level (Tančin et al., 2003, 2006). Recently we have found a positive relationship between the duration of the decline phase of milk flow and somatic cell counts (Tančin et al., 2002). In the case of bimodal quarter milk flow a longer duration of the decline phase occurred as compared with non-bimodal curves (Tančin et al., 2005). However, there is no detailed study on how premilking stimulation in- fluences the duration of the decline phase. The composition of milk including SCC changes in the course of milking (Bruckmaier et al., 2004). The milk ejection reflex induced before milking by tactile pre-stimulation could also influence the composition of milk in the course of milking. We expect that the pre-stimulation of the udder will improve the distribution of milkconstituents dur- ing milking, which could be exactly described at a quarter level.
Mammary gland absorbs most of the components from the blood stream and then combines them with structural enzymes to synthesise milk. The effects of breed, parity, sampling day, and sampling hour as well as their interactions on milk compo- nents were here evaluated in cows. In conclusion, (1) SCC was considerably influenced by parity and sampling hour. (2) Parity, breed, and sampling day exerted an influence on the composition of milk lipid and protein fractions. (3) There were two- way interaction effects of factors on SCC, but not on milk lipid and protein fractions. These factors and their interactions should be considered in the planning of research and in the evaluation of data.
Goal of any dairy business has been to identify an effective way of increasing milk production and its constituents (fat and protein) without increasing the size of dairy herd, i.e., improving productivity and quality of milk. Selection of superior dairy animals with desirable genotypes and mating them to produce next generation has been the basis of livestock improvement; and this would continue to remain same in the coming years in India. Identification of genetic markers is a promising technique which can strengthen the current conventional breeding methods for quantitative trait selection. Once these variations identified in genes are proven to be associated with quantitative traits of interest, it may accelerate the genetic gain in dairy animals.
From October 2013 to May 2014, a total of 20 infants (11 males and 9 females, mean age 8 months; age range, 3–15 months) with bronchiolitis were sequentially re- cruited to participate in this study conducted at the in- patient facility of the First Hospital of Jilin University. A separate group of 11 gender- age- and ethnicity-matched healthy control subjects with no previous history of a re- spiratory tract infection were recruited during the same time period. The recruitment of controls helped to minimize differences in breast milkconstituents. Each case of bronchiolitis was diagnosed using established international criteria (14). Each infant included in the study received breast feeding only. Bronchiolitis patients who had received post-natal treatment with corticoste- roids or intravenous immunoglobulin, or had another disease such as congenital heart disease, anemia, malnu- trition, vitamin D deficiency or bacterial diarrhea, were excluded from the study. Samples of breast milk were also obtained from a separate group of 11 postpartum age-matched women with a healthy breast feeding child.
decrease the value of protein . A slight increase in milkconstituents also occurred , especially in fat, the protein was observed, rather a reduction. All of these findings, but results also depend on age, lactation number, stage of lactation, nutrition, whether the cows in good health condition and other factors (Table 3, ). Another indicator is the normative content of urea and casein in milk. As is evident from Table 4, occurred in experimental groups to increase the content to normal values. As shown in table 4, an increase of urea is also visible in the experimental group by lactation. Casein was not affected by this intervention. Casein content values are statistically insignificant, but with a tendency to increase its content to 1 lactation. These results show a slight increase in milk yield in dairy cows administered Biopolym . Slavík et al.  argue that it is important to ensure optimal nutrition, because of the subsequent achievement of the desired fermentation processes that determine the conversion of nutrients and milk production, which was achieved during the experiment. Lower values of urea in the milk of control cows show rather than the lack of a balanced ration in terms of nutrients. Most cows were in good health during the experiment, some have appeared for a short time changes in metabolism, which shows how [3, 4] could affect the composition of milk in Figure no.1. In assessing the representation of ammonia in the air stables were no differences between the experiment and analysis during the experiment monitored by a datalogger ammonia. This is due to good ventilation system in the barn walls with plastic mesh.
sampling first at least 20 days after parturition to exclude the risk of contamination with colostrum. Goats were milked twice a day at constant intervals and a 10 ml sample from each milking session was mixed for the analysis. Milkconstituents (protein, lactose, and fat) were determined with an ultrasonic S60SEC milk analyzer (Milkotronic Ltd., Nova Za- gora, Bulgaria). 5 ml blood per goat were collected aseptically from the jugular vein and kept in a tube containing anticoagulant ACD (citric acid : sodium citrate : dextrose – 10 : 27 : 38). All samples were delivered back to the laboratory in an ice box. The genomic DNA was extracted from white blood cells using standard phenol-chloroform extraction protocol (Mullenbach et al., 1989).
