network of storage devices that also connects those storage devices with servers. It provides block- level storage that can be accessed by the applications running on any networked servers. A Wide AreaNetwork (WAN) is a geographically dispersed telecommunications network. The term distinguishes a broader telecommunication structure from a Local AreaNetwork (LAN). Extensive research or project has been done in the position of network architecture and security issues in campus networks .
Coordinator disseminates beacon frame on the network after regular intervals and all the associated nodes listen to it to follow these instructions. Beacon frame is also used to synchronize all the associated nodes so that all nodes must awake up just before start of next beacon from coordinator. All requests along with some data packets from nodes to coordinator are transferred during CAP. Information relating to Length of active superframe duration, next Beacon arrival time and Slot duration for each slot can be attained from the superframe specs field of the beacon frame as shown in figure
Bosch originally developed the Controller AreaNetwork (CAN) in 1985 for in-vehicle networks. In the past, automotive manufacturers connected electronic devices in vehicles using point-to-point wiring systems. Manufacturers began using more and more electronics in vehicles, which resulted in bulky wire harnesses that were very heavy and expensive. They then replaced dedicated wiring with in-vehicle networks, which reduce wiring cost, complexity, and weight. CAN, a high-integrity serial bus system for networking intelligent devices, emerged as the standard in-vehicle network. The automotive industry quickly adopted CAN and, in 1993, it became the international standard known as ISO 11898.
The first is Ad-Hoc mode. This is a standard feature present in client adapters, it is designed to allow communication to occur directly between clients without a co- ordinating access point. The radio layer assumes that all clients are within range of each other and thus does not re-transmit packets, although it is possible to over-come this restriction by forcing hosts to re-transmit at the IP or Network layer. Ad-Hoc mode is not ideally suited for large networks as the stations attempt to form a virtual network called an IBSS. Each IBSS has an ID taken from the MAC address of the station which created it, stations which join the IBSS use this ID to identify it and provided that at least 1 node remains running the ID will continue to exist. Problems arise when merging multiple IBSS networks, for example when 2 initially disconnected networks become linked by a new host then they will not merge as one might expect, instead the joining host must choose one network ID or the other.
A healthy Indiana needs healthy communities and it needs health professionals located in all areas of the state from the inner cities to the rural neighborhoods prepared to help educate citizens about health problems and issues and to provide quality healthcare. Area Health Education Centers (AHECs) play an important role in providing communities with healthcare professionals prepared to meet their needs. The mission of the Metropolitan Indianapolis-Central Indiana Area Health Education Center (MICI-AHEC) is to address regional healthcare workforce shortages through education and collaborative community relationships that assist students, career seekers and health professionals. MICI-AHEC is one of eight AHECs based in communities across the state and is responsible for a nine county region, which includes: Boone, Hamilton, Hancock, Hendricks, Johnson, Madison, Marion, Morgan and Shelby counties.
For the monthly sampling time interval, in the summer season (Fig. 3) the 11th raingauge does not provide an infor- mation gain to the network. Its nontransferred information index has the same value as that of the previous raingauge. The same behaviour can be noticed for all the following rain- gauges. In the winter season (Fig. 3), the nontransferred in- formation index reaches a constant value corresponding to the 14th raingauge.
In the current silicon era, NoC is not power and area efficient although it has higher throughput. The proposed architecture will show significant reduction in silicon area and power consumption. As the buffers can be shared by a couple of input ports in our architecture, significant improvement in buffer utilization will also be achieved with limited resources.
In the second section I develop a simple model of how, under very general assumptions, the overall well-being of a metropolitanarea will vary according to how poor households are distributed across its neighborhoods. This model shows that, based on the evidence above, a metropolitanarea with the poor distributed in such a way that no neighborhood exceeds the metropolitan average poverty rate (i.e., each neighborhood has the same poverty rate) will have a lower total incidence of social problems than one in which high-poverty neighborhoods house all the poor while the rest house none. But, of more importance here, a metropolitanarea may well raise its total incidence of social problems if its poor population is redistributed so that both its high- poverty and low-poverty neighborhoods are replaced by moderate-poverty
The WiMAX market continues to acquire momentum with technology similar to Long-Term Evolution (LTE) Technology. Furthermore, WiMAX technology which offer fixed data rate and triple plays service needs a good support system. To achieve that, a high performance transceiver is needed in order to get a better reception and signal. To overcome the issue, a mixer with high linearity is design. This is because mixer is an essential part in the system which can effect overall sysem performance. For this research, single balanced mixer is developed to overcome the issue considering the challenges related with earlier version of wired and wireless access network.