status, though the between-seasons differences are much larger in those studies. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency increased from 30.0-35.0% and 7.0- 8.0% in summer to 61.0-63.0% and 21.0-23.0% in late winter/early spring, respectively . The geometric mean of placebo dropped by 44 nmol/L from winter to summer in a study by Logan et al (2013) , and dropped by 30 nmol/L from summer to spring in another study by Rockell et al (2008) . The lower seasonal effect in our study population could be attributed to the more conservative clothing style of MiddleEasternwomen, having more sun avoidance behaviour or darker skin colour than study populations in the mentioned studies. In our previous study, we found that, apart from those having Islamic dressing code, 11.6% had fully covered clothing style due to cultural norms or religion, and 95.4% protected their skin from sun exposure due to the fear of skin cancer or other skin problems . While the majority of our study population had Fitzpatrick skin type V and VI indicating a dark skin type which rarely or never burns, in the afore-mentioned studies, the majority of participants were of European ethnicity that are known to have light skin colour. Darker skin pigmentation has been associated with lower 25(OH)D concentration in several studies [64, 95, 219, 220].
Although UI is a prevalent condition and occurs among relatively younger Egyptian women, few women, how- ever, rarely seek medical help because of many barriers . Only 4% of sufferers have sought medical advice compared to a relatively higher consultation rate in a European survey (31%). It is common that these women continue to live silently with incontinence. Embarrassment and lack of awareness towards symp- toms and availability of treatment options have been identified as barriers to help-seeking. UI is a very sensi- tive issue that some women find it shameful to discuss especially those with those with poor educational back- ground. Middle East culture is a male-dominated society and where religion plays an important role in the society. This is probably due to imbalance of the family power in these cultures created by having women Table 1 Characteristics of study subjects
discovered that both participants who used sunscreen and who never used it had low vitamin D levels in general, no matter what SPF level they used [Al-Mutairi et al, 2012]. Cultural practices and norms are the most common reasons why MiddleEasternwomen keep their whole body covered [Allali et al, 2006; Fonseca et al, 1984; Hamilton et al, 2010]. Because of these norms and practices, people in many countries such as India, Australia, Brazil and the Middle East have a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency [Agarwal et al, 2011; Gannage-Yared et al, 2005]. These norms and cultural practices may contribute to limited sun exposure especially among women [Narchi, 2000]. Cultural factors such as clothing style, veils, long sleeves, type of residence, indoor activities and lack of physical activity are all considered as risk factors of vitamin D deficiency [Laleye et al, 2011; Bahijri, 2001; Dong et al, 2010].
Egyptian working women make 35 percent less than men, for example (Sabry, 2019). She raises an interesting point about women’s rights in the Middle East. I asked her what she finds to be different about the way Western feminism participates in activism as opposed to the Middle East. Essentially, we concluded that Western feminism does not suit the Middle East. I believe this contributes to the wedging dichotomy between the two regions. Activism has to look different because, while Arab women face similar discrepancies such as a wage gap, there are multiple forces working against Arab women such as traditionally gendered ideals. Protests in the street are not ideal. Over the last eight years, protests against the government are not tolerated. They have taken the form of riots, such as those in Tahrir Square in 2011. These riots unfortunately ended with a number of casualties. Admittedly, riots that have taken place over the last eight years are the protests that gain the greatest amount of global attention. All were geared towards the government instead of feminist issues. As El Saadawi (2009) suggests, liberation through educated means is crucial. Sabry (2019) speaks on the benefits of Arab and MiddleEasternwomen having access to more education, such as gaining a greater
