of a camel milk sector is existing, but is still dominated by informal sector (not only in volume, but mainly in number of stakeholders) and by self- consumption. The distribution network, except for the big integrated farms, is limited to small shops in the towns. For example, it is noticeable that camel milk is very rarely available in the main chain of supermarkets in the northern part of the country. Yet, the demand is increasing in spite of the high price of the camel milk. The development of the camel milkvaluechain requires a better selection of the best dairy animals, a better access to the urban market, an efficient quality control and a distribution network fleshed out.
Abstract- Evaluation of milkvaluechain and quality of milk were assessed in selected districts of surrounding Addis Ababa from September 2016 to April 2017. A total of 180 randomly selected market-oriented smallholder dairy farmers were involved in a cross-sectional study that was carried out by way of questionnaire survey, rapid market appraisal, farm inspection and group discussion. The overall mean family size of respondents in this study was 5.63 1.926 persons with average livestock holding per household of 23.93 ± 11.755 animals. Cattle were the predominant species representing 84.3% of the total TLU. The average number of lactating cows owned by the respondent farmers was 1.76 ± 0.920 local and 2.79 ± 3.445 cross bred animals. Average daily milk yield of crossbred and local milking cows were 9.11 ± 2.902 and 1.889 ± 0.6707 liters respectively. Overall mean lactation lengths of crossbred and local milking cows were 9.7 ± 0.46 and 6.26 ± 0.6624 months. Sixty milk samples were collected and the analysis of microbiological and physiochemical were carried out. The overall mean chemical compositions of milk for fat (%), protein (%) and solids not fat (%) contents were 3.5693 ± 0.10892, 2.9646 ± 0.04621 and 6.9632 ± 0.12175 in bulk Tank milk samples. The overall mean microbiological count of log (TBC cfu/ml), log (CC cfu/ml) and log (SCC/ml) of raw milk was 8.2285 ± 0.10041, 3.3363 ± 0.10010 and 5.1622 ± 0.07382, respectively. The proportion of raw milk used for household consumption was relatively small (5%). The major part (86%) of milk produced by smallholders is destined to market. The main outlets for raw milk identified were cooperatives (55.6%), processors (20.0%), vendor (20.0%), directly to consumer (2.8%) and hotels/restaurants (1.7%). Price variations (cited by 87% of the respondents), lack of fair market (72.2%), lack of demand during fasting (49.4%), lack of preserving facilities, and absence of quality based payment and no/less say in deciding milk price by producers were the major problems of raw milk marketing.
trade involving many stakeholders in different parts of the country, and the larger East African region (Anderson et al., 2012). Despite the evident growth pattern, the subsector has largely remained informal, with minimal regulation from relevant authorities. As a result, access to markets has been challenging, with only 12% of the total milk produced marketed: 10% sold to rural consumers, and only 2% to urban markets. The remaining 88% is consumed in local households, with a significant proportion going to waste due to post harvest losses (Akweya et al., 2012). Nonetheless, with increased population growth and rural-urban migration, demand for camel milk in Nairobi has risen over the last decade (Matofari et al., 2007). Additionally, the perceived medicinal properties and associated health benefits of camel milk have acted as strong marketing tools for the product, both in Kenya and elsewhere. However, given the high level of the informal milk trade, public health issues such as the risk of milk borne zoonotic diseases are of concern (Lore et al., 2005). As such, it is crucial to understand how the camel milkvaluechain operates in order to assess the potential economic and food safety risks that may occur; as well as exploring how these chains can be governed, promoted and improved to make them both more successful and safer.
milk ensures consumers’ confidence and ensures genera- tion of high income. Milk quality control is thus key in the dairy industry. The hazards can either be biological hazards, chemical and physical hazards. Milk quality can be affected through contamination at the various points within the valuechain. It is essential to identify the Criti- cal Control Points (CCP), and develop standard operating procedures to minimize contamination arising from these points. Moreover, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is necessary during milk pro- duction to ensure high quality milk. All milk handlers as well as institutions dealing with milk need public health license with constant monitoring and evaluation of the process. In addition, continued training on quality milk production should be enhanced. When these controls are ensured throughout the whole milkvaluechain, quality milk free from any contaminants will be produced for in- creased income and better health of the population.
