military women and mental health

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Associations of military divorce with mental, behavioral, and physical health outcomes

Associations of military divorce with mental, behavioral, and physical health outcomes

Our study has notable limitations. Study outcomes were self-reported and were not validated by medical record review; however, the use of validated surveys to detect mental and behavioral health conditions in a mili- tary sample has several advantages because these condi- tions are often underdiagnosed due to stigma [62]. Although previous studies on the Millennium Cohort found it to be representative, responders were propor- tionally more likely to be women, educated, and white non-Hispanic [16, 63]. Because our follow-up period was 3 years and certain outcomes may develop later, we may have had inadequate time to detect these outcomes. Conversely, the effects of outcomes may not be long- lasting and may have been underestimated. Analyses were only able to assess temporal proximity as opposed to temporal sequence, and thus we were unable to estab- lish causality. PTSD in particular is a complex affliction that is underreported and may also take variable lengths of time to develop, which may cloud possible associa- tions with divorce. Additionally, the number of legally married study participants is also likely to be conserva- tive in relation to real population of military couples, which includes common law and same-sex marriages. Fi- nally, we did not have data on length of marriage or presence of children, which have been shown to affect the marital relationship [64]. A measure of marital satis- faction at baseline would also have been useful to further elucidate the relationship between divorce and health outcomes.
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Wartime Military Deployment and Increased Pediatric Mental and Behavioral Health Complaints

Wartime Military Deployment and Increased Pediatric Mental and Behavioral Health Complaints

(Centers for Disease Control. State-specific trends in fruit and vegetable con- sumption among adults—United States, 2000 –2009. MMWR. 2010 Sept 59(35); 1125–1130). Despite a great deal of recent publicity about the benefits of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, fewer adults in 2009 consumed fruit 2 or more times a day than in 2000 while vegetable consumption during this time period remained unchanged. Fruit and vegetable consumption tended to be higher in women, persons over 65 years old, college graduates, individuals with house- hold incomes greater than $50 000, and those with a BMI less than 25. However, none of the subgroups met the target for fruit or vegetable consumption. Pop- ulation demographics and availability and affordability of produce can all influ- ence consumption (although a pound of apples or carrots costs far less than a pound of potato chips). This news is disappointing. We will have to wait to see if Michelle Obama’s Let’s Move! Campaign or other federal programs such as Know Your Farmer, Know Your Food and Communities Putting Prevention to Work will influence fruit and vegetable consumption.
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Mental Health Consequences of Pre  and Peri Military Violence Victimization among United States Army Soldiers: The Moderating Effect of Resilience

Mental Health Consequences of Pre and Peri Military Violence Victimization among United States Army Soldiers: The Moderating Effect of Resilience

Third, adverse events can have a cumulative or multiplicative effect on mental health. Among National Guard Soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan, for example, prior interpersonal victimization predicted post-deployment PTSD symptoms, even after controlling for baseline symptoms (Polusny et al., 2014). In another study of Soldiers who had deployed to Iraq, both adverse childhood events and combat exposure predicted PTSD symptoms, but there was an inte- raction effect as well; the relationship between combat and PTSD symptoms was greater for those who had experienced more adverse events in childhood (Ca- brera, Hoge, Bliese, Castro, & Messer, 2007). This finding was supported in a study of United States Marines, in which those with childhood adverse expe- riences, specifically childhood physical neglect, were more likely to be diagnosed with PTSD following a deployment (Leard Mann, Smith, & Ryan, 2010). Among Veterans Affairs primary care patients, PTSD and depression were differentially associated with prior trauma by type; men who were diagnosed with PTSD were more likely to be victims of interpersonal violence or report war zone trauma (Freedy et al., 2010). For women, sexual victimization and being a victim of in- terpersonal violence were associated with PTSD; the same patterns were found for depression (Freedy et al., 2010).
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Positive Outcomes in Military Mental Health.

