disease in medical science. It refers to brain-generated defect in sounding words (Gao, 2006). In 1990s, Cao proposed the term “aphasia of Chinese literature” in face of the loss of Chinese literature (Cao, 1996). In China, it is Cong Cong who first cited this term in the teaching field in Guangming Daily. According to him, “aphasia of Chinese culture” means that in intercultural communication, students are incompetent in expressing Chi- nese culture in English, which is beneficial to neither students’ overall development of communicative competence nor the successful and equal communication (Cong, 2000). After the publication of this article, more and more people are aware of this phenomenon. Some linguistic scholars in China have real- ized the importance of keeping a balanced teaching of target culture and native culture.
The bulk of early modern medical writers reiterate classical and medieval physiological doctrines used to explain senescence. The most important and most pervasive doctrines are that life suffers two natural pathways of destruction in addition to pathway by violence, one being flux of substance and the other the decline in the amount and quality of the body‘s innate heat and radical moisture. At birth, regardless of one‘s complexion relative to the human mean, the body begins with the warmest and most moist temperament of one‘s life, but over time, especially after middle age, its complexion grows colder and drier. The coldness and dryness of old age are found in the solid and similar parts, the oldest parts derived immediately from sperm, and hence also called the spermatic parts—―bones, gristles, ligaments, membranes, nerves, arteries, veins, skins, fibres or strings, and fat‖—so that, in spite of excrements of extraneous moistures such as phlegm observed in the elderly, old age is truly a cold and dry condition, not cold and moist. 1 Coldness signals a loss of innate heat although the old body may seem to the touch as warm if not warmer than the infant or youthful body because extraneous heat may increase in elder years as a result of poor digestion, a function of innate heat. The innate heat is equivalent to, or an emanation from, the so-called medical spirits (natural, vital, and animal), themselves ultrafine emanations from the blood and productive of bodily functions (digestion, pulse, and sensation, respectively). 2 Senescence thus is the inevitable decline in functional
Briefly, the English class in China highly emphasizes the learning and use of grammar and vocabulary in a teacher-centered approach without much consid- eration of the students’ communicative competence. It dominates both the guidelines, and the practice of English teaching in China. And it is not only the reason why the GT Method is so popular in our country but also why the Com- municative Language Teaching has confronted many difficulties of implementa- tion and operation in our country. The lack of culturally relevant pedagogy can only hinder learning. In the Kamehamha schools in Hawaii, native Hawaiian children were expected to takes turns telling narratives in a way that went against the lessons they learned through interactions in their homes where in- stead of one person telling a story, they collaboratively build a narrative in a sto- ry talk tradition (Au, 1980). As a result, when called upon to share during a sharing time, most students were reluctant to participate. It was culturally awk- ward and difficult to stand and individually narrate events. Additional examples such as differences in sharing time between working-class black children and white children and their middle-class counterparts are also documented by Shir- ley Brice-Heath (1983).
My general method is ‘medievalist’ in Jacques Derrida’s sense, which is, strictly speaking, the application of modern literary-critical theories to medieval texts in order to analyse their “subtextual premisses” and their “unspoken political interests (Derrida, 1984:115). Stephen Nichols maintains that the New Medievalism “differs from a cognate rubric like the New Historicism in not predicating a specific methodology, designating instead a predisposition to interrogate and reformulate assumptions about the discipline of medieval studies broadly conceived” (Nichols, 1991:1). My chosen methodologies are mainly those of symbolism, narratology and structuralism throughout, and post-structuralism where useful. I accept Stephen Nichols’ claim that post-structuralism freed medieval studies “to consider the nature of medieval discourses as a manifestation of a culture to be reconstructed afresh”, allowing “a close look at the works” to reveal their “dynamics of cultural expression” (Nichols, 1991:2). In my case that would be those of shaping idealisms. The result has been that my essays are preliminary analyses of the kind that should precede full interpretation, in my consideration.