Milk markets attempts to identify the actors involved in the milkvaluechain to construct valuechain map and to estimate the value addition by market actors and milk processors. Value addition is primarily explained as the difference between total expenses involved in processing or buying of a specific goods and the total revenue accruing from its sales. Value addition activities are mainly concerned with the changes of utilities. When any product passes through distribution channels, it creates place, time, and form utilities. For this reasons, in this section, the study dealt with identifying the actors involved in valuechain and their function of milk marketing.
Secondly, a way must be found to divide Product Y into ATO and ETO. Because some production steps are only run by ETO Product Ys, we put a filter on the total list of tasks, in which all booked hours for Product Y and Product Z are listed. The production step used for the filter is derived from Figure F.1 in Appendix F, which can be found in the Confidential Attachment. Implementing this function in combination with the order size function resulted in nine categories, which are all combinations of product type (Product Y (ATO), Product Y (ETO) and Product Z) and order size (high, middle and low). The third step was to relate every booked task to a project using the functions explained in the paragraphs above. The data was raw, so we have cleared it for usage by deleting spare parts, incomplete data, and modifications and revisions. Modifications and revisions cannot actually be regarded as orders, due to their small sales value. We summed the man hours per task per category in a pivot table and took them as the current division of hours per task per category. Because many tasks have barely been recorded this year, we will only apply the top 99% of used hours in the analysis. Some tasks, for example, were only used a few hours on a total of many thousands of hours this year. In order to determine the future capacity, the current man hours used need to be made computable. Thus, the fourth step was to divide the total sales volume of every category by a factor to get the man hours used per 100K EUR. This way, every task is expressed in a number of man hours per category per 100K EUR.
The mean CC observed in the current study is higher than the value of 2.83 log CFU/ml reported for milk samples collected from camels in central and southern regions of United Arab Emirates . However, it was lower than that reported by  6.85 log coliform CFU/ ml in Morocco and  in south west Algeria (6.75 log coliform CFU/ml). The overall value of coliform counts observed in the current study was much higher when compared with the recommended values given by the American Public Health Association and EU (<100 CFU/ ml). Mean CC increased in camel milk shows relative increase from udder to milking bucket to market. This might be due to milk contamination at different lev- els while milk was passing through different stages of production. The presence of high numbers of coliforms in milk indicates that the milk has been contaminated with fecal materials and it is an index of hygienic stand- ard used in the production of milk. This could be attrib- uted to insufficient pre-milking udder preparation, poor hand washing practice of milker and use of poor qual- ity and non-boiled water for cleaning of milking utensil. Coliforms, when present in any food, signal possibility of enteric pathogens and unhygienic conditions under which the food was produced and handled. The increase in coliforms in the market raw camel milk could be asso- ciated with contaminated containers, water and the soil. Transferring of milk from container to the next during bulking towards the market makes milk sweep over wide container surfaces, thus collecting the microorganisms from container surfaces .
I, Muhammad Moazzam, declare that this thesis entitled “Learning Lessons Through Benchmarking: A Benchmarking Study of Milk Supply Chain Networks of Pakistan and New Zealand” submitted to the Massey University for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy is the outcome of my own research work. Acknowledgement is given where material from other resources was used. I also certify that the thesis has not been presented, in whole or partly, for any degrees or diplomas.
Information forms one of basic fundamental block in the supply chain management. The information exchange needs to be at both the intra and inter firm of the supply chain. All the departments i.e. marketing, finance, operations needs to exchange information of the material supply across the organisation for the better coordination from procurement, payment and to downstream distribution . The timely information flow between the different entities of supply chain improves the logistics efficiency and client satisfaction. In the case of efficient logistics, the inventory costs and accounts payables are managed well and hence results in lower additional new working capital investments. However, in inter and intra firm level information flow, trust plays a vital role . Building of trust comes from the experience and long-time relations between the trading partners . Pettersson & Segerstedt  has found a significant difference between the actual costs and standard allocated costs in the study. This misinformation might bring additional in efficiencies in the supply chain management. Firms with the strong belief in supply chain strategy have invested in supply chain infrastructure. Information technology is considered as vital component of supply chain infrastructure. Hence, it has also attracted large investment from the supply chain operators.
