There is general agreement that ‘work’ is a primary concept for Cognitive Ergonomics (CE). However, there is little agreement how the domain of work might best be modelled. This paper assesses two contrasting approaches to such modelling. The first, and implicit approach, derives from domain experts. The second, and explicit approach, derives from domain research. The approaches are illustrated by an initial analysis of the domain of militarycommand and control and specifically of models of the Vincennes incident. Implicit and explicit domain models are assessed in terms of the incident events. It is concluded that both models have potential to support design, but the explicit model also has potential to support research. The need for explicit domain modelling to support validation of CE design knowledge is underlined.
The first attribute to evaluate KSM against is robustness. KSM is a robust system because it built around solving complex problems, not just specific instances of those prob- lems. Traditional militarycommand and control systems focused on engaging an enemy force in combat operations. Today’s environment is dramatically different. A military unit today is expected to decisively engage and destroy an enemy in combat operation, pro- vide civil assistance in rebuilding a country’s infrastructure, and assisting in disaster relief. Furthermore, these tasks can take place simultaneously or in very rapid succession. From my personal experience, the 1st Battalion, 39th Field Artillery (MLRS) had to transition quickly from providing rocket and missile fires to the 3rd Infantry Division during Oper- ation IRAQI FREEDOM to providing checkpoint security for the Baghdad International Airport and assisting the local population within the airport complex with meeting their basic needs. By viewing militarycommand and control as a subset of complex problem solving, the KSM can be quickly and ably applied to these varied missions.
262 See, for instance, Article 86 o f Additional Protocol I, the various ILC draft codes on international offences, Article 6(3) o f the Statute o f the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the accompanying Report o f the Secretary-General o f the United Nations and Article 28 o f the ICC Statute; See also Darfur Report, par 563: ‘responsibility for the crimes committed by the men under their effective control’ and par 564: ‘they failed to punish those under their control who committed serious crimes’. The same position has been adopted in the Report o f the Group o f Experts f o r Cambodia established pursuant to General Assembly resolution 52/135, as endorsed by the Secretary-General o f the United Nations, 18 Feb 1999, par 81 referring to ‘atrocities [...] being or about to be committed by their subordinates’ when discussing the responsibility o f military commanders and civilian leaders. Insofar as they have recorded a position in this matter, member States o f the United Nations were unanimous in their view that command responsibility could only be entailed where crimes are alleged to have been ‘committed’ by subordinates o f the accused. See Letter Dated 16 February 1993 from the Permanent Representative o f Italy to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General, S/25300, 17 Feb 1993, par 3 (reprinted in V. Morris & M. Scharf, An In sider’s Guide to the International Criminal Tribunal f o r the Former Yugoslavia, Volumes 1-2, (Ardsley: Transnational Publishers Inc., 1995) ( ‘Morris and Scharf, Insider’s Guide’), vol II, pp 375, 377); Letter dated 5 April 1993 from the Permanent Representative o f the United States o f America to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General, S/25575, 12 April
Under the unified leadership and overall deployment of the nation and the military, the collaborative emergency response mechanism of military-civilian integration and efficient linkage has been established, and it develops a pattern of complementary advantages and efficient collab- oration as well as rapidly improves national and military infectious disease prevention and control [14–16]. For ex- ample, five cases of Zika virus infection imported from Venezuela emerged in Guangdong Province in February of 2016. The Academy of Military Medical Sciences immediately initiated the emergency joint mechanism and acquired samples from Guangzhou No.8 People’s Hos- pital. The two Zika virus strains were isolated from blood and urine samples acquired from the two patients. The urine test was the first successful isolation of Zika from a sample. The gene sequence of the first imported Zika virus was also determined through the military-civilian collaboration.
Military individual protective equipment is designed to protect personnel from NBC agents in a combat environment but provide limited protection from hazards other than NBC weapons. Civilian response personnel use the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) guidelines and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and EPA designated levels of chemical protection (see paragraph 1 b). Familiarity with the OSHA/EPA information on these approved levels of personal protection will enable DOD personnel to understand and adapt to the protection and decontamination procedures used at an incident site. DOD personnel tasked to work in contaminated areas should be trained and equipped to the appropriate level of protection needed for the hazard present. The level of personal protection to be used at an incident site will be decided by the incident commander and will be coordinated with all responders and communicated through appropriate command channels.
