Middle Schooling

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Middle schooling in Tasmania: teachers' beliefs about classroom pedagogy

Middle schooling in Tasmania: teachers' beliefs about classroom pedagogy

Although the primary intention of middle schooling in the USA is to promote the intellectual development of young adolescents (Jackson & Davis, 2000; NMSA, 2003), the movement has encountered persistent resistance (Apple, 2001; Baker, 2011; Beane, 1999). Historically, this undue attention has probably arisen because middle schooling recapitulates aspects of the student-centred agenda of the century-old progressive education movement which has been interpreted by some latter-day conservatives in the USA as having a socialist agenda (Apple, 2001). In many states and districts, school communities have bowed to political pressure and diluted middle schooling principles to that extent that some middle schools more closely resemble miniature high schools (Vars, 1998). In schools such as these, case studies have shown that, although a variety of teaching and learning strategies are usually implemented, too much time is ‘devoted to passive, teacher-dominated and intellectually non-stimulating activity’ (Beane & Brodhagen, 2001, p. 1164). Thus, although the argument in favour of middle schooling is compelling, the political climate has been such that only a minority of middle schools in the USA have implemented middle schooling principles with fidelity (Anfara, 2009).
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Relevant, challenging, integrative and exploratory curriculum design: perspectives from theory and practice for middle schooling in Australia

Relevant, challenging, integrative and exploratory curriculum design: perspectives from theory and practice for middle schooling in Australia

An abundance of research evidence supports the efficacy of student-centred curriculum integration designs and their widespread use, particularly in middle schools, and for the middle grades more generally. In his review of more than 100 studies of curriculum integration over a seventy-year period, Vars (1997, p. 181) concluded that students in integrated programmes do ‘as well as, and often better than’ students in conventional single-subject programmes. Case studies of curriculum integration in American middle schools (Brazee and Capelluti 1995, Pate, Homestead and McGinnis 1997) have shown that student-centred designs for curriculum integration respond well to the educational and developmental needs of early adolescents. Moreover, a five year longitudinal study in New Zealand demonstrated that student-centred integrated programmes generated achievement effects in the order of one standard deviation above the norm in national School Certificate results for English, Mathematics and Science (Nolan and McKinnon 2003). Other confirmatory research in the USA (Felner, Jackson, Kasak, Mulhall, Brand and Flowers 1997, Anfara and Lipka 2003, Mertens and Flowers 2003) has shown that schools implementing the middle schooling philosophy of the National Middle School Association as articulated in their This we believe position statements (1995, 2003) and more especially student-centred integrated curricula, with a high degree of fidelity over an extended period, have accomplished the following three outcomes:
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ST JOSEPH S SCHOOL A FRAMEWORK FOR MIDDLE SCHOOLING

ST JOSEPH S SCHOOL A FRAMEWORK FOR MIDDLE SCHOOLING

 Sustained periods of time ensure students develop quality relationships with a small group of adults.  Timetabling, use of space and resources support students and teachers in the middle school program. ETHICALLY AWARE Middle Schooling Framework

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Challenging, integrated, negotiated and exploratory curriculum in the middle years of schooling: Designing and implementing high quality curriculum integration

Challenging, integrated, negotiated and exploratory curriculum in the middle years of schooling: Designing and implementing high quality curriculum integration

The Position Paper of Adolescent Success states that teachers should implement “integrated and disciplinary curricula” for young adolescents (10-14 years old) that are “challenging, integrated, negotiated and exploratory” (Middle Years of Schooling Association [MYSA], 2008). The Position Paper recommends curriculum integration (CI) but it does not offer further guidance or supporting detail about appropriate curriculum design. Over the last two decades, middle schooling advocates in Australia, and elsewhere, have made steady progress on improving school environments, developing productive and inclusive pedagogies, and creating authentic assessment that young adolescents respond to (Pendergast & Bahr, 2005, 2010). Progress on developing pedagogies suited for the middle years has been especially encouraging (Darling-Hammond, 2008; Hayes, Mills, Christie, & Lingard, 2006; Jackson & Davis, 2000; Newmann & Associates, 1996). However, even the best pedagogical practices and assessment approaches are ineffective in isolation and should be aligned with well- conceived curriculum designs that respond to the developmental needs of students and support high quality learning (Beane, 2004).
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Teacher education for the middle years of schooling: sustaining quality middle level preparation in Australian universities

Teacher education for the middle years of schooling: sustaining quality middle level preparation in Australian universities