writer wanted to highlight the moral values of measure and sobriety which also belonged to the pristine Latin culture of the Republican era, and which seemed to be completely lost and forgotten in the new imperial age of the Roman civilization of his time. Nevertheless, the details of the descriptions and the information he gives us in the Germania were rather accurate: “Tacitus‟s portrait generally corresponds with what archaeologists have discovered of the culture of Germania in the Iron Age” (Grigsby 2005: 22). What he writes about the religious cults and rituals of the Germanic tribes is particularly interesting; he talks about the cult of the goddess Nerthus, which is related to the ancient fertility worship of the Mother Goddess: “Reudigni deinde et Aviones et Anglii et Varini et Eudoses et Suardones et Nuithones fluminibus aut silvis muniuntur. Nec quicquam notabile in singulis, nisi quod in commune Nerthum, id est Terram matrem, colunt eamque intervenire rebus hominum, invehi populis arbitrantur.” (Tacitus, Germania, 1.40). The deification of the land, of the earth has a widespread and long history, dating back to pre-historic and proto-historic times, but it survived even after the constitution of polytheistic religious systems (s. Pliny, Lucretius in the previous paragraph). Tacitus relates of the worship of sacred groves and forests, which also survived among the most isolated Germanic tribes for some centuries after the Christianization of the other tribes. This information, which, as said above, has been confirmed by archaeological evidence as well as comparative studies, tells us how the oldest attested forms of religion and of a cosmological interpretation of the world among Germanic tribes were animistic nature cults.
As the transition from the Exam-oriented education to the Quality-oriented education of our country, English teaching pays more and more attention to training students’ ability of their English communication. At present, it is more scattered of a majority of researches. The classroom discussion is one of the common methods in English teaching, which is also a much tropism activity of exchanging views. Through the study of the classroom discussion in English class, it can inspire to consolidate for the students’ knowledge, improving the ability of analyzing and solving problems and language expression. This paper will in further analysis the art of English classroom discussion on the basis of forefathers’ researches. Firstly, this paper probes and discusses the functions of English classroom discussion proceeding by teaching characteristic of English. Secondly, puts forward the problems existing in the English classroom discussion. Thirdly, draws personal relevant countermeasures to the above-mentioned problems.
The aim of this paper is to discuss how middle sentences can be syntactically accounted for, taking into consideration both their selection properties stated in (2–6) with respect to the implicit agent and the cross-linguistic structural properties that distinguish English middles from Slovenian ones (7–9). In terms of theory, the paper will follow a syntactic approach in the spirit of constructional minimalism (Ramchand 2008, Bruening 2012, Alexiadou, Anagnostopoulou, and Schäfer 2015, to name a few), in which the formation of lexically complex predicates, such as those in the middle construction, takes place entirely during the syntactic derivation. Within this framework, the paper will first present and discuss the empirical and theoretical advantages of Bruening’s (2012) recent proposal of syntactic middle formation in English, where the construction is derived by means of a null operator that targets the open agent variable that is introduced by a voice head. Subsequently, the paper proposes that the adverb, although obligatory in many middles, is not a semantic requirement of the null operator, contra Bruening (2012). Finally, the paper will discuss how Slovenian se-sentences are derived, and propose that se plays a similar role in semantics to the Englishmiddle operator, but has fewer selectional requirements. In this respect, the paper will also propose that sentences (9a) and (9b) are structurally the same (i.e., se has the same function in both sentences, in that it binds the open agent variable introduced by voice), with the only difference being that the event variable in (9b) is bound by a generic quantifier.
fascinates them, and the poem’s explicit recognition that the demon who impregnated the Duchess is the same who fathered Merlin warrants a comparative reading of texts like the MiddleEnglish Prose Merlin (the relevant section is available through the TEAMS website under the title The Birth of Merlin). Similarly, Gowther’s abnormal growth and outrageous behavior (his vampire-like destruction of the nursemaids, his attacks against clergy) encourage some to more specifically consider him as a giant or a monstrous being, and I send them to Jeffrey Jerome Cohen’s work or medieval texts like The King of Tars and Chaucer’s Man of Law’s Tale, which frame monstrous births as a product of interfaith unions (Gilbert).