Positive Outcomes in Military Mental Health.

differences in military samples for PTSD (Maguen et al., 2006) and PTG (Gallaway et al., 2011). There are several possible explanations for our null finding. For instance, the mixed findings in military samples may indicate that women who self-select into the military are qualitatively different in some way from their civilian counterparts that reduces the likelihood that they will experience a challenge to core beliefs, PTG, and PTSD. It is also possible that some aspect of being in the military, such as training received or immersion in the military culture, leads men and women to view potentially traumatic events in more similar ways than do their non-Veteran peers. Alternatively, the lack of sex differences in the current study may not reflect anything about the military experience, but rather the people who are willing to respond to questions on MTurk and participate in a study of experiences following adversity. Beyond the scope of the present study, future research could compare men and women Veterans and non-Veterans to explore these differences.
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The Perceived Impact of International Educational Experiences in the United States on Saudi Respiratory Therapists

The Perceived Impact of International Educational Experiences in the United States on Saudi Respiratory Therapists

Since the establishment of separate prisons for women in the late 1800s, women’s experiences of incarceration in the U.S. have been impacted by gender and racial oppression (Jones & Record, 2014; Rafter, 1985; Rivera & Veysey, 2015; Washburn, 2016). The incarcerating institutions (whether small penal units in men’s prisons or reformatories that trained women inmates in “feminine” gender roles), types of crimes committed, and criminal sentences were unique for women (Jones & Record, 2014; Onion, 2015; Rafter, 1983, 1985). There is little data available on incarcerated women’s historical experiences (Calahan, 1985), partly because women comprised only 1% to 7% of the incarcerated population between 1850 and 1980, and constitute only 7% of the prison population today (Glaze & Kaeble, 2014). In 1922, for example, the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) collected data from almost 6,500 incarcerating institutions, including over 6,000 city or county jails, more than 100 state and federal prisons (some including small women’s penal units), almost 300 “chain gangs” (of men), and just 24 women’s reformatories (Calahan, 1985). Rafter (1983) described the absence of investigation into women’s criminal justice experiences as due to assumptions that the
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Mental health after first childbirth in women requesting a caesarean section; a retrospective register based study

Mental health after first childbirth in women requesting a caesarean section; a retrospective register based study

CSMR women (n = 1009, 1.6%) were compared to women giving birth by other modes of delivery (n = 63,826) (hereafter referred to as “the reference group”) including vaginal delivery (n = 55,012, 84.9%), emergency CS (n = 5826, 9%) and elective CS for all other reasons except maternal request (n = 2859, 4.4%). Vaginal delivery was defined as ICD-10 codes; spontan- eous vaginal delivery (O80), single instrumental vaginal delivery by forceps or vacuum extraction (O81), other assisted single delivery (O83) or multiple vaginal delivery (O84.1 and O84.9). Included were also women missing a delivery diagnosis but having the diagnosis “care after vaginal delivery” (Z.39.0A/B) or a notation in MBR that the delivery ended “vaginally”, “by forceps” or “by vac- uum extraction”. Emergency CS was defined as single (O82.1) and multiple delivery (O84.8) by emergency CS or a notation in MBR that the delivery was by “emer- gency CS”, “not an elective CS” or “delivery ended by CS”. Elective CS single delivery (O82, O82.0, O82.9) and multiple delivery by elective CS (O84.2 and O84.3) as well as women missing delivery diagnosis but having the diagnosis “care after CS” (Z.39.0C/D) or a notation in MBR saying “delivery by elective CS before contractions started”, “delivery by elective CS” or “delivery started by CS”. The following background variables were registered in MBR at admission to antenatal care; age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, the use of snuff, and som- atic diseases (recurring urinary tract infection, inflamma- tory bowel disease, epilepsy, asthma/lung disease, diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, hypertension and sys- temic lupus erythematosus). Age was categorized into ≤25 or >25 years old. BMI was divided into five categor- ies (<18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25–24.9, 25–29.9, 30–34.9 and ≥35 kg/m 2
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Maternal mental health priorities, help seeking behaviors, and resources in post conflict settings: a qualitative study in eastern Uganda

Maternal mental health priorities, help seeking behaviors, and resources in post conflict settings: a qualitative study in eastern Uganda

