Teaching students from different social, cultural and linguistic backgrounds takes a complex set of skills that need to be developed by strong initial and in-service training. All teachers, not only language teachers, need to be able to carry out formative assessment, differentiate instruction and support their students’ language development. School leaders need to be prepared to consider diversity issues in the everyday planning and practice of the school. Austria needs to take quick action to increase capacity among current school leaders and the existing teacher force to effectively address the needs of a more diverse student group. Therefore, school leader and teacher participation in in-service training and whole- school professional development should be strongly encouraged. For improvements in the longer term, Austria should also include diversity training in the core pedagogical training of all teachers. To develop the expertise of practitioners, the Ministry and the provinces should encourage research on and sharing of successful school practice in migranteducation.
literature will show again, the experiences of Latino migrant students are a vivid reflex of negative ideologies that socially isolate them from having the same educational and career opportunities that other non-Latino migrant students might have. For instance, educational opportunities might vary by race and access to certain resources that Latino migrant students do not have based on their invisibility within the educational system. Even though, MEP as a Federal program offers resources for this population that any other federal program facilitates, the program has its own limitations. It cannot supplant services that public schools might be already offering to students, because all federal programs work under Title I budget. Here, as Title I-C (MigrantEducation), MEP can only tackle the deficiencies in terms of services that cannot be offered to students through the regular school day. These limitations create on the students a set of experiences that in turn shape their process of cultural identity formation, and choices to advance their life beyond the fields. At the end, I will uncover the potential positive effects that students’
Long before e-mails and listservs, Al made sure that migrant educators and other farmworker advocates were kept informed about important national and state developments impacting migrant families through the nationally distributed publication, MEMO – MigrantEducation Messages and Outlook. Al used his remarkable talent as a journalist to portray to MEMO’s readers the many challenges faced by farmworker families—this nation’s poorest and most disadvantaged people. He was living proof of “the power of the pen”.
A strong policy framework has been developed to improve the education outcomes of weak performers and early school leavers. There are universal measures at the national level to improve the education outcomes for all students in Denmark, as well as specific targeted initiatives to close the performance gap between Danish and immigrant students. The universal measures include reforms of initial and in-service training for Folkeskole teachers and a range of initiatives to reduce early school leaving in the VET sector. Among the more targeted measures, the government has launched a “task force for bilingual pupils” to assist municipalities in improving the quality of education for immigrant students and many municipalities now have consultants to help schools better meet the needs of immigrants. The DSL training for teachers and the language support offer for immigrant students has also been strengthened at all levels of education. However, the availability and quality of such support varies between schools, VET colleges and municipalities due to implementation lags, inconsistent efforts and varying degrees of prioritisation. To achieve real improvements for immigrant students, more efforts are needed to ensure that policies are consistently implemented across the entire education system.
One of the most disadvantage population of students within American school system are migrant students because of their linguistic and cultural barriers, poverty, undocumented status, and frequent mobility. Migrant students are classified as children who change schools during the year, often crossing school districts and state lines, to follow work in agriculture, fishing, dairies farms, and logging industries (California Department of Education [CDE] Migrant, 2020). The majority of children considered as a migrant are U.S citizens, Still, within the U.S as of 2010, 13 million U.S born children live with a foreign-born parent(s) (Census, 2011). While the remaining migrant student populations are foreign-born, identified as newcomers. Newcomers are students who have been in the U.S twelve months or less and are at level one in English comprehension as measured on the California English Language Development Test, abbreviated CELDT (Morris, 2010). Newcomer students commonly are undocumented, which creates an additional barrier to achieve a higher education. Born in the United States or another country, all migrant students are negatively affected by the education system. One way in which migrant students can avoid the impediment is through a nation-wide MigrantEducation Programs. The MigrantEducation Program, (MEP) advocates and provide essential support for migrant students, their parents, and Latino communities.