This study found that a collaborative team approach to the design and implementation of programs is more effective, and ultimately more sustainable, than relying on the expertise of one or two key individuals. This issue is especially important in the middle years because relatively few classroom practitioners have an in-depth knowledge and understanding of the research base on middle schooling. When a group of teacher educators, with a specific interest in the middle years, pools their ideas, energy and collective knowledge to design and implement middle level teacher education, there is a sense of shared purpose and advocacy that positively benefits the whole program. Where a team approach to implementation is adopted, negative effects associated with staff attrition are mitigated because a critical mass of teacher educators with specific knowledge and conceptual understanding of the middle years of schooling remains.
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Making IT Happen: Enhancing Teaching and Professional Collaboration via the Internet

Making IT Happen: Enhancing Teaching and Professional Collaboration via the Internet

Throughout my career in teaching, attention to assessment and evaluation has been a major focus. After gaining student participation, the next objective is to link activities on the Internet with outcomes that require higher order thinking skills (McLoughlin and Luca 2000a) and direct application to teaching and learning. A particular passion has been in creative ways to allow students to experience a variety of assessment modes across subjects. Thus, each subject includes different methods of assessment that infuse research, project based learning, role play, multiple choice examinations, case studies, semiotic analyses of media items, teaching performances, collaborative and individual assessment items, literature reviews and awareness of resources on the Web. My preference for authentic assessment tasks (National Middle Schooling Project, Research Circles), to foster links between knowledge and competency in the professional context, is consistent with research findings on best practice (Centre for the Advancement of Teaching and Learning, University of Western Australia) models or Quality Teaching Practice (Talbert 2001). Catherine McLoughlin and Joe Luca (2000b) illustrated this point with an IT supported Problem Based Learning (PBL) design where assessment activities occur in that nexus between the tertiary environment and the work setting.
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Schooling returns, schooling decisions and educational finance

Schooling returns, schooling decisions and educational finance

equation. In essence, this amounts to examining how wages differ between groups whose education varies for exogenous reasons. For example, some individuals may have faced a minimum school leaving age that differed from that faced by others, or may have started school at an earlier age for other random reasons (i.e. reasons that are uncorrelated with the wages eventually earned); smoking when young, as we suggest above, falls into this category as it is associated with one’s rate of time preference. In Denny and Harmon (2000), we used the fundamental changes in the educational system in 1960s Ireland, changes which affected the entire population of school-age individuals, but in ways that differed across socio-economic backgrounds. 8 A series of papers (Harmon and Walker 1995; Harmon and Walker 1999; Harmon and Walker 2000) use changes in the compulsory school leaving age laws in the 1950s and 1970s as instruments, along with other educational reforms (such as the 1960s Robbin’s Act) and peer effects. Across a number of datasets, a robust finding emerges. Compared to OLS estimates of the order of 5-7 per cent per year of schooling, the IV estimated returns were significantly higher.
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Human Capital and Genetic Diversity

Human Capital and Genetic Diversity

Table 1 summarizes the used dependent variables, which intend to measure quantity and quality of human capital, as well as quality-adjusted measures of years of schooling. The variables school, m sec15c, m tyr15 and m tyr1565 measure quantity of schooling (years of schooling or attainment). kskh measure schooling adjusted for social capital. This variable intends to be a proxy of the relational capability of the existing human capital. Next four variables (cognit, lows, basic, top) measure quality of schooling, available as tests scores and share of students reaching certain levels of quality in international tests. and the final four variables measure human capital (quantity) weighted by quality (scores). We have also tested other quality-weighted human capital variables, in which we substituted School by m sec15c, m tyr15 and m tyr1565, alternatively. As results are quite similar to those obtained when using the School variable, we choose not to report them. These results are available upon request. Table 2 presents descriptive statistics for the dependent variables. The explanatory variables used - Predicted genetic diversity ancestry adjusted and Mobility index-predicted genetic diversity ancestry adjusted, are pdiv aa e pdivhmi aa, respectively and measure, as explained above, genetic diversity for 2000.
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Artifacts of Schooling

Artifacts of Schooling

“While open-plan schooling may seem an innovation, it carries on the tradition of the one-room school- house, expanded to accommodate 1,000 students. The concept also attempts to instill in students, the quality of independence that we admire in our forefathers and believe their successors were weaned away from by making teachers the directors of what, when and how to study. After educators began to overcome this cultural mismanagement of students they had to wait until the schoolhouse could provide sufficient space for open curriculum programs to flower fully. This is also a matter of the right kinds of space. Physi- cal restraints set arbitrarily fifty years ago must be swept aside to make way for the ebb and flow of different group sizes during the learning day.”
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The cost of schooling