Pertaining to our first research objective, we found adeka na aomisio (or sickness of thoughts) to be the most commonly prioritized maternal mental health concern. Although there was some variation across types of partici- pants (e.g., traditional healers appeared to prioritize deter- minants of psychological distress rather than a specific psychological condition), there was broad consensus about the importance of sickness of thoughts. Sickness of thoughts was largely used interchangeably with thinking too much, an idiom of distress that has been identified in 138 studies across diverse socio-cultural contexts [34] and is listed as a cultural concept of distress in the DSM-5 [35]. In this study, psychological problems reported as as- sociated with sickness of thoughts by non-health workers were primarily observable signs rather than symptoms of depression (e.g., eating less, crying, and sleep disturbance). Social scientists have warned against conflating thinking too much idioms with psychiatric disorder categories, as idioms of distress can communicate im- portant social dimensions of suffering and often do not exist as orderly syndromes [34]. Our findings indeed seem to indicate that the sickness of thoughts idiom conveys a constellation of social adversity experienced by pregnant and postpartum women in Soroti. This constellation includes high levels of intimate partner vio- lence, unsupportive spouses (including for reproductive health) who potentially drink alcohol, financial stress, and physical illnesses (e.g. HIV/AIDS and malaria). Con- cerns on social origins of maternal distress expressed by traditional and religious healers overlapped with those expressed by health workers, specifically the perceived influence of unsupportive spouses and intimate partner violence. While epidemiological research in eastern Uganda has found that prior conflict experiences pre- dicted higher levels of intimate partner violence [36], we note that this constellation of adversity for pregnant and postpartum women has been found to underlie maternal common mental disorders in low-resource settings more broadly [37 – 40]. More in-depth ethnographic and social epidemiological research would help elucidate the com- plex socio-cultural dynamics that underlie sickness of thoughts, including its etiology in the historical context of armed conflict and ongoing adversity.
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Postdeployment military mental health training: Cross-national evaluations

Postdeployment military mental health training: Cross-national evaluations

Canada. In the Canadian version, the US Battlemind Training video was shown during third location decompression in which service members spent five days in Cyprus on the way home from a combat and peace support mission in Afghanistan (Garber & Zamorski, 2012). The video was paused after each of four vignettes and a discussion ensued. A dubbed version of the video was used for French language training sessions. The four scenarios included (1) two sergeants discussing mental health-related stigma while playing basketball, (2) a father and son unable to reconnect emotionally as exemplified by not playing basketball like they used to, (3) a couple dealing with a service member’s nightmares, drinking, and guilt, and (4) a service
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Mental health of UK military personnel while on deployment in Iraq

Mental health of UK military personnel while on deployment in Iraq

The OMHNE study has identified a number of important areas regarding the psychological well-being and mental health of UK military personnel while deployed. A small but not insignificant number of personnel reported being interested in receiving help at the time of survey completion. However, only a small percentage of those who seek support do so from formal available sources (medical centres, welfare agencies or the field mental health teams), suggesting that barriers exist, either cognitively or practically, which prevent some personnel from accessing this support. Forward provision of such support is likely to make access easier, reduce the likelihood that internal stigma will act as a barrier and is in keeping with the psychiatric doctrine of operational care. 34
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                        Parent and practitioner dynamics: Exploring practitioner roles in a secured Mother and Baby Unit.

Article Parent and practitioner dynamics: Exploring practitioner roles in a secured Mother and Baby Unit.