Known for its stark beauty—the Lake District, which has been described in detail by renowned authors, attracts many tourists and the elderly who want to retire making it a prime place for health care and hospitality. But without service workers, Cumbria‟s economy would shrink considerably. Therefore, active recruitment of migrant women has helped solve the problem, advancing these sectors even more. In Cumbria, many Polish people work in bars, restaurants, in cleaning, and in care homes, sending money home, and saving it for their education, and future moves. Polish newspapers, stores, and churches are often used for information sharing and gathering places. Yet, reports have revealed overcrowded housing, safety hazards for workers, and little access to benefits in the north (Ellery, 2006). One example from this study illuminates these issues. Elsa, an insurance broker from Poland and in her 20s, first visited Cumbria to see her friend who was living in an overcrowded house. Elsa paid £55 a week for her bed, which was on one side of the main room. Rather than complain, she left, only to become homeless, and was helped by a Polish man she met on the street. Likewise, in other parts of Cumbria, like Barrow-in-Furness, there are Filipina care workers and nurses who struggle with racial prejudices, few established support systems, unpredictable work permit and residency regulations (Winkleman-Gleed 2005). Three Filipinas explained that many carers had few support services to adjust. They noted that residents, at least initially, often confused them with the Chinese, that there were no language schools for their children, and they worried about their them losing Tagalog, and speaking Taglish.
International studies also showed that knowledge about benefits and harms of the MSP is relatively poor [8 – 13]. Women tend to overestimate benefits and underestimate harms of the MSP and women thought that participation would protect them from developing breast cancer [9, 10, 12]. Many studies have shown a positive association be- tween educational level and knowledge about benefits and harms of mammography screening [10, 11, 13 – 15]. How- ever, most studies assessed knowledge either in interven- tion contexts, e.g. testing information sources [8, 16], or assessed knowledge unrelated to a decision need [9 – 11]. Studies about knowledge among migrant women is scarce. There is also a lack of studies about knowledge closely re- lated to the (first) decision. Assessing the knowledge of first time deciders may be especially useful because the decision will not be influenced by habit or previous ex- perience, which is an important factor for their screening decision . Furthermore, detailed analyses on single knowledge items and determinants of knowledge in Germany, especially among vulnerable groups, are scarce.
Macedonia as aspirant country for membership in the European Union and its efforts for incorporation of the European legislative instruments in the national legislation, appropriate is the reference to the legislative framework and general principles that embody EU acquis for asylum. The numbers show that over 6 500 000 persons are registered as displaced i.e. refugees, with final destination the countries of Western Europe. Republic of Macedonia is on the refugees’ route from Syria via Turkey, Bulgaria and Greece to the western European countries. Some of the migrant use Macedonia only as a transit route on their way to the European countries. Besides the undoubted destituteness, abandonment and misfortune of the Syrian refugees, if we go back to the moment when the Huns arrived in Europe, the question about the consequences of the refugee wave from Syria arises. To start with, the problem with the refugees would represent additional burden to the economy of our country. Next, it would cause general unpleasantness in the society, thus creating a moment of a growing xenophobia. The growing tensions would also include the fear from crime. The thefts of food, clothing and other necessary living products could not be avoided. In such times one cannot exclude the organized crime such as human trafficking. If we follow the example of the Syrian refugees in Lebanon who manufacture hashish in order to survive, one would not exclude drug trafficking as well. In Syria, thefts of antiquities in 6 museums have been reported, meaning, there is possibility that these persons possess the same and in a case of need, may start with illegal trade of cultural property. 7
Next important question arises regarding the measurement of capabilities is which capabilities to focus. As this paper dealt with the fundamental capabilities, the list proposed by Desai (1995) suits with this study better. There are more advances accomplished later in capability measurement, notably by Nussbaum (1997) who proposed ten basic entitlements that an individual required for a meaningful life, few of them are emotion affiliation, other species and senses, imagination and thought. This model is clearly not measurable with the present dataset. Another notable list provided by Alkire and Santos (2010) that uses a definitive set of 10 indicators in 3 groups (education, health, and living standard) to measure multidimensional poverty index (MPI). Probably it is the most widely used application of capability approach in measuring poverty or standard of living. However, this index is intentionally kept as simple as possible to bring global applicability, thus, quite restrictive. Thus, this application of capability approach is also avoided. There are some other frameworks available in the academia and practice proposed by Clark (2002); Saith (2001) & Robeyns (2003) those are not selected due to practicality or non-suitability. Following table depicts the Desai‘s list of capabilities, needs, character and variables to predict functioning (author‘s proposition):
In this chapter, the data sets are presented, as well as its analysis under two sections with sub-sections; each sub-section is then focused on single strategy/theme with supporting evidence from the data. A thematic analysis method has been chosen for this analysis because it lends itself to the process of analysing qualitative data by identifying patterns and reporting emerging themes from the data set. This tool of analysis is flexible and provides theoretical freedom for the researcher to construct inductive reasonings from the recurring patterns. Also, thematic analysis contributes a rich and detailed account of complex data and nuances (Braun & Clarke 2006) to the body of existing knowledge in the sociology of education. These authors argue that although this tool of analysis is perceived to be a poorly branded method in the absence of a concise guideline, but when properly structured or applied, it is a tool that is compatible for constructing meanings. They argue further that not only is there the need for the researcher to provide a clear structure of what is being done and why, but to also include ‘how’ they did their analysis; this contributes rigour to the research process.