The cost of schooling

We carried out a programme of multivariate analysis, as part of the analysis process, to identify the factors that had most impact on parents/carers happiness with the overall costs of schooling. These were carried out by BMRB’s Statistics and Methods Centre, working with the research team. The main technique used was multiple regression (also known as key driver analysis, or MLR). Multiple regression analysis is a statistical technique regularly used by BMRB in public attitude research. It seeks to identify the influences which make an important contribution to, for example, overall happiness with a service, by showing to what extent views about the service overall can be predicted from views about particular aspects of the service.
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The earnings of immigrants and the quality adjustment of immigrant human capital

The earnings of immigrants and the quality adjustment of immigrant human capital

One potential limitation of the current study is the omission of some relevant vari- ables that may account for the cross-country differences in schooling returns. For instance, different schooling distributions may also generate differences in returns to education if returns are non-linear, even with the same quality of schooling, and im- migrants are selected into different segments of the schooling distributions in their home countries. Due to the lack of data about schooling distribution in different countries, this was not fully captured. However, the inclusion of the country-specific fixed effects in the regression equation may partly have helped to account for these cross-country differences in schooling distribution. This paper tried to control for the influences of a number of earnings determinants to pin down the country of origin specific school returns and focus on the variations that are caused by differences in schooling quality across countries. Another limitation is the cross sectional nature of the census which limits the ability to make causal inferences. In addition, further empirical evidence from other countries and using longitudinal data will be needed before reaching a generalized conclusion. In spite of these limitations, the current study is among the first to control for cross-country differences in schooling quality by explicitly deriving a set of quality adjustment indices and applying them to an over-education exercise.
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Critique of schooling : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Education

Critique of schooling : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Education

social and moral aspects of society, and the structure and functioning of current institutions of schooling.. decry the conservative bias of schooling..[r]

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Schooling for Democracy

Schooling for Democracy

I think we should respond to the current question in much the same way that Eliot and others argued in the early 20th century. They endorsed secondary education, but they redefined it[r]

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Hypermedia storytelling in the middle years of schooling

Hypermedia storytelling in the middle years of schooling

regarding individual and collective autonomy that advocated raising the consciousness of a society’s members so they became aware of their connection to that society as a whole. From the modern Industrial Age there emerged the idea of a mass education system to deliver a workforce sufficiently trained so as to be able to work effectively in society. Our current education system, too, can be seen as the means society has for passing on the values and shared knowledge of itself and its culture, or it can be viewed alternatively as a system for maintaining control over society by reinforcing class and cultural divides. School knowledge and school literacy are still powerful tools for defining success in society; failure to master them is often a barrier to higher- paid occupations and consequently higher social standing. If, as Gee (1991) contends, the way literacy is transmitted is by either acquisition or learning, then it can be seen that many working class children only experience school literacy as learners, while their middle class counterparts often acquire the elements of school literacy – familiarity with books and the importance of textual literacy – from their home environments. These middle class children have the benefit of acquisition reinforced and enriched by learning, whereas working class children can struggle through the often alien environment of schools, trying (or not) to learn about literacy from the start.
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Schooling Is Not Education!

Schooling Is Not Education!

2 story climbs from 31 to 44 percent in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh between grade 4 and grade 5. It is worth noting that the fourth and fifth grade curricula are designed with the assumption that students have mastered basic literacy. This suggests that much of the material presented during the school year is incomprehensible to the majority of students who have not yet mastered reading. Again, less than half the students who have been in school through eight grades—up to high school—can perform division. This is a skill that should have been learned in grade 2, according to the curriculum (Pritchett fortchom- ing). Uwezo’s survey in East Africa suggests that at the most basic level of literacy and numeracy, a full course of primary schooling might deliver for a great majority of students. A representative survey of learning outcomes in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda focused on one- and two-digit math questions and comprehension of a simple paragraph in standard 2 tests. In Kenya, 94 percent of standard 7 children passed the standard 2 English test, 95 percent passed the Kiswahili test, and 88 percent passed the numeracy test. In Tanzania, progress was slower from a lower base: 51 percent of standard 7 children passed the English test, 68 percent passed the numeracy test, and 81 percent passed the Kiswahili test. For Tanzania, linear extrapolation of the data suggests that 11 years of schooling would be sufficient to ensure that 90 percent of students passed a standard 2 English test. The results are driven partially by at- trition, where weaker students are likely to drop out. But in East Africa, enrollment rates remain around 80 percent for children who are 12 and 13 years old (Uwezo 2011).
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Determinants of School Enrollment in Balochistan

