Iran is an upper-middle-income country having a total population of about 80 million people inhabiting in the country’s 31 provinces, out of which 74% resides in the urban settings. The total number of all type services pro- viding hospitals during 2016 in Iran was 921. Both teaching and non-teaching governmental (public), pri- vate, social security organization (SSO), military, and charity hospitals accounted for 568, 161, 74, 52, and 30, respectively. The remaining 36 were affiliated with other non-public organizations. A quarter (25%) of the total population lives in eight top largest cities namely Tehran, Mashhad, Esfahan, Karaj, Shiraz, Tabriz, Qom, and Ahvaz . This study purposefully included Tehran, Mashhad, Esfahan, Shiraz and Tabriz metropol- itan cities, and are located in the northern, eastern, central, southern, and western parts of Iran. Their geo- graphical distributions fairly represent the metropolitan cities in Iran. A summary of the total number of dis- tricts, populations, and total hospitals beds within each city is presented in Table 1.
It is a secondary data analysis; National Family Health Survey-III data for five major metropolitan cities namely, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai was used for the analysis. These data were obtained from Measuresdhs USA . The households were classified as slum and non-slum by two agencies, viz., NFHS and census of India. slum data which were classified by both the agencies, that is census of India and NFHS-III as slum households were only considered for analysis. Definition for slum household by the census of India is provided above in the introduction part  and the in NFHS-III slum households were identified in the eight designated cities by the interviewing team supervisor at the time of the fieldwork. Few variables which are more relevant for the public health aspects namely, source of water supply, toilet facility, health insurance, reasons for not utilising the gov- ernment health facilities and possessing of BPL cards selected for this study. Sampling and sample size of slum data where explained (Health and living conditions in eight Indian cities. NFHS-3) elsewhere .
A B S T R A C T - In Ahmedabad city, along with development of city, transportation facility has also been improved. Improvement of transportation has many benefits though it creates many environmental problems like air pollution, noise pollution, water pollution etc. Transportation Induced Noise pollution is a new threat to Mega cities and Metropolitan cities like Ahmedabad. Noise pollution makes many adverse effect on human being like it interferes spoken communication, it causes Ear Impairment, it causes reduced task performance, it causes disruption to sleep, it causes hypertension as well as cardiovascular problems, It causes negative social behavior ect. Noise also makes adverse effect on Fetuses, newborn baby and to school going children. Due to noise, Impaired educational task performance takes place in school going children and hence Noise can be awarded as slow killer. By keeping in view to adverse effect of noise, it is necessary to know that whether noise is above or below than it is permissible limit. If noise is found above it’s permissible limit, sufficient remedial measures should be taken to save human being from it’s adverse effect. For assessment of noise in Ahmedabad city, three areas were selected. To assess road traffic noise, Gitamandir four cross roads was selected which is in vicinity of state transport bus station and hence considered as one of the most noisy areas of the city. Noise Level reading were taken separately for day time as well as for night time at every five minutes of interval. For each location, Leq (Equivalent Noise Level) was calculated separately for day time noise as well as for night time noise. The calculated Leq was Compared with Standards Given by Central pollution control board. Also it was calculated that the obtained noise level was high by what percentage with compare to standards given. The result
as ‘Slum’ by State/Local Government and UT Administration, Housing and Slum Boards, which may have not been formally notified as slum under any act. (3) A compact area of at least 300 populations or about 60-70 households of poorly built congested tenements, in unhygienic environment usually with inadequate infrastructure and lacking in proper sanitary and drinking water facilities. The National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO), India, defines a slum as a “compact settlement with a collection of poorly built tenements, mostly of temporary nature, crowded together usually with inadequate sanitary and drinking water facilities in unhygienic conditions” (NSSO 2003). Also, there are two kinds of slums: notified and non-notified. Areas notified as slums by the respective municipalities, corporations, local bodies or development authorities are treated as notified slums. A slum is considered as a non-notified slum if at least 20 households lived in that area. There are number of terms by which slums are known in different cities. In India, they are known as Katras, Gallis, Juggi-Jhopadpatti in Delhi, Chawls in Mumbai, Ahtas in Kanpur, Bustee in Kolkata, Cheris in Chennai, Keries in Banglore and Pattas in Andhra Pradesh. The concept of slums and its definition vary from country to country depending upon the socio-economic conditions of each society. The basic characteristics of slums are – dilapidated and infirm housing structure, poor ventilation, acute over-crowding, faulty alignment of streets, inadequate lighting, paucity of safe drinking water, water logging during rains, absence of toilet facilities and non-availability of basic physical and social services. The living conditions in slums are usually unhygienic and contrary to all norms of planned urban growth and are an important factor in accelerating transmission of various air and water borne diseases (Census of India, 2001).