Conversely, psychological underpinnings consider individual perceptions of vulnerability, and behaviours or predictors associated with those, as part of our own internal schemas (Carter & Glendening, 2013). This arguably shapes our interpretations and reactions, potentially contributing to our professional practice. Undeniably, however, women in custody share characteristics identified as indicating that a person is at risk. The Corston Report (Ministry of Justice, 2007) identifies these factors, which include women in prison with histories of abuse being over-represented in comparison with men, and the prevalence of mental health issues been higher than that of male prisoners, with self-harm been a significant problem.
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A qualitative inquiry on pregnant women’s preferences for mental health screening

A qualitative inquiry on pregnant women’s preferences for mental health screening

Mental health literacy is defined as knowledge about mental health symptoms, risk factors, causes, and treat- ments [32]. Some participants reported that they did not communicate their emotional challenges because they were not able to understand their feelings. Several women in our study also reported that they were not able to differentiate normal and non-normal symptoms despite doubting their mental well-being. Thus, they tried to understand these feelings on their own or hoped that the symptoms would be relieved by taking it “day- by-day ” . The findings also highlighted the educational aspect of screening that helped one of the participants realize she was struggling with anxiety. In a recent study, Fonseca (2015) found that the most frequently identified barriers to women’s seeking professional help were re- lated to the level of mental health literacy, followed by practical and structural barriers, such as time and cost constraints, and attitudinal barriers, such as shame and stigma. They reported that over half of the women who
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Military Discipline Vs Urban Civilization: Effect on Adolescent  Mental Health

Military Discipline Vs Urban Civilization: Effect on Adolescent Mental Health

PSYCHOPATHOLOGIES OBSERVED IN MILITARY CANTONMENT AREA: Conduct Disorder & Academic Problems are two psychopathologies which are found in higher number of subjects from Military Cantonment Area. Conduct Disorder is mostly observed, though low in intensity, psychopathology in adolescent age group. Antisocial behaviours such as stealing, fighting, lying, cruelty to animals, use of weapon, destruction of property, fire setting, non-compliance with rules at home & at school, trouble with school authorities and other behavioural problems comes under this psychopathology. It is known to all of us that military culture and setting around is full of discipline and authoritative exercise. This indicates the detrimental
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Mental health priorities in Iranian women: overview of social determinants of mental health.

Mental health priorities in Iranian women: overview of social determinants of mental health.

Objective: Mental health is an essential component for positive adaptation that enables people to cope with adversity to achieve their full potential and humanity. In this study, using a community based approach, the social determinants of mental health in Iranian women were extracted; and in addition, priority setting for interventional programs according to analytical framework of WHO was implemented . Method: This study was a community based participatory research (CBPR) in district 22 of Tehran (Iran). The target group was married females with age range of 18-65 years. In this study, mental health priorities were extracted by qualitative methods according to Essential National Health Research model (ENHR) and the analytical framework of WHO. Data analysis was done based on content analysis by the open code 3.6 software.
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An estimation of father’s role in children’s mental health through military families

An estimation of father’s role in children’s mental health through military families

Method: This article is a correlative study in which 200 military families were selected by hand sampling. They filled scl-90 and quality of father presence inventories. The sample included junior students. Data were analyzed using correlation coefficient and regression. Results: The result of study showed that there was significant relationship between the effect of father presence alongside its quality with mental health of children and disorders like somatzation, depression, anxiety, paranoid symptoms and their educational state.

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Strategic Development of Mental Health Care for Women SUMMARY

Strategic Development of Mental Health Care for Women SUMMARY

There are distinct differences in the social and offending profiles of women and men, their experience of mental ill health, patterns of behaviour, their care and treatment needs. As women represent a small minority within a system primarily designed for men, their needs are poorly met. In addition women are often placed in levels of physical security greater than they need. They are generally less of a risk to the public, less likely to abscond and are more likely than men to have been transferred from other NHS facilities than from the criminal justice system.
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Role of Stress on Mental Health of Women

Role of Stress on Mental Health of Women

In present times due to changing technology ,competitive environment Stress take place in the life of every individual even a(2-3 year ) small children is also untouched from the stress. .Thus it can say that it is a natural and unavoidable feature of human life .stress can be take place regarding any issues which occurred at home, work place, neighborhood ,society as well as other fields which are related to life of the individuals. A situation or condition may be stress for one person but it is not necessary that the same situation or condition create stress for another person. And it is also not necessary that the result of stress always will be negative or destructive, it can be positive as well as productive. Since the turn of the century, the status of women has been growing their work is not limited to the kitchen or taking care of the family they have shifted higher level of education and professions. Many studies concluded that women have report more psychological distress than man.
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Correlates of poor mental health in early pregnancy in obese European women