This conceptual paper investigates work/career and family life experiences for women working in the Middleeastern region, and specifically the Gulf countries (GCC). Through a review of the literature on gender, work experiences and work-life balance this article argues that most research is conducted in western contexts and has been criticised for not acknowledging ethnicity, nationality, cultural and religious differences when examining work and career experiences and also when looking at conflicts and opportunities in balancing work and family life tasks and responsibilities (for example, Kamenou, 2008; Rana et al., 2008). Moreover, when examining research on women’s work experiences in the Arab World, there is a dearth of studies looking at women's career progression, leadership, the glass-ceiling and work-life balance in this region (with some notable exceptions, for example, Syed et al., 2005; Syed, 2010; Afiouni, 2014; Al Dajani, 2010; Hutchings et al., 2010; Moghadam, 2013; Metcalfe, 2010; Metcalfe et al. 2009). In response, this study seeks to provide a crucial insight into a very under-researched area relating to MiddleEastern women's participation in the labour market and their perceptions of the effects of work on their home life and vice versa. It pays particular attention to work identity, role expectations, ambitions and aspirations, career opportunities and barriers, employers’ policies and practices, quality of life for the women themselves, but also other family members, including parents, spouses and children. The research also explores the emotional dimensions of work/career and juggling work-life commitments. The authors argue that a new theoretical framework which acknowledges structure, culture and agency in investigating women's careers and work-life balance experiences is appropriate and can be applied well in the Middle-Eastern context. The structural dimension of the framework include organisational and family structures and the agency dimension encompass the strategies, emotions and personal determination on career experiences and opportunities. The interdependency of structure and agency is extended by incorporating culture, which is interpreted as both organizational and social group culture (Kamenou, 2008; Evetts, 2000; Bhopal,1997). This paper focuses on literature on Arab Muslim women in the Middle East but it is envisaged that the future empirical work will include women from other regions, nationalities and religions as well as men, in exploring career experiences and work-life balance perceptions.
If the iconic image of the Western house is the hearth and that of Mediterranean and MiddleEastern houses that of the introverted courtyard, then the prevailing image of the archetypal indigenous southern African dwelling is unquestionably that of thatched huts around a courtyard. Some observers might insist that a courtyard is tectonically a more enclosed form of open-to-sky space – as in Greek and Roman dwellings – but this study proposes that any open living space that is the focus, or organising structure, of a dwelling can typologically be classified as a courtyard. Such spaces are in- deed called a ‘courtyard’ by many scholars (Elleh, 1997: 202; Oliver, 1987: 185; Kostof, 1995: 219; Mönnig, 1967: 200), but are generally referred to variously as lolwapa, lelapa, or commonly, just lapa, in southern Africa. This is the system of, amongst others, the Ambo, Sotho, Pedi, Tswana and Ndebele tribes.
The purpose of this study is to identify the challenges Bahraini women entrepreneurs face in Bahrain, to improve the understanding of these challenges and promote an environment where both female and male entrepreneurs can thrive. The problem is that there is a knowledge gap due to the scarcity of studies. Previous research has been done about this topic in different contextual settings, but none of them is contemporary and done in Bahrain only. Therefore, this research will attempt to fill the knowledge gap by studying the challenges faced by today’s Bahraini women entrepreneurs in Bahrain only. Hence, the research question is what are the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs in the Kingdom of Bahrain? The researchers chose the topic of women entrepreneurship because it contributes to the development of individuals, societies and the country’s economy. It aids in utilizing the talents and skills of half of the population. This is why it is important that Bahrain identifies the challenges today’s Bahraini women entrepreneurs face in order to be able to eliminate them and allow women to succeed and thrive. It is evident that improvements have been made, but much still need to be done to help women entrepreneurs succeed in their fields. Yet, there is a knowledge gap in research about the topic and therefore this paper suggests a method composed of interviews, surveys and a comprehensive review of existing literature to fill the gap. However, the suggested method does not include asking the participants for recommendations and it would be suitable to hire the same professionals to interview and analyse the interview responses.