The ENISA report [ 40 ] mentions several methods used by criminals to make money using a botnet. Bots can be instructed to steal user data, (finan- cial) credentials or credit card details from the infected computers. This data may be used to empty the victims bank account or impersonate the victim and, for example, take out a loan in his or her name. Bots can be used to visit websites and automatically click on advertisements; thus generating profit for the website owner which is paid per advertisement click. A large group of bots can be used to perform a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack and bring down a server. This can be used to extort from website owners, who can be asked to pay "protection money". Criminals also sell bot access to other criminals. Access usually consists of the ability to send spam via bots, perform a DDoS attack or gain control of the C&C infrastructure for other purposes.
In 1965 New Zealand finally committed a combat contingent to Vietnam. Holyoake's decisions had mainly been dictated by New Zealand's collective security alliance responsibilities. The Prime Minister had little real alternative. Of all the options, Roberto Rabel accurately assessed that the commitments made in 1965 were token and a ‘bare minimum that could have been credibly sent.’ 49 By the end of 1965, it seemed clear officials in Wellington believed alliance commitments pertaining to Vietnam were of sufficient importance to seriously consider reducing New Zealand’s military contribution in Malaysia. While any withdrawal of forces from Malaysia, even if only for temporary duty in Vietnam, would in all likelihood draw a most concerned reaction from both Malaysia and the United Kingdom, there was little choice. Close monitoring of Australian policy thinking made it clear to New Zealand how its ANZAC partner was going to respond. After visiting Canberra in early October 1965, newly promoted CDS Lieutenant-General Leonard Thornton returned to New Zealand and advised that Australia was ‘unanimous that the United States request for the employment of the Australian battalion anywhere within the confines of the III Corps area and of the Australian battery anywhere in Vietnam should be acceded to.’ 50 Thornton also revealed that barring a change in the direction in which the Borneo ‘Confrontation’ was progressing, it was probable Australia would send a second battalion to Vietnam by the middle of 1966. 51
Commissioned officers, second lieutenant and up, receive their “commissions” from the President. These commissions authorize them to perform their functions and duties in the military. The commissioned grades are: second lieutenant, first lieutenant, captain, major, lieutenant colonel, colonel, brigadier general, major general, lieutenant general, and general. Second lieutenants, first lieutenants, and captains are known as “company grade” officers. Majors, lieutenant colonels, and colonels are called “field grade officers.” All grades of general are referred to as “general officers.”
Command in emergencies is a special kind of command activity which includes the leading, planning, dispatch- ing and controlling in rescue subjects, such as government departments, army troops, polices, healthy branches, enterprises and NGOs. Command in emergencies is based on communication equipment. Joint Command Sys- tem (JCS) in large-scale emergencies is the center of command relationship and command equipment, and the most important material base in emergencies. According to the information processing, JCS includes three parts that are situational awareness system, communication system, command and decision system, which is shown in Figure 1.
Southeast Asia. (Note to the reader: Turner is referring to the so- called "Vietnam War," which had been over for two decades at the time but which played an enormously important role in laying the groundwork for the Organization's later success in dealing with the System's armed forces.) But he has also been my best pupil here. He is the one man I spent time with explaining some of the newer military gadgets we expect to acquire in our raids on the arsenals around here. He is the only one I am sure will be able to use the new M-58 laser range finders, for example, and teach our mortar teams how to use them too. And he is also the only one here to whom I taught enough basic electronics so that he can rig up the radio-controlled detonators which are an essential part of our plan for knocking out the highway network in this area and keeping it knocked out.
WiFi Robot is a remote control car that can be driven over the internet or with a laptop wirelessly from up to 500m away. It built in with a live-feed network camera so that it can be driven without line of sight. It consist of a remote control car, a Cisco Linksys router, Arduino (ATmega168) Free duino Max Serial, a customize power supply unit, a Panasonic BL C1A web camera and a tiny horn. There are quite a numbers of large size accessories attach to the remote control car such as router and webcam which made it slightly bigger in size and not mobility. Besides, no LED light is attach to the car will produce low clarity of video streaming if it is moving in dark area.
Humans increasingly rely on autonomous systems that do not require any conscious effort from an operator. The prospect of losing control have even more frightening consequences in a physical space. For example, Section 1.4.3 of the U.S DoD “Unmanned Systems Integrated Roadmap” provides an operational vignette to illustrate the DoD’s vision for the use of unmanned systems in the year 2020. The vignette involves ground, aerial, and underwater unmanned systems working together to investigate and report activity regarding the possible creation of a weapon of mass destruction in the fictional country of Norachi. The unmanned systems in this story are networked together to allow them to quickly make decisions about how to execute a mission independent of a human operator. What happens when these systems have their own flash crash? How can people engineer a stop button for robots falling out of the sky? How can people prevent a bullet from shooting once an automated gun turret has already pulled the trigger?