Around the world, sustainable development has become a top policy discussion as countries struggle to maintain or enhance economic growth without compromising the future. Nowhere is the issue more pressing than in India, where urban areas and their economies are expected to grow rapidly over the next few decades and where resource use and environmental quality are already raising grave concerns. Sustainable development, economic growth that improves the lives of the people without exhausting the environment or other resources, is especially critical in developing countries, where mass urbanization is taking place at a time when man’s impact on the environment has reached a critical juncture. The study investigates if the present pattern of urban development in India in the creation of mega cities is sustainable. The indicators represent a primary tool to provide guidance for policy makers and to potentially assist in decision-making and monitoring local strategies/plans. The outcome of the study will contribute to the design of policies, tools, and approaches essential for planning to attain the goal of sustainable development and the social cohesion of metropolitan regions.
11 Read more
In the recent decades India has emerged as one of the fastest growing economy in the world. Since 1991, the regulatory environment in the context of foreign direct investment has been consistently eased for making India as one of the investment friendly nations in the world. In fact the ―Make in India‖ program launched by the newly elected government of India in September 2014 is one among the several governmental initiatives aimed at making India more investor- friendly. The main goal of this program is to encourage national and multi-national companies to manufacture their products in India. This means that this policy has further eased the regulatory environment in order to attract Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in India. As per the data provided by World Development Indicator, FDI flows to India increased from US$ 28 billion in 2013 to US$ 44 billion in 2015 which is indeed a 57% increase. On the other hand, FDI (net inflows as % of GDP) in India was 2.1 % in 2015 whereas for China it was 2.3%. Make in India program mainly focuses on twenty-five sectors (e.g., Automobiles, Construction, Pharmaceuticals, etc) of the economy by allowing 100% FDI in most of these sectors. 1 This has resulted in improved ranking in the World Bank‘s ease of doing business index where India is ranked 130 th out of 189 countries as of 2016 whereas it was ranked 134 th in the 2015 index. Moreover, out of 17 cities, World Bank‘s Doing Business in India Index in 2009 ranked Ludhiana in the first position and Kolkata in the last position followed by New Delhi at 6th and Mumbai at 10th as the easiest cities to do business in India. India‘s ranking among the world‘s 10 largest manufacturing countries has also improved by three places to sixth position in 2015. 2 In sum, ‗Make in India‘ program will help India to become a global manufacturing hub by increasing the contribution of the manufacturing sector to 25% of the GDP by the year 2025 from its current 16%. Among the different initiatives, promotion of foreign direct investment is one of the major one. Manufacturing sector is crucial for development of the economy by providing higher employment opportunities. As per the Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) data, the number of persons working in manufacturing sector has increased from an average 7.95 million in 1981-91 to an average 8.98 million during 1991-2001, 13.4 million in 2011-12, but
23 Read more
The metropolitan cities in India like Mumbai and Chennai are characterised by long rows of traffic in the roads, especially during peak hours. This leads to the production of unnecessary noise(due to standby mode operation of vehicles powered by IC engine),smoke (due to vehicle emission)and standby power losses(due to IC engines).So we have designed a vehicle that is driven by a DC motor for the first two gears and by an IC engine in the rest of the gears as motors are characterised by less noisy operation, lesser standby power losses, and zero emission. This design will reduce discomforts ,emission and power losses in traffic. The purpose of driving the vehicle by IC engines in the latter gears is due to lower thrust