aspect was certainly important, and stressed in chivalric manuals such as Ramon Lull’s incredibly popular Book of the Order of Chivalry and Geoffroi de Charny’s Book of Chivalry, courtesy manuals containing guidelines for the noble aspect of chivalry also proliferated. 9 One such manual is Stans Puer ad Mensam, attributed to John Lydgate; like other such manuals, this treatise focuses on topics like courteous forms of speech and correct table manners, the skills necessary for successful social relationships. Courtesy treatises often ignore warfare altogether; John Gillingham writes of one such manual, Daniel of Beccles’ Liber Urbani, “It is an awkward text for those who think that the life of the secular elite was dominated by war since there are only a dozen lines on soldierly activity (less than 0.5 per cent of the total number). As a genre, indeed, courtesy books of all periods have little to say about war.” 10 These courtesy manuals existed side-by-side with manuals more focused on knightly behavior in combat; for example, William Caxton in the later fifteenth century published both an English translation of Lull’s Book of the Order of Chivalry and The Book of Curtesye, which discusses social etiquette. 11 Both aspects of knightly conduct are clearly considered important. Yet in the fifteenth century, a shift begins to take place in English society towards valuing courtesy over prowess as military service becomes a less essential part of knighthood and as a growing group of wealthy, non-noble merchant and landed gentry families begin to imitate the !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
DOI: 10.4236/as.2017.810081 1116 Agricultural Sciences of agriliterature. Therefore, it is essential to pay due attention to the cultures of the two languages, so as to adapt culturally to translation eco-environment of agrilite- rature and make natural selection of the target text fit for English text environ- ment, finally to achieve the purpose of conveying the agricultural messages ac- curately. A detailed analysis is made in the study from three cultural dimensions below around the English translation of Chinese agriliterature.
community create an important role in raising self esteem of a learner. Halliday places culture in grammar and calls it a theory of human experience. When he calls it a theory of human experience, it entails larger scope beyond linguistic confines. All these suggest that language education should be looked from a broader perspectives including social and cultural factors in to account. In the next section, we shall discuss why is culture important in English language education?
Despite all this India has made a remarkable mark in the contemporary world and many countries want to adopt the Indian culture and follow Indian tradition and practices. Our culture is so strong that even with the influence of western culture we have been able to sustain our tradition in most parts of the country. The metropolitan youngsters get carried away with foreign culture and alter their dressing, food habits and small practices but, deep within them there is a conservative Indian who happens to balance the Indian with the western. Which is no doubt the upbringing of children by Indian mothers. As long as this balance is intact only the positive aspects of any foreign culture will be observed and Indian culture will still stand strong.
In addition to length, levels of language difficulty, such as vocabulary and grammatical structure, are taken into account when selecting the texts. Canonical works such as the plays and novels written by Shakespeare, Dickens, Woolf, Joyce, and other Western Canon authors, are often omitted, notwithstanding their importance due to the possible difficulty that students will encounter with the linguistic elements of the texts. This decision is considered apt because as put forward by Carter & Long (1991), there is a potential danger of introducing canon literature to EFL learners. Learners who find the works difficult to comprehend, either because of difficult vocabulary or grammatical structures, will probably be demotivated to continue reading the texts. Chang (2003) added, “An efficient reading of canonical texts, besides L2 linguistic knowledge, requires an adequate knowledge of other kinds, world knowledge, foreign cultural literacy, literary knowledge, and knowledge of conventions” (pp. 31- 32). Thus, teaching canonical texts is really challenging and should be taken very seriously.
Racism in India Open Secret: India is a multilingual nation and the way of life is checked by a high level of social pluralism and syncretism. It is figured out how to save built up conventions while following new traditions, thoughts and customs from trespassers and spreading its societal impact to different parts of Asia, fundamentally East Asia and South Asia. Indian’s components and atmosphere added to the advancement of these diversities. Every area and state has its own particular unmistakable style in its own type of culture. India is no more nonnative to racial discriminations. There is a great need to see ourselves through the tens of others. A concept of globalization connects billions of people in the world, but in Indian Social discrimination in all forms keep an assaulting our social orders. The color and caste biasness must be seen as symptomatic of the deepness of societal divide in the march of modernizing India. This paper tries to capture to me insight on Racism and its stereotyping in Indian society.
Wuthering Heights is one of the most widely regarded pieces on the AP EnglishLiterature reading list. WH is a good example of Gothic Romanticism that deals heavily with questions of emotion and violence. It’s particularly accessible and discusses class and gender comfortably from the perspective of a woman. This is one of the most frequently cited literary works on the AP Literature exam. It has been included in some form or fashion on 20 different years’ tests since 1971.