The hexane treated residual mixture was extracted with Methanol in 1:4 ratios and collected using Whatman No. 1 filter paper and evaporated below 40°C. The above procedure was repeated, and the extract was used for further analysis. Phytochemical analysis was done to determine the chemical constituents of the plant.
Some find kefir too sour on its own and prefer to add flavors or sweeteners. Frozen fruits can be mixed with kefir in a blender to make a smoothie. Kefir is sold with different varieties of fruit and flavors already added, both in the organic/ecologic and non-organic varieties 13 . It is a breakfast, lunch and dinner drink popular across all areas of Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Hungary, Romania, Poland (second largest producer after Russia, Norway, Sweden, Finland (especially with Russian and Estonian minorities), Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania where it is known as an affordable health drink. It is drunk the same way as milk, often accompanying pastries and other sweets. In Southern Slavic countries kefir is consumed at any time of the day, especially with zelnik (zeljanica:Serbian), burek and banitsa(gibanica:Serbian), as well as in cold summer soups 14 .
Bacterial isolates. Four of the above five S. caprae infections were reported to the French Centre National de Re ´fe ´rence des Staphylocoques in Lyon by clini- cians at different hospitals in France between 1988 and 1993. The fifth patient was admitted to St. Thomas’ Hospital (London, United Kingdom) with commu- nity-acquired endocarditis. The two human clinical isolates of S. caprae described by Kanda et al. (10) were kindly provided by E. Tateda-Suzuki and K. Hiramatsu (Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan). Seven S. caprae isolates from seven unre- lated herds were cultured from the milk of goats with mastitis and were provided by B. Poutrel (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Nouzilly, France). Eight further milk isolates from different goats of the same herd were provided by Y. Richard (Ecole Ve ´te ´rinaire, Marcy-l’Etoile, France). The patient and animal isolates and the reference strain S. caprae CCM3573 (6) were iden- tified and typed in Lyon (Table 1).
Determination of lysozyme in milk samples For determining lysozyme in human milk, the ELISA method and microbiological lyso-plate technique were used. There were significant differ- ences in determinations of lysozyme as recorded by the ELISA kit and lyso-plate technique (Table 2). The values which the authors measured by the ELISA method were 2 times higher than values determined by the lyso-plate technique. The con- centrations of lysozyme ranged 1–131.83 µg/ml and 17.43–184.02 µg/ml, as determined by the lyso- plate technique and ELISA method, respectively. The authors found out that the ELISA method is a specific procedure for determining the lysozyme in samples. This method probably detected all the lysozyme in human milk, including molecules without antibacterial activity. In contrast, the lyso-plate technique is a method able to determine only biologically active lysozyme. To be honest, it should be noted, that the lyso-plate method can also be susceptible to other antimicrobial compo- nents in milk. Chicken egg white is currently the major commercial source of lysozyme. Lysozyme from chicken egg whites is only 60% identical to human lysozyme. The fact that antibodies oppos- ing human and chicken egg white lysozyme do not exhibit cross-interference points to significant structural differences.
The Milk Production. The positive evolution of number of dairy cows and average milk yield has deeply influenced total milk production. As a result, in the year 2006, Milk Production was by 6.35% higher than in the year 2004. Taking into account the last 10 years, Milk Production has continuously increased, starting with 156,000 Million Pounds in the year 1998 and reaching 185,000 Million Pounds, the highest record in the year 2007. This means 18 % increase over the past 10 years.