The request will be considered completed with the total recognition of your qualification (by the emission of the Rector’s Decree as execution of the Academic Senatus deliberation) and the issue of the equivalent Italian academic degree; or with a partial recognition of the qualification and the possibility, according to the credits recognised and to the didactic regulations, to attend the Italian course corresponding to the level reached (abbreviation of the course). To know how to obtain the recognition of your degree you can contact the Students Office of the University that activated a degree course as yours, or the CIMEA, Information Point on Mobility and Academic equivalences recognised by the Department of Education.
when identifying attitudes towards migrant pupils and some of these codes are also used simultaneously due to their representation in the data (Saldana 2009). A copy of the transcripts are in the appendices, P1 (appendix 4), P2 (appendix 5) and P3 (appendix 6). Once the data from the second interviews were coded, two sections were added to the analysis, training and discipline, a copy of the second interviews are in the appendices, P1(2) (appendix 8), P2(2) (appendix 9) and P3(2) (appendix 10).
As I discuss in an earlier piece (Cabañes, 2014), Manila is an important case for nuancing our understanding of the migrant experience. The Philippine capital gestures to the broader reality that the dynamics of multiculturalism in the postcolonial cities of the Global South can differ significantly from the often-discussed global cities of the Global North. What one finds in Manila are not migrants who are marginalized both economically and symbolically. There are instead Indians and Koreans who are generally better off financially compared to the locals, but who are nevertheless portrayed in pernicious ways by the Manila-centric Philippine national media and in the public discourses of Manila’s local Filipinos. Indians are stereotyped as the bumbay, a smelly, turban-wearing, heavily bearded male who rides his motorcycle into the narrow alleys of the capital’s poor neighbourhoods. He works as a loanshark, preying on desperate locals who have no choice but to agree to an usurious lending scheme in order to borrow money or purchase home appliances. Koreans are depicted as moneyed but nevertheless weird invaders who have decided to come to the Philippines in droves. They are described as foreigners who stick out like a sore thumb because they do not make enough of an effort to acculturate and instead display naïve, self-centred, and reckless behaviours.
In terms of gender, the incidence of migration is higher amongst males (20.95 percent) than females (11.80 percent). This shows that even though there is a general feminisation of migration in the entire West African region (see Adepoju, 2005; Awumbila et al 2014b), internal migration in Ghana (especially from dominant migrant sending areas) is still male- dominated. An analysis of the data further shows an interesting pattern of variations in migration incidence across age groups. As seen in Figure 2, the gradual feminisation of migration is suggested by the higher incidence of migration among younger women than younger men, and the switch at around age 30 may be due to a combination of increased reproductive responsibilities for women and simply a larger historical stock of male migrants. Generally migration incidence increases with age until a peak (25.5 percent) is reached at age group 30 – 34 years, after which the migration incidence decreases consistently across the remaining age groups. The lowest migration incidence (2.0 percent) is registered for the 10 – 14 age group. Similar to earlier findings reported elsewhere (see GSS 2008; Ackah and Medvedev 2010), young adults, aged 25 to 29 years, constitute the largest proportion of migrants. The high level of youth migration has been noted in many developing countries. According to the International Organisation for Migration (IOM 2013), the youth are the most mobile social groups in migration, constituting about 30% of international migrants. Similarly,
country-specific nights happen on a less regular basis, such as when the Malagasy community gathered to host a night of popular music from Madagascar. Most are in rented hotel basements or large party halls, some rumoured to have previously housed illegal sex trafficking, especially of young female Syrian refugees. They tend to be hard to find unless you know what to look for. Crowds trickle in at midnight but the party is at its liveliest from 2:00 AM until dawn, and hundreds do this every Saturday without exception, starting their one-day weekend by staying awake all night the evening before. The drink of choice is XXL, a sugary energy drink of vodka and caffeine served in a can, banned by Lebanon’s Health Ministry in 2014 and key to staying awake and dancing. Bodies are lean and carefully dressed, men in tight t-shirts, tapered jeans and baseball caps; women paying extra for trusted taxi drivers so they can walk out in short skirts and tall shoes. Those less inclined to sin but still uninterested in sleep might spend Saturday nights preparing meals for their church congregation, songs for the choir, or national dances for an upcoming celebration. Almost all events held for and/or by migrant workers — religious, political, educational, social, national — happen on Sunday. The morning is spent sleeping in by some and rising early by others, whether for church or temple services, community events, or charity-sponsored field trips, while the growing number of community entrepreneurs prepare for the influx of Sunday customers. Nowhere is this more evident than in Dawra.
