This study involves an investigation of the efficacy of two such microbial products, Magicgro DripSOL and Magicgro Super for improving productivity and benefiting the farmers economically. Magicgro DripSOL is a proprietary formulation that is reported to enhance nutrient uptake in the rhizophere, accelerate soil conditioning and improves rhizopheric immunity. Magicgro Super is a commercially available microbial formulation that is reported to improve photosynthetic efficiency, alleviate abiotic stress and improve flower and fruit setting. Conclusively, the socio-economic impact of the product is also assessed.
The aim of this research was a preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of using three preparations which im- prove soil fertility and yield of plants. Field tests with microbial products: EM (effective microorganisms), EmFarma Plus and UG max were carried out in the Agricultural Research Centre in Grabowo, Poland. The experimental plants were: spring triticale, spring barley and winter wheat. Bioproducts were applied directly into stubble or straw left in the field after harvesting grain and straw with an addition of nitrogen and were compared against control treat- ments, without the use of the above preparations. The implied treatments are determined for soil biological activity and the basic chemical properties of the soil. The microbiological tests showed a statistically significant difference between the control treatments and treatments with EM and UG max preparations (a statistically significant increase in microbial biomass and activity of dehydrogenases). Analysis of principal component analysis (PCA) explained 52.54% of the variation and separated the three groups: I (UG max ), II (EM) and III (control and EmFarma Plus). It was found that the average yield of triticale grains was approximately only by 4% higher in treatments where EM and EmFarma Plus were applied, while in treatments with UG max , triticale yielded at control level.
since it offers independent control of the solids (SRT) and hydraulic retention times (HRT) which allows larger volumes of wastewater to be treated on a smaller footprint. In addition, the use of membranes keeps the effluent free from suspended solids, which is a significant benefit when considering water reuse. Many researchers have reported that most of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluent from biological systems has been identified as soluble microbial products (SMPs) [2, 3]. “SMPs” have been defined as the pool of organic compounds that are released into solution from substrate metabolism and biomass decay other than key intermediates such as VFAs , and their presence affects the performance of most biological treatment systems.
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Preclinical studies with probiotics continue to unravel mechanisms of cytoprotection and suggest that approaches utilizing microbial products as therapeutics in acute and chronic gastrointestinal disorders could be effective. However, clinical trials using these bacteria have thus far been inconsistent. In this issue of the JCI, Yan et al. describe a novel mechanism of cytoprotection by p40, a soluble product of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, mediated via EGFR. The efficacy of p40 in three models of chemically induced colitis indicates tremendous therapeutic potential, though this finding will need to be verified in human patients.
h.i. B. subtilis at a dose that was lethal for wild-type mice in the absence of T2.5 application (data not shown). The demonstration of beneficial and specific effects of T2.5 in both a sensitization- dependent and a high-dose TLR2-specific experimental model may support transferability of our results to elimination of the TLR2-dependent share in septic shock induction (9). Specifically, TLR2 blockage upon antibiotic therapy may substantially con- tribute to prevention of an excessive host immune reaction upon sudden release of large amounts of microbial products from dis- integrating microbial cells. It may have to be complemented by blockage of further surface receptors, for which TLR4 is a prime
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Microbial translocation and immune activation during HIV-1 infection. (A) The intact intestinal epithelium in uninfected individuals. Commensal bacteria and released microbial products, including LPS, are restricted to the gut lumen by a continuous lining of enterocytes. (B) Translocation of commensal bacteria and bacterial products from the gut lumen into the intestinal wall and peripheral blood during HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 infection induces death of intestinal epithelial cells and depletes intestinal CD4 + T cells, particularly Th17 cells. Loss of intestinal epithelial cells allows
The second major barrier to progress in this area is that most of the research on host-associated microbial drug metabolism has focused on in vitro systems that are far removed from the microenvironment and microbial diversity where these metabolic pathways operate or in vivo models where precise manipulation of the microbiome is currently impossible. For example, antibiotic depletion was used to link the gut microbiome to the bioavailability and response to the nonsteroidal anti-inﬂammatory drug indomethacin (9) and cohousing experiments implicated the gut microbiome in antitumor immunity (10). These seminal studies have now set the stage for follow-on experiments using in vitro approaches for building complex microbial communities (so-called synthetic ecologies) and testing their metabolic activity in batch culture, bioreactors, organoids, and/or organ-on-a-chip models. Parallel experiments with gnotobiotic (germfree and colonized) animals are necessary to establish in vivo relevance, providing a tractable model to elucidate the host and microbiome mechanisms responsible, their interdependencies, and the impact of environmental factors like dietary intake, as we have recently done for the cardiac drug digoxin (4). Together, these complementary approaches will help determine the impact of speciﬁc microbes, microbial enzymes, and microbial products on drug pharmacokinetics and -dynamics, while also considering the context dependence of these factors.