Correlates of poor mental health in early pregnancy in obese European women

A number of studies reported a broad range of poten- tial correlates of maternal mental health [16, 17], al- though some variability appears, largely based either on bivariate or multivariate analysis, sample composition and study design. For example, the present study dem- onstrated an association between maternal mental health and European ethnicity, which is in line with previous studies, showing both independent and mutual influ- ences of ethnicity and variables of socioeconomic status (e.g., occupation, education, income) on maternal mental health [16, 44, 45]. Likewise, sleep quality is associated with depression in the general population [46] and dur- ing pregnancy, where poor sleep quality and sleep loss are linked with a greater risk of both maternal mood problems [47] and adverse birth outcomes [48]. This confirms our finding of the linkage between low well- being and insufficient sleep. In addition, previous studies confirm our findings of associations between low well- being and individual variables such as low self-efficacy, worrying and less perceived social support as well [16].
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Impact of Women Circumcision on Mental Health

Impact of Women Circumcision on Mental Health

The study has some limitations; first there is no exact information about the number of circumcised women in the area; therefore, we couldn’t take all circumcised women under consideration. Second women had fear to participate in the study. Some of them believed that talking about FGM/C is shameful. The majority of women in the area were uneducated; therefore, the research assistant had to explain the items of questionnaire to them in Kurdish language for completing the forms. Third we compared the GHQ scores between tow limited groups of circumcised and non-circumcised women, to make clear that FGM/C was an independent predictor of "social dysfunction" on the GHQ. We needed to do a longitudinal study for measuring the score of GHQ before FGM/C and also after FGM/C, but due to the limitation of time and money we couldn't do it.
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Social support and mental health among married women teachers

Social support and mental health among married women teachers

Social support is a multidimensional construct that refers to the psychological and material resources available to individuals through their interpersonal relationships. Social support is believed to have a positive impact on the working roles performed by women at work places by enhancing job satisfaction and creating balance, thereby eliminating work- family conflicts (Carlson and Perrewe, 1999). It is one of the important resources for working women to manage their work and family domains. Work - based social support is generally considered to be associated with the work outcomes and family – related social support with the family or non - work outcomes. The researchers have examined the relationship of social support (both work related and family related) with different factors. Social support can be bifurcated into two facets such as organizational support and family related support (Brough and Pears, 2004). Work related social support comes from the organizational members, such as peers and supervisors, where an employee works, whereas personal social support comes from spouse, parents, children, extended family or friends. Many studies have demonstrated that being integrated into social networks and receiving high levels of social support are important for mental health and well being particularly for women (Kessler and Mclead, 1995; Alarie, 1996). Also Social support network is believed to ameliorate the negative effects of role conflict on women’s mental health (Cheung, 1995; Dona andBerry, 1994). Hence social support have a positive impact on one’s health and well- being (Kaufmann and Beehr, 1989; Sarason, Sarason, and Pierce, 1990).
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Combat deployment and mental health in military dependents

Combat deployment and mental health in military dependents

deployment of their military parent, yet any of these could greatly impact a child’s mental health. Children become attuned to the psychological state of their parents, and studies suggest that stress levels of parents and children are related. 6 If children in our study developed psychological disorders through internalization of their caretakers’ stress, this would only underscore the importance of comprehending the far-reaching effects of deployment on military families. Nonmilitary or nondeployed parents dealing with their own mental health problems may be more or less attuned to symptoms in themselves and in their children, affecting their willingness to seek professional help. Additional research is needed on this matter, perhaps studying parents and children concurrently or examining families rather than individuals. It is possible medication was prescribed to treat the symptoms of a mental health problem without assigning a corresponding diagnostic code. Though we did not include prescription data, such occurrences would underestimate the true incidence of mental health problems in the study population, and, as they are not expected to occur differentially by deployment status of the military member, are unlikely to have had an appreciable effect on our results.
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