The major objectives of this study are: 1) prepare a monograph of the fossil pollen and spores of the Tar Heel Formation of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North Carolina which will encompass both palynofloristics and palynosystematics; 2) document diversity and relative abundance of various palynomorph groups at six localities of the Tar Heel Formation in order to determine which palynomorph group was the most diverse and dominant in the assemblages; 3) discuss various Normapolles pollen and other characteristic angiosperm palynoflora recovered from the Tar Heel Formation samples; 4) discuss the age of sediments and localities based on palynomorphs of the Tar Heel Formation and determine whether palynological dating agrees with dates based on invertebrates; 5) compare Tar Heel Formation palynoflora with other contemporary floras at the intra and inter-regional levels; 6) correlate stratigraphic sections/localities of the Tar Heel Formation and determine which sections are biostratigraphic or time equivalents; 7) to test the validity of informal biostratigraphic zones of Early Campanian (CA-2, CA-3, CA-4) as stated by Wolfe (1976) for post-Magothy formations and by Christopher (cited as personal communication in Owens and Sohl, 1989) for the Tar Heel Formation; 8) speculate on the climatic conditions that prevailed in the south eastern region of North America based on indicator taxa with modern equivalents.
The next subgroup is hydrological hazards, where the regional occurrence and fatality tables are presented in Appendix I (Tables 11-12). There are 4,681 flood events over the last century with the majority of them in South-Eastern and Southern Asia causing almost 7 million deaths and affecting over 3 billion people in total. Compared to floods, there are recorded only 673 landslides with a total of 62,658 deaths and over 9 billion economic damage.
Two different WDS were used in this study to apply different approaches to resolving the emergency cases. The first case study had a main, single source tank and a system using a three pumping stations system. The second case study operated by gravity as the main single source tank to analyze how the four different model approaches operated under emergency conditions. The proposed, reliability model approaches include semi-pressure driven analysis (SPDA), and EPANET normal emitter pressure driven analysis (ENPDA). Another important reliable approach is EPANET-UNESCO emitter UNESCO pressure driven analysis (EUPDA). As well, the conventional DDA model approach is demonstrated through WDS . The smart MiddleEastern solution depends on adding WDS’s components such as the elevated tank, pipeline, pumping station, or automated water system, ensuring the reliable water supply. The smart solution has been applied, and the proper size of the elevated balanced tank, location and the height have been selected with a 110% extreme ultimate demand pattern. Extreme ultimate demand pattern is the maximum design demand for the entire lifecycle of the certain WDS. The MiddleEastern smart solutions provide strong enhancement and reinforcement to the WDS.
Saudi Prince al-Waleed bin Talal al-Saud has a net worth of $20 billion. Such wealth places him first on the Forbes’ 2011 list of World's Billionaires for the Middle-Eastern region. Who manages the Prince’s money? The Prince does. The rich tend to rely on the “balanced portfolio, 401(k) and insurance” wealth management firms less and less. The Middle East’s wealthy’s number less in headcounts… and hold more in assets. Such a concentration of wealth has made them a very attractive target for wealth management firms. The MiddleEastern affluent, rich and super-rich also tend to hold their money abroad, invest most in hard assets (like real estate and commodities) and make large scale personal investments in foreign companies – making them a very coveted target for the likes of UBS and Merrill Lynch. Yet, the present cherry-picking model of customer acquisition will reach its limits – as the wealth spreads out and MiddleEastern banks learn how to offer Western-style wealth management services.
Several observations that are important for understanding Acheulean procurement and transport patterns can be made for the two regions. Raw materials chosen for stone tool manufacture are ubiquitous but not necessarily evenly distributed across the basins. Outcrops have large spatial boundaries and occurred at numerous locations on the pale- olandscape. Raw materials used in biface manufacture were primarily selected from local raw material sources (less than 5 km) and, more rarely, regionally (5-20 km). Distant (more than 30 km) sources—obsidian and quartz/quartzite—were rarely accessed at Olorgesailie. The Hunsgi-Baichbal assemblages show no evidence for long-distance trans- port. Overall, stone-knappers in both regions appear to have restricted themselves to raw materials from the basin in which they were active, with little transport of non-basin materials. Although the maximum ranging difference of Acheulean lithics is greater than typically found in Oldowan assemblages, it appears that the majority of the bifaces are produced and discarded locally. The raw material procurement and transport situation changes entirely in later assemblages, such as in the Middle Stone Age of Africa, where sources of stone tools are more distant from sites, often times reaching more than 100 kms away (McBrearty and Brooks 2000). Greater site-to-source distances are considered to be a product of increased foraging territory as well as the possible exchange of mate- rials between groups.