aerosols and dust generated from the hide during removal process (Elbakheet, 2008). In addition, the water used for cleaning and sanitizing floors, instruments and containers also serve as the sources of contamination (Judge et al., 1994). A large variety of pathogenic microorganisms are commonly associated with carcass contamination, these include; Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., E. coli, Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterolitica (Eltom, 20017). Pathogenic E. coli such as E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. are the most frequently associated with fresh meat (Basheer, 2017). Escherichia coli O157:H7 is commonly found among the intestinal flora of cattle, which are the primary reservoir. The present of E.coli in meat products indicates fecal contamination of the meat (Judge et al., 1994). Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogen that causes food-borne out breaks. This microorganism is responsible for staphylococcal food poison by producing heat stable toxin (Eltom, 2017). According to Judge et al. (1994), Salmonella is commonly associated with raw or undercooked meat and egg products.
The antibiotics are also called antibacterial, are a type of antimicrobial  drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infection. [2, 3] They may either kill or reduce the growth of bacteria. A small group of antibiotics also acquire antiprotozoal activity [4, 5]. Antibiotics are not efficient against viruses such as the common cold or influenza, and may be harmful when taken inappropriately. Antibiotics revolutionized medicine in the 20th century, and have together with vaccination led to the near eradication of diseases such as tuberculosis in the developed world. Their effectiveness and easy access led to overuse, especially in livestock raising, prompting bacteria to develop resistance. This has led to widespread problems with antimicrobial and antibiotic resistance, so much as to prompt the World Health Organization to classify antimicrobial resistance as a "serious threat [that] is no longer a prediction for the future, it is happening right now in every region of the world and has the potential to affect anyone, of any age, in any country". The antibiotic research from the discovery of Fleming to our days has been a fascinating, exciting, continuously changing and developing adventure. As a result of the frenzied research of the past more than 50 years, in our days ten thousands of natural products derived from microbial sources are known. Interest towards the field were generally increasing, although sometimes declining, interest and the whole story shows some cyclic features with successes and failures and evolved around changing clinical needs and new enabling technology. Metabolism is far more than the sum of its parts and thus understanding metabolism will not be achieved simply by defining and cataloguing metabolic processes. Recent technological advances have
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The highest dry biomass (43 g/L) and lipid yield (19.7 g/L) were obtained by using pure glycerol and rapeseed meal hydrolyzate in this study. When crude glycerol was used with rapeseed meal hydrolyzate, 31.1 g/L dry biomass with a final lipid concentration of 13 g/L was obtained. Lipid contents of the cells were within the range of 41-46%. Although the lipid contents of the cells were lower than those reported in the literature, dry biomass levels and lipid concentrations obtained in this study were significantly higher. The reasons for that might be related to increased oxygen uptake of the cells because of high mixing. Depending on the glycerol content in crude glycerol (40-90%) (Gonzalez-Pajueloa et al., 2005; Kerr et al., 2009; Yazdani & Gonzalez 2008), the overall biodiesel production for an 800,000 tons/year biodiesel plant can be increased by 1-2.6% if the crude glycerol is converted to lipids using microbial fermentation. Also, significant savings and improved lipid concentration could be obtained if rapeseed meal was used as the nitrogen source for fermentation instead of yeast extract.