provided by motors. So in highways where higher speeds are required the vehicle may be driven by IC engines. Since the vehicle shaft is already running when IC engine has to power vehicle this design eliminates the need for a starter motor in the vehicle. Thus on the whole the vehicle runs on a motor for lower speeds and an IC engine for higher speeds.Automobile hybridization is considered as an important step in reducing greenhouse gases and related automotive emissions. However, current hybrid electric vehicles are a temporary solution on the way to zero emission road vehicles.It differs from the conventional hybrid vehicles from the fact that when the power of the battery gets too low to power the motor the vehicle operation is made to rely completely on engine and the motor is just used as a starter motor to turn on the engine through a suitable flywheel and gear assembly ,thus the mode of charging the batteries is either through EV charging stations for using the motor to power the vehicle or by using the same motor as generator using drives that contain anti-parallel IGBT switches thus bringing drastic reduction in the cost of the vehicle by eliminating the need of a generator . This paper discusses the use of hybrid electric vehicle power train. This vehicle allows a control strategy which includes both fuel-economy and performance modes.
Globalisation creates a heterogeneous and diverse composition of societies and multicultural markets (Neal et al., 2013; Beck, 2006; Cavusgil et al., 2005), as local, national and regional migration of people continues to change the demography and socio- cultural texture of various societies. The emergence of multi-ethnic and multicultural societies in recent times calls for changes in managing organisations (Sarpong and Maclean, 2015; Janssens and Zanoni, 2014; Rossiter and Chan, 1998) and approaching customers (Gaviria and Emontspool, 2015; Riefler et al., 2012; Jamal, 2003). With growing diversity becoming an integral part of large western metropolitan cities, further research on their ethnic populations ’ interaction with multicultural social and market institutions can offer deeper insights into how and why they adopt/avoid/resist various attributes of their ancestral, global and host societies ’ traditional culture and other ethnic sub-cultures in a multicultural society, which is important to understand with a view to segment customer markets, assess market dynamics and analyse the current and future trends of consumer culture (Craig and Douglas, 2006; Alden et al., 1999). As such, the acculturation strategies of immigrants and sojourners are of interest to diaspora and cross-cultural marketing (Kumar and Steenkamp, 2013; Demangeot et al., 2015; Poulis et al., 2013; Schilke et al., 2009).
35 Read more
of 1.72, 1.73, and 1.79 for each IQR increase, respectively. The effect of air pollution exposure on mortality is cause- specific, and the related cardiovascular and respiratory effects are well known. There have been several reports on cardiovas- cular and respiratory mortality owing to air pollution in Korea. An interesting cause of death that shows an association with air pollution is suicide. In a case-crossover study conducted us- ing data from seven metropolitan cities in Korea (Seoul, Incheon, Daejeon, Gwangju, Daegu, Busan, and Ulsan), the authors re- ported that an IQR increase of PM 2.5 was associated with a
14 Read more
Prevagay 2015 was conducted between September and December 2015 in MSM attending commercial gay venues in five French metropolitan cities (Lille, Lyon, Montpellier, Nice and Paris). The choice of these cities was based both on feasibility constraints and on epi- demiological criteria. A minimum number of sufficiently frequented accessible venues was needed. Because up- dating HIV prevalence estimations was the main object- ive of this study, we chose cities with different HIV epidemiological profiles based on the number of new HIV diagnoses in MSM (French regional HIV monitor- ing data), the number of HIV prevalence declarations (Gay and Lesbian press survey 2011), and regional alerts of increasing numbers of STI . In each city, the ex- pected sample size was evaluated using the expected HIV prevalence and the desired precision of estimates. Two types of gay venues were investigated: bars (without sex) and backrooms or saunas (where sex was possible).