In teaching, the use of pupils’ other languages through careful differentiation of curricular activities which do not rely on English support and motivate EAL learners. As shown, formal assessments such as national tests are not equitable to EAL learners and do not always give an accurate assessment of their attainment and may dis-incentivise them to achieve. Teachers must be careful not to take EAL learners’ level of competence in English as an indicator of attainment in other subject areas. With increasing diversity, new assessment mechanisms are needed, which do not penalise migrant children. Currently, young people in Scotland can take English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) qualifications (National 2-5 and Higher), however few schools offer these qualifications. ESOL Highers are however recognised as entry to Scottish universities. For newly arrived pupils, teachers must also be aware that while young people’s conversational English may develop in a matter of months, they may take several years to acquire subject-specific jargon and reach full linguistic competence. It is important therefore that their access to curriculum is not impaired by their developing competence in curricular English or writing skills, and teachers must find ways to make curriculum tasks accessible, for example by translating instructions.
The profession of migrant workers in some cases bring the person concerned to get the treasures expected success, but not rarely contain a number of risks that need to get the attention of government authorities. A number of problems that might be experienced when Indonesian Labor not available works. Therefore it takes a model economic empowerment for the labor of Indonesia, when he returned to his country was able to survive and improve the well-being of himself and of his family. This research aims to know the role of zakah's institution towards the empowerment of Indonesia's labor and to devise appropriate empowerment model for Indonesian Workforce by Institution of Zakah. Data analysis was done with a qualitative approach. Analytical techniques in the study will be conducted with qualitative analysis approach, a case study of eksplanation to explain how the empowerment model right for Indonesia in Labor Studies. Based on the data and the results of the analysis that has been done can be known that Dompet Dhuafa has role in Indonesia Workforce empowerment. The empowerment Model implemented by Dompet Dhuafa form the Groove program that may help the former workforce of Indonesia after plunging back to life in his native region. Former Indonesian workforce empowerment meant to monitor and nurture the entrepreneurial activities are continuously carried out by former Indonesian labor so that it can be a permanent effort.
27 Apart from this use of new technologies, the EMSC states that OCGs of this type also use the Web and technologically advanced equipment to manipulate anti-forgery devices with fingerprint spoofing 5 or morphing 6 , to abuse governmental systems that are used to issue official documents in an attempt to produce authentic certificates with stolen data and to illicitly trade such documents in DarkNet (EMSC, 2018). In some cases, travel documents are being rented to migrants and re-used for other criminalities, too (EMSC, 2018). These types of “high” criminalities have not been met in Greece yet as there are no reported incidents or arrests in official governmental documents. As a conclusion, migrant smugglers in Greece seem to have taken the opportunity to incorporate any aspect of technology they find more appealing and suitable to their needs into their operational manual in order to facilitate their actions and maximize their profits. Some groups of this kind have managed to differentiate themselves from the competitive “business” of smuggling and to address a wider public by advertising their services – and their affiliates’ services - on social media; to minimize their costs; to protect themselves as much as possible from prosecution by using encrypted communication apps and to be constantly fully informed about possible border controls and alternative journey routes from using cybespace to find up-to-date information. Taking all the above into consideration, the fact that the migrant smuggling “business” is still thriving – regardless all the additional adopted border checks at the external and internal borders of the EU – comes as no surprise. Smugglers around Europe, and particularly in Greece, achieved to use ICT to their advantage in an attempt to promote their services and expand their possibilities. The part that follows will attempt to explain the reasons “why” this phenomenon has taken place in Greece and to what extent it can be explained using the Routine Activity Theory that has been applied to similar types of criminality before but not in a Greek case study.