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Adulteration of milk continues to represent a major concern not only for consumers but for manufacturers also, as it affects the quality of dairy products. Adulteration of milk by adding cheese whey is economically attractive because cheese whey cost is four to five times lower than milk and it does not adversely affect the sensory perception of product. Furthermore, because of its high biological oxygen demand, disposal of cheese/rennet whey is a problem, and is often used for adulteration of milk and milk products (Chávez et al. 2008; Martín-Hernández et al. 2009).
piglets), and, therefore, the inclusion of the protein hydrolysates in animal feeds may be limited. Such a po- tential problem may be substantially alleviated through: (a) the addition of exopeptidases and a longer period of hydrolysis to remove basic and aliphatic AAs from the C- and N-terminals of the polypeptides; and (b) appro- priate supplementation with glycine, monosodium glu- tamate and inosine. Furthermore, the role of animal and plant protein hydrolysates in the signaling of intestinal epithelial cells and bacteria and metabolic regulation in these cells should be investigated to better understand how these beneficial products improve gut integrity, im- munity, and health. Finally, the potential of protein hy- drolysates as alternatives to dietary antibiotics should be explored along with studies to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. All these new lines of research will be par- ticularly important for animals with compromised intes- tinal structure and function (e.g., neonates with intrauterine growth restriction and early-weaned mam- mals) and raised under adverse environmental condi- tions (e.g., high or low ambient temperatures).
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season and daily circumstances in each market, types of fishery products samples were different between markets (Table 1). The fishery products that were harvested in each season were collected before, during, and after the auction. The environmental samples of the fishery auc- tion markets were collected from water in tanks, sea- water in fishery distribution vehicles, ice in wooden or plastic boxes, and from the wooden and plastic boxes used for fish storage. The surfaces (10 × 10 cm 2 ) of the wooden and plastic boxes were swabbed using a swab- sampler (3 M, St. Paul, MN, USA). All samples were transported in an ice cooler to a laboratory. Twenty- five-gram samples were removed from the gills of the fish and the edible portion of the shellfish for microbial analysis.
Recent large-scale microbiome data sets, such as the Integrative Human Microbiome Project (iHMP) (8) and the American Gut Project (AGP) (9), collect microbial and molecular abundance proﬁles over thousands of human microbiota samples, providing us with an unprecedented opportunity to explore the interactions between micro- organisms, enzymes, and molecules in complex communities. In these projects, the abundances of tens of thousands of microbial strains/species are measured using microbial marker gene amplicon sequencing and whole-metagenome or metatran- scriptome shotgun sequencing (10), and the abundances of tens of thousands of molecules are measured using untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) (11). Recently, new methods have been proposed for ﬁnding associations between microbial and molecular features through the correlations of their abundance proﬁles across multiple microbiome samples (12, 13). However, these methods fail to extend to thousands of microbiome samples. In addition, there is no consensus on how to extract features from LC-MS data or what association test should be used.
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provide the user with adequate instructions for the safe and effective use of that device. These instructions must include methods to clean and disinfect or sterilize the item if it is to be marketed as a reusable medical device 18 . Hospital use disinfectants are ordinarily regulated by EPA under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide, Rodenticide Act, which is used by health care facilities to clean medical devices are considered to be medical devices themselves. These products, therefore, are also subject to regulation by the Food and Drug Administration. Which agency has primary authority depends on whether the product is deemed a critical, semi-critical, or non-critical device.
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Milk products are considered as a complete diet and it is rich source for proteins, fat, sugar, minerals and vitamins which is required for the growth as well as for maintenance. However, it has been observed that it also acts as excellent medium/carrier for the pathogenic/spoilage microorganism. These milk products may be contaminated intentionally/unintentionally at different level at the time of production, processing and marketing. Therefore, the present study was conducted with an objective to assess the quality of market milk products available in and around Ludhiana. Milk products sample were collected hygienically and subjected to microbiological analysis. Among all milk products sample Burfi showed the average viable count of 3.1 x 10 4 cfu/mL/g, rasgulla 2.8 x 10 4 cfu/mL/g, paneer 6.7 x 10 4 cfu/mL/g and ice-cream 8.3 x 10 4 cfu/mL/g. Results for lactose fermenter and non-lactose fermenter bacteria showed that among the milk products, ice-cream has the highest average count (22600/mL/g), and lowest in burfi (10400 /mL/g). For the bacteriological quality milk products sample ice-cream had 12.5%, rasgulla and paneer had 14.3% Salmonella. In rasgulla Proteus was absent but was present in burfi and ice-cream (12.5%), paneer (14.2%). Klebsiella was isolated from burfi (25%), rasgulla (42.8%), paneer (14.3%) and ice-cream (37.5%).