HERING, P., HANUŠ, O., JEDELSKÁ, R., REJLEK, V., KOPECKÝ, J., 2007: Validace spolehlivosti vybra- ných metod odběru vzorků mléka pro zajištění vě- rohodnosti výsledků analýz mléka v kontrole užit- kovosti dojnic v České republice. The validation of authenticity of chosen sampling methods for pro- vision of analytic result reliability in milk record- ing of dairy cows in the Czech Republic. (In Czech) Výzkum v chovu skotu / Cattle Research, XLIX, 179, 3: 40– 49. ISSN 0139-7265
The phytotochemical constituents of Senna occidentalis of extract showed various chemical constituents present in ethanol and methanol extracts are alkaloids, carbohydrates, tannins, steroids, triterpenoids, proteins and flavonoids are present. The values obtained at different stages were determined. The chromatography Rf value is 0.8. The sample absorbed in the IR studies of flavonoids of amino, carboxylic group wave length is 1168.86 per cm-1. When test compared with standard drug, plant extract showed maximum dose 250 μg/ml of dose produced the 0.9 mm zone of inhibition.
‘Human milk purchased via the Internet exhibited high overall bacterial growth and frequent contamination with pathogenic bacteria, reflecting poor collection, storage, or shipping practices. Infants consuming this milk are at risk for negative outcomes, particularly if born preterm or are medically compromised’
trial was not blinded, it still provides supporting evidence for of this type of formulation synergy. G. glabra and G. uralensis contain triterpenoid saponins, notably glycyrrhizin (Figure 3). It is believed that these constituents are the chemi- cal basis for the historical use of these herbs as solubilizing agents in herbal formulas to increase absorption of other constituents, an important and distinctive synergistic feature of herbal medicine. This property is referred to as a guiding action in traditional Chinese medicine, and G. uralensis is the king of guide herbs. It appears in 50% of the 283 formulas in one of the most important materia medica of Chinese medicine, the Shén Nóng B n C o J ng (Divine Husbandman’s Classic of the Materia Medica), compiled between 300 BCE and 200 CE. 56
Our data indicate that the human colostrum profile (<30,000 Da) is more complex than every other kind of milk (Figures 1-3). Colostrum, secreted in the few days after birth, is reported to contain higher amount of peptides, proteins and vitamins compared to mature milk (28). The unique characteristics of HC, with additional nutrients, immune and growth factors, make it interesting as a therapy to promote neonatal health [28,29]. We found that HC spectra are particularly rich in low-molecular weight proteins and are dominated by spectrometric signals with a mass <10,000 Da and mainly <7,000 Da, a significant fraction of which may be involved in its physiologic characteristics. Based on the linear MALDI-TOF MS, our analysis does not allow to identify any milk proteins, but it clearly indicates that milk protein profile changes gradually over the following 30 days after birth. The amount of peptides and proteins decreases rapidly during the first month of lactation and then stabilizes in “mature” milk after 60 days (HM60 and HM90; Figure 1). By contrast, polypeptides around 15,000 Da remain stable across colostrum and mature milk. Noteworthy, the appearance of spectrometric signals with a m/z value around 24,000 Da in mature milk (HM60 and HM90) concomitant to a decrease of components with a molecular weight <12,000 Da. In agreement with these data, proteomic studies have shed light on the dynamic composition of human milk throughout lactation stages [18,30–32]. In particular, whey proteins implicated in the modulation of immune system and in the maturation of the gastrointestinal tract of neonates are overrepresented in the human milk during the first days of lactation.
In this study, we analyzed the chemicals present in the vapor and particulate phases of the mainstream smoke of different types of bidi (flavored and unflavored). In an earlier report, measurement of total particulate mat- ter (TPM) using one puff per 15 s have demonstrated the presence and higher delivery of nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide . Therefore, in this study, we employed a puff duration of 6 s with a 6-s puff interval to simulate the smoking conditions for bidi in order to analyze the chemical constituents in mainstream bidi smoke. The smaller molecular weight compounds in the bidi smoke were analyzed by using Fourier-transform infrared spec- trometry (FTIR) with a long-pathlength gas cell. Com- pounds with molecular weight larger than 50 g/mole (i.e. more than four carbons or larger than butane) were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Due to the differences in the physical and chemical characteristics of the bidis, (i.e. dif- ferent amounts and sizes of sun-dried tobacco materials wrapped in tendu leaf) and the modification of the puff- ing regimen for sample collection, results obtained in this study are not comparable to those obtained with conven- tional reference cigarettes such as 1R4F and 1R5F.