The countries of the Middle East or the Arab World are enormously diverse and within that diversity is a wide range of cultural experience and traditions. These varieties include dimensions of identity, ecological diversity, regional and local ethnic diversity, religion, family, and class. The paper will touch on these diversities where the Middle East includes the Arab world and non-Arab states. The paper will indicate that although majority Muslims adheres to Sunni form of Islam, Shiites are majority in some countries. The paper will discuss other religious minorities. It will argue that MiddleEastern societies are more religious today than 30-40 years ago and that the Middle East is no longer a place of religious tolerance it once was. The paper will point out that some of the oldest communities in the Middle East are disappearing. It will notice that when a more conservative interpretation of Islam becomes widespread and exclusive, minorities are pushed out. The paper will conclude that the Middle East is no longer a place of tolerance but of hate and destruction, for variety of reason.
The purpose of the literature review is to summarize perspectives that might have a direct or indirect bearing on the conceptual design dealt with in this study and to prepare to frame work through which one could have a better understanding of the problem. The components of the various frame works covered by the review and their analysis are subsequently used for supplementing the findings of the study. The role of entrepreneurship in economic development varies from economy to economy depending upon its material resources, industrial climate, and socio economic determinant to the entrepreneurial function. Viewed from the opportunity point of view, there is no denying in the fact that NER is rich in terms of natural endowment. Despite, due to lack of skilled labor, paucity of fund, strategic location, this region is less conducive to the emergence of innovative entrepreneurs in a study on women entrepreneurs in Bangladesh, Karim (2001) showed that financial problems were the most common problems faced by their women entrepreneurs. In a study on women entrepreneurs in Vietnam, Barwa (2003) found that women face additional handicaps due to the prevailing social and cultural gender based inequalities and biases. Self- employment and women entrepreneurship has also been growing in less developed economies, as a means for women to survive themselves and often to help support their families (Gordon).According to the study of Hir and Brush in 1984, majority of women entrepreneurs had professional spouses which ensured them a supportive and financially sound environment.
from the tribes or sects by collaborating with them. After the World War II, the countries in the region started to develop institutional and political organizations economically and sustain their existence in political sense. Political or institutional structures that the MiddleEastern countries tried to build and develop have characteristics very similar to each other because the culture that has determined or shaped the political or institutional structure in these countries was majorly established by the colonial country. Consequently, same principles appear in the constitutions of the countries in general sense. It is observed that the regimes adopted by Egypt, Iraq, Syria Jordan, Yemen and the Gulf countries, that is, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates and Oman are based on the same foundations. The British and French, two colonial states worldwide, treated the peoples of their colonies as second class individuals. Whenever the societies attempted to recover themselves and express their existence, they were always suppressed violently by the armies of the colonial countries. As a natural consequence, this approach has also been adopted by the leading figures of the tribe that started to rule upon retreat of the colonial state. In the MiddleEastern countries, political organizations dominated by the tribes are noticeable. Based on the tribes, religion and sects shaped by the historical and geographical conditions, these political organizations are formed by the preferences of the top rulers and their close relatives. Such organizations helped presidents of the states remain in power throughout their lifetimes and when they became incapable to rule the country, they used to inherit the administration power of the country to their inheritors. In the countries where such approach and organization sustain, any movement by the discontented people was violently suppressed.
Mary Daly (1978) explains the psychological state of girls who suffer circumcision as “those who physically survive these atrocities live their entire lifetimes, from early childhood or from puberty, preoccupied by pain” (p. 156). This is the pain which Firdaus suffers and which eventually leads her down the path of self-destruction. “After circumcision”, a subject “suffers depression, psychosis, self-mutilation and spiritual death” (Sedehi and Talif, p. 63). Heon Dung Park (1988) explains that women suffer from psychological anxieties and fears about their sexuality and bodies. These psychological anxieties are instantly linked to memories of horror and pain, bloodshed and submission which the subject suffers while she is circumcised (WPZ, pp. 51-52). This anguish is manifested outwardly in Firdaus’s narrative – she talks incessantly about her ordeal, namely the aftermath of circumcision. She speaks ostensibly of hysterical symptoms when she narrates, “I stay awake at night weeping alone” (WPZ, p.17). The memory of her clitoridectomy terrorizes her whenever she recalls the moments she spent with her playmate. The memory of Mohammedian, the playmate, the smell of straw and “the touch of his fingers” (WPZ, p. 25) and how, “my whole body shuddered with a faraway yet familiar pleasure arising from me like the air, like an illusion.” This recollection induces fits of weeping and moaning in her “sleep as though it was something [she] was losing now, a loss [she] was experiencing for the first time” and not something she had lost long ago (WPZ, p.26).