Given the continuing increase in skin cancer cases and recent concerns raised over current sunscreen filters such as phototoxicity and photdegradation, 9,10,13–15,66–68 unravelling photoprotection mechanisms through an intrinsic understanding of the photochemistry of both nature based (and inspired) and artificial sunscreen filters continues to grow as a field of research. 16,27,69 Studies on exploring the synthesis and isolation of MAAs in nature provides complementary aspects of this research. 7,70,71 That being said, more work is certainly warranted. Notably, identification of additional MAA-inspired sunscreens is essential: although 30 MAAs have been isolated, regions of the UVR spectrum remain poorly protected from using pure MAA products alone, which is undoubtedly an area where functionalisation of core MAA structures can play a key role. 8,27 Additionally, a greater photochemical exploration of MAAs should be undertaken to consolidate the relaxation pathways of MAAs, such that we are then best positioned to propose ‘rules’ for efficient molecular design, leading to MAA-inspired sunscreen filters. Undeniably, this will necessitate the use of both experiment and theory. 72,73
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Armed with the knowledge of the critical role of TLRs in microbial detection as well as the need to avoid such issues as donor variability and the hazards associated with human blood products, our approach was to develop an assay that utilized cell lines expressing different TLRs. This was accomplished by using a panel of HEK293 cells transfected with different hu- man TLRs. Initially, a screening test is performed by using the MM6 cell line. Previously, it was shown that MM6 cells re- spond to ligands to TLR2 and TLR4 (27). On the basis of the data presented in that paper, MM6 cells also respond to the TLR5 ligand flagellin but not to the TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, or TLR9 ligand. If a product sample tests positive with MM6 cells, then cell lines with more restricted TLR expression are used as detector cells to characterize the microbial ligand and, in turn, its microbial origin.
widely used for primarily cloning, genetic modification and small-scale production for research purposes. This is not surprising as the historical development of microbial physiology and molecular genetics was mainly based on this species, what has resulted in a steady accumulation and worldwide use of both information and molecular tools (such as engineered phages, plasmids and gene expression cassettes). However, several obstacles to the production of quality proteins limit its application as a factory for recombinant pharmaceuticals. Recombinant proteins obtained in E. coli lack the post-translational modifications (PTMs) which are present in most of eukaryotic proteins . Glycosylation is the most com- mon PTM  but many others, such as disulfide bond formation, phosphorylation and proteolytic processing might be essential for biological activity. PTMs play a cru- cial role in protein folding, processing, stability, final bio- logical activity, tissue targeting, serum half-life and immunogenicity of the protein; therefore PMT deficient version might be insoluble, unstable or inactive. Interest- ingly, it is possible to attach or bind synthetic PTMs in the case of pegylated products  such as human growth hormone, granulocyte colony stimulating factor, interfer- ons alfa-2a and alfa-2b, which renders versions of the pro- tein in serum more stable than the naked product. Also, the N-linked glycosylation system of Campylobacter jejuni has been successfully transferred to E. coli, making this approach a promising possibility for the production of glycosilated proteins in this species . Furthermore, through genetic engineering of the underlying DNA, the amino acid sequence of the protein can be changed to alter its ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) properties, as it has been observed for insu- lin (Table 1) .
We have manipulated the natural world around us so that new substances can serve our needs. This dependency may lead to too many troubles. To avoid the toxic effects on health, consumers should be educated about the impact of complex chemical names listed on the product; this will help them to choose the least harmful products. This small change in their lifestyle to decrease the load of toxins will help in their greater good and wellbeing. This field of research needs more attention and concern of the researchers and other scientific and non-scientific communities for consumer awareness and to promote preference for cosmetics which lack toxic ingredients and also to encourage traditional herbal cures through different health care programs. More studies should be published frequently on safety assessment of cosmetic products because a product that is going to be applied on considerable part of the body on daily basis should be safe at first place.