Determinants of School Enrollment in Balochistan

The results will be discussed separately for each age group and each model. For Balochistan, the results for 6-10 year olds indicate that females are 4.5 times more likely than males to be out of school, all else equal. Moreover, in this age group, as age increases, the child is more likely to be enrolled in school, stated differently, younger children are more likely to be out of school than older children. Parental education is another significant factor that explains the variation in schooling status; if a child’s father or mother has ever attended school, he or she is less likely to be out of school. Household characteristics indicate that children living in rural areas are 1.2 times more likely to be out of school than their urban counterparts. Children coming from larger households are more likely to be out of school, while children with a greater number of siblings less than five years old are less likely to be out of school. Children coming from families that are in the bottom asset index quintile are 3.9 times more likely to be out of school than those who are in the top wealth quintile.
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Cost of schooling 2007

Cost of schooling 2007

parents/carers can be considerable and appear to be increasing. The research also highlights the problems faced by parents/carers, as well as examples of good practice by schools in restricting costs and offering support. Some of these studies were conducted several years ago and, as previously outlined, there are issues with the methodology or clarity of reporting for some, which may mean the results are not entirely reliable. Therefore the 2007 Cost of Schooling Survey can build on these findings by providing an up-to-date picture, from a representative sample of parents/carers, and a sample of schools.
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Embracing a Diverse Student Population within an Urban Science Classroom Through the Use of Inquiry-Based and Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: A Multipedagogical Approach in Narrowing the Science Achievement Gap

Embracing a Diverse Student Population within an Urban Science Classroom Through the Use of Inquiry-Based and Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: A Multipedagogical Approach in Narrowing the Science Achievement Gap

As the culture of schooling is transformed through Inquiry-Based Pedagogy from teacher-centered to student centered, and schooling practices are altered by the application of Culturall[r]

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Phases of differentiated schooling : a theoretical and conceptual framework of the relationship between religion and schooling in New Zealand and Norway : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philo

Phases of differentiated schooling : a theoretical and conceptual framework of the relationship between religion and schooling in New Zealand and Norway : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

As a result of differentiation religion no longer performed its traditional function of social integration, and therefore concern arose for new “institutional bonds between people” (Guneriussen, 1996, p. 67). Social integration was of particular concern to New Zealand, which was not only religiously and culturally diverse but also characterised by a colonial context of individualism. Consequently, social cohesion was perceived as being vulnerable and politicians saw that a new institution was needed for social integration. Durkheim’s position on schooling is significant here as he believed that the school was the modern institution most capable of fostering social integration. The school through “the shape of new syllabuses and modes of cooperation, might restrain individualism” and educate children “in the spirit of solidarity” (Guneriussen, 1996, p. 67). Consequently, the New Zealand secular schooling system was defended on the grounds of “bringing together children of different nationalities, languages, and traditions and creeds, and thus promoting the social unity out of which in the end genuine religious unity must grow” (Hunter, 1914, p. 34). Thus, in the differentiated society the education system emerged to provide “the maintenance, legitimation, transmission and internalization of the ‘collective conscience’”
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Phases of differentiated schooling : a theoretical and conceptual framework of the relationship between religion and schooling in New Zealand and Norway : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philo

Phases of differentiated schooling : a theoretical and conceptual framework of the relationship between religion and schooling in New Zealand and Norway : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

Phases of differentiated schooling identifies three distinct theoretical and conceptual phases of relationship between religion and schooling. The first phase, undifferentiated schooling, has its origins in the Middle Ages where Christianity arose to form a monolithic sacred authority over western society. Because Christianity defined knowledge, beliefs and values, Churches held an almost uncontested authority and provision over schooling until the mid-19th century. The second phase, differentiated schooling arose from consolidations of the enlightenment, liberalism, the rise of the nation state and, the scientific revolution. These variables contributed to the progressive differentiation and secularisation of schooling. Finally, the third phase, post-differentiated schooling, reflects what sociologists have observed as the de-privatisation of religion and the desecularisation of society. Religion has changed in concept and increased in significance upon developments in multiculturalism, postmodernism, political ideology and religious education pedagogies. Consequently, from the late 20th century religion has increased in political and public significance, reconceptualising the role of religion within state education policy. This thesis provides a means to understand the variables that determine the conceptualisation of religion within nation state education policy, thereby enhancing the ability to critically evaluate the relationship between religion and schooling.
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