main component which covers the building and the only that has a direct contact with the outer climate. Not only the façade is considered as a building’s cover component, but also it can be used as a sustainable technique for energy saving in present day architecture. Approaching the 21st century, the world has witnessed a dramatical change regarding architecture. New architecture expressions were introduced to face environment global issues. Mashrabiya which was known as a wooden window screen largely tends to be a cultural expression of form and solve environmental issues especially in hot arid climate, was reshaped and reintroduced in a different form to keep up with the modern technologies. Also, Mashrabiya didn’t become limited to cover openings and windows, but also covering the entire façade of the building. Consequently, this study will explore Mashrabiya system as a traditional façade system in middleeastern countries and present the historical background of Mashrabiya as an architecture device in hot climate countries, as well as its changes throughout the history and looks at the potential application of this device within the contemporary context of the architecture. Besides, analyzing the gap between traditional and modern Mashrabiya through analyzing different case studies.
profits decrease as liquid assets to total assets goes up. The dynamic model shows that there is no evidence to support the influence of growth of loans on profitability. Moreover, the correlation between expenses and profitability is positive, although the effect is insignificant. Further, while static estimated results indicate no market share-profitability relationship we observed a strong relationship in the dynamic estimation for the MiddleEastern banks. A relationship between inflation and profitability for the MiddleEastern banking systems was perceived only in the static model. In addition, all the estimated results show no relationship between GDP per capita (and GDP growth) and bank profitability for the banking sector in the Middle East. Population growth and domestic credit to the private sector have significant influence on profits. The estimation results also confirm the persistence of profit for both regions, suggesting the dynamic character of the model specification. Finally, the impact of off-balance-sheet activities on bank profitability is negative, although the effect is statistically significant in the case of dynamic model. In conclusion, the empirical results indicate that, internal variables such as efficiency, capital adequacy and credit risk, are necessarily important determinants for the Middle East banking systems. However, diversification doesn’t allow the banking system in this region to make profit.
of enteroviruses in hot spring recreation areas of Taiwan, PEV-9 was detected in one hot spring downstream of a pig farm . Our studies to detect calicivirus RNA in porcine faecal specimens often yielded unexpected se- quences with high sequence homology to PEV-9. These findings implied that PEV-9 might be a common virus pathogen prevalent in pig groups in China and Taiwan. The aim of the present study was to perform a system- atic survey of the prevalence of PEV-9 in pigs in middle and eastern China.
New information Technology (IT) is almost everywhere and has dramatically altered the way we live. As a result, the role of IT in our daily living is growing rapidly to the degree that many of us, especially youngsters, have become dependent on, if not addicted to, our mobile phones and personal computers (PCs), which now constitute the principal tools for our interaction, research, and learning. As is the case anywhere in the world, both of these tools have become valued elements of life in the MiddleEastern region merely because they opened many doors to youth and allowed them to interact freely and markedly unlike at any other time in history. Although these tools and the related programs they provide have had a rather late start in that region, nevertheless most, if not all, MiddleEastern States allow public access to them these days. Hence, cyber communication has become as normal and fashionable as any other human activity. This has become so due to IT tools which allow their users to discover the never- ending and most up-to-date information available about almost anyone or anything worldwide. As Amrohvi (2008, p. 11) noted when she talked about the digital world and computers, “what started out as a computing tool used by scientists and in business is now a must have tool for all.” The same thing can be said about mobile phones, they are “must haves” for almost everyone these days.