14 Read more
Flowing water has a lot of kinetic energy which can be harnessed to generate power, in metropolitan cities a lot of effluent water is left in canals this water in the canals can be used to generate electricity, also to prevent evaporation of water the top of the proposed design solar panels are placed on top, hence more power can be generated if we go for hybrid models.
the current subsidence in the greater Houston metropolitan area (Kearns et al., 2015; Yu et al., 2014), a rapid-subsidence bowl is forming around The Woodlands area. The Wood- lands is a vibrant and fast-growing business and entertain- ment suburban area located 43 km north of downtown Hous- ton (Fig. 6). Groundwater is the sole water source for residen- tial and business use in this area as of 2014. The subsidence rate in the center of the subsidence bowl is about 25 mm yr −1 (Kearns et al., 2015). ROD1 is located in the city of Spring, Texas, northern Harris County. The station is 12 km south- west to The Woodlands area (Fig. 6). The subsidence rate at ROD1 is 17 mm yr −1 derived from the whole time series from 2007 to 2014. The closely spaced contour lines repre- sent greater spatial variation of subsidence rates in this de- veloping subsidence bowl. The horizontal velocity vector in- dicates that ROD1 is affected by the differential subsidence. TXCN is located in the city of Conroe, Texas, which is 21 km north of The Woodlands. The positional time series (2008– 2014) of TXCN does not indicate any considerable horizon- tal movement (< 1 mm yr −1 ). However, steady land subsi- dence with a rate of 16 mm yr −‘ has been recorded at this site. The contour lines in this area are spaced far apart. The differ- ent vertical-to-horizontal velocity ratio suggests that TXCN is located at a more uniformly subsiding, therefore, flat area. whereas ROD1 is more likely located along the steep side- wall of the developing subsidence bowl. The comparison of the three-component positional time series of ROD1 with those of TXCN illustrates a good example of horizontal ve- locity variations around a subsidence bowl.
20 Read more
overdevelopment, with the Spanish Costas providing the model for cheap ‘sun, sea and sand’ beach holidays which was reproduced around the globe. More than 100 million tourists currently visit the Mediterranean coast every year, and this number is expected to double by 2025. To maintain their attractive sandy beaches, many Spanish resorts import sand from the Sahara and other sources; most notably in the Canary Islands where visitors prefer golden sand to the local black volcanic variety. And in Spain fresh water, one of the major resource flows through towns and cities, began to be extracted at unsustainable levels due to growing tourist pressure. The water demands in coastal towns and cities for drinking and bathing, as well as for nearby golf courses, also restricted the availability of water resources for irrigated agriculture in the surrounding countryside, especially during the summer months when rainfall is low. Making an important contribution to Spanish and other economies, most tourist development took place with little consideration for the environment, and climate change is likely to further limit water availability in arid and semi-arid coastal areas. 35
17 Read more
Population explosion and migration of people towards urban area demands more pressure on food, shelter, water and basic necessities (Cohen, 2006). Migration from rural area to urban area is a common phenomenon in developing countries, where people seek for better employment, education, services and financial gain. Transformations in villages, alternative jobs in construction and various industries, poor of productivity of agricultural labors, seeking better job opportunities and climate change are some key factors triggering the decline of farming activities in rural and peri-urban areas in developing countries (Sharma and Bhaduri, 2006; Martin, 2010). The economic developments of a developing country is often characterized by reduction in agricultural labor force and thus lower contribution of agriculture to the GDP of the nation. Finding agricultural labors is difficult in villages of India, but available readily and cheap in Metropolitan regions. In the year 2008, it was estimated that agricultural sector employed 1.4 billion of the world’s 3.4 billion workers (Martin, 2010).
19 Read more
Richard Dennis’ engaging book is about building bridges, both literal and metaphorical. It begins with a study of the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge in New York, Tower Bridge in London and the Bloor Street Viaduct in Toronto, using them as a means of highlighting the eclectic methodologies and theoretical approaches to be applied throughout the work. It is his stated aim ‘to build bridges connecting cultural and economic interpretations of urbanisation, and between qualitative and quantitative modes of analysis, abstract theory and ... empirical studies of 19th- and early 20th-century cities’ (p.3). As such, this is a bold attempt to bridge disciplinary approaches to the modernising city. The overall success of this ambitious project indicates how Dennis has developed far beyond his earlier work.(1) Not only has his field of historical geography vastly expanded to include North American cities such as New York, Chicago and Toronto, but he also embraces, and proves highly adept at exploring the cultural and social histories of these cities, their places and spaces.
Globalization refers to the new conditions of development of capitalism characterized by the global dimension of these (ORTEGA, 2004: 42). As a current event, this process has generated a series of social, economic and territorial transformations, manifesting as "a complex network of diversified relations involved in the cycle of organization, disorganization and reorganization of social fields and possible worlds". (SALAS, 2005:6). In urban areas they have developed metropolises or megalopolises and a huge variety of cities that have different forms of social and spatial organization, predominantly a model of diffuse, scattered and fragmented city, while in rural areas it shows the development of various production and commercial activities as well as the adoption of modes of urban life for its inhabitants that are far from the traditional view of its expertise in the development of primary activities and a rural way of life. Furthermore, globalization complicates the rural-urban relationship, because urban centers are integrating rural areas centrifugally, not
It is widely accepted that regional disparity and spatial polarization are distinct in Korea and originated from the Comprehensive National Physical Development Plan (Hereafter abbreviated as CNPDP) that placed priority on Seoul and its vicinity (Kim et al, 2003; Kim, E and Kim, K, 2003). As a consequence of CNPDP, Seoul became the core of Korea’s development process. After Seoul, metropolitan cities including Pusan, Taegu, Inchon, Kwangju, Daejeon and Ulsan were fostered as a series of major centers in different regions. Seoul enjoys the benefit of agglomeration economics and thus induces multiple innovations, in part by introducing new technology. Subsequently new technology is expected to initially diffuse from Seoul to the metropolitan cities, and then out to other areas 8 .
30 Read more
Traffic is an important source and contributor of noise pollution, which directly affects the human health . Noise level prediction and mapping is an important aspect in urban noise monitoring and assessment. The vehicular volume in metropolitan cities is increasing phenomenally; prediction of noise pollution is becoming an integral part of environmental impact assessment. In India, the numbers of vehicles are increasing at a rate of more than 7% yearly, creating a serious threat of noise pollution . In last few years, Indian cites have experienced significant structural changes due to the rapid growth in the number of motor vehicles, expansions of road network, industrialization and urbanization. These modifications led to a change in the noise levels associated with the city .
Public spaces should be places that support an intense civic life. They have been so throughout history, even if in each culture and historical period they have taken very different shapes and followed different design principles. Nevertheless, during the XX century, the Modern Movement faced some difficulties in dealing with public spaces. Too many times the zoning approach opposed the complexity, mix of uses and intensity required by lively public spaces, where social encounters and knowledge exchanges are made possible. In the XXI century, public spaces regained a major role in city projects and urban strategies all over the world. Their appearance was enriched by new forms. Besides the traditional squares, parks and promenades of compact cities, new metropolitan open spaces and collective places related to transport network nodes emerged. This paper focuses on the urban design of such contemporary collective places. Based on an overview of the historical evolution of public spaces, we identify some design principles (from the overlap of scales to acupuncture strategies, through to the complexity of relations between urban architectures) necessary to ensure that metropolitan nodes emerge as places full of urbanity rather than as deserted non places.
14 Read more
Significant limitations exist for this study. It is not based on a random sample of the population. The age distribution between the two subsamples dif- fered. At all sites where fingerstick WBLs were drawn, few confirmatory venous samples were quickly obtained. The results from this study may not be generalizable to many other metropolitan ar- eas. However, metropolitan areas in this part of the country with similar population and housing demographics are likely to have similar distribution of elevated WBLs.