Purpose of the article: The basic research question of this paper is to consider how to rearrange the valuechain after having served 35 years as a helpful management concept. The primary activities are revised and will be rearranged after careful considerations. Methodology: This scientific approach is analytical and conceptual. First, we derive on the analytical basis of statistical data the relevance for value creation. Second, the theoretical and conceptual approach is providing a systematic overview on the activities under research of a contemporary value driven company. Scientific aim: The scientific aim of this article is about rethinking of the primary activities of the valuechain. The requirement of integrating a new activity and taking out another primary activity is explained and based on analytical and conceptual considerations. Findings: Organizations, processes and business models are changing rapidly. This leads to changes in business operations on a large scale. Procurement for example is not any more just the supporting ordering department. Procurement has changed into a value creator. On the other side logistic activities should not be regarded as primary activities anymore, because there is no value added by inbound nor outbound logistics. Conclusions: This article reconsiders the valuechain under contemporary conditions in the age of Industry 4.0 to achieve competitive advantage. The first conclusion is to consider procurement not any more as a secondary activity, but as a primary activity, because procurement has the highest impact on the cost position of a product. The second conclusion is that the logistic activities were identified not to be regarded as a primary activitie any more. They should be integrated into the secondary activities, because the value add is insignificant.
The last value configuration that is proposed is that of the value network, these firms rely on a mediating technology in order to create a link between the customers who are either independent or wish to be so (Thompson, 1967). Examples of firms that create value by the facilitation of exchange between their customers, and therefore the linking of organizational activities are; Telephone companies, Banks, Transportation companies, and insurance companies (Stabell & Fjeldstad, 1998). This creation of a link can be done – directly by linking customers directly to each other or – indirect where there is a common unit in between the customers. The business value system of companies who operate in such a mediation industry is likely to be focussed around coproduction, layered and interconnected networks that will increase the range and reach provided by the services created (Stabell & Fjeldstad, 1998). The following points depict the value creation logic of the value network; “Mediators acts as club mangers, Service value is a function of positive network demand side externalities, Value is derived from - service, service capacity and service opportunity-, Mediation activities are performed simultaneously at multiple levels, Standardization facilitates matching and monitoring, distinct life cycle phases or rollout and operation, Layered and interconnected industry structure” (Stabell & Fjeldstad,1998, P. 427-429).
Production of quality milk is the concern of dairymen, veterinarians, state regulatory departments, milk and milk product processors, retail distributors (super markets) and consumers of dairy products . In order to assure the delivery of safe quality products to consumers , the regulatory control of milk and milk products is run under the milk sanitation program of the United States Public Health Service/Food and Drug Administration, divisions of the Department of Health and Human Services which have developed a statement of policy and regulations with regard to milk quality. This model regulation is known as the "Pasteurized Milk Ordinance of 1978" (PMO), which also contains the milk quality standards recommended to states, counties and municipalities. The main milk quality problems at herd level are : the increased number of clinical mastitis , high somatic cell counts , high bacteria counts and antibiotic residues in the bulk milk .
Overall valuechain of most agricultural exports in Vietnam and Southeast area consist of 5 major phases: Input, Production, Collection, Industrial processing, and Exporting, as shown in Figure 1. Accordingly, taking export unit price of products common to the cost price and the value added (in %) for each phase. Input operation phase includes inputs for agricultural production, such as preparation of seeds, fertilizers, soil improvement; prepare a pole or digging ponds, and the cost of materials for the first year before exploitation. Phase Input costs are amortized on a phase-average number of years of other operators such crops; Production phase is the phase care about fertilizers, pesticides, weeding ... for one unit of product, including the cost of the product harvested; Collection phase is the retail buyers, dealers or processing plants. This stage is only the added value of this activity, not including logistics expenses; Industrial processing phase includes pre-processing operations (air and dry - performed by farmers or processors performing), preservation packaging and further processing at the processing plant; Exporting phase distribution only uses the value-added agricultural products exporters enjoy.
Abstract- Cocoa is one of the leading commodity in Indonesia. Indonesian cocoa industry is the third largest producer of cocoa beans in the world after Ivory Coast and Ghana. Nevertheless, the Indonesian cocoa industry has low competitiveness compared to both countries. Cocoa industry resources and industries related to the cocoa industry has not been optimized to support the development of the cocoa industry. This article uses the input-output analysis to determine the relationship cocoa industry and other industries as well as providing improvements to enhance the valuechain through the sectors supporting the cocoa industry. Input-output analysis is a method to determine the amount of inter-industry flows in relation to the level of production in each sector. There are some industries that play a role in supporting the national cocoa industry, but there has not been a good valuechain to increase cocoa production. Valuechain improvement in this study aims to analyze the value added between entities to optimize the role of sectors supporting the cocoa industry in accordance with their contribution to the quadrant position input-output analysis.
stay in the industry at all costs and to continue in competition fight. It is the reason for existence of many dairy firms of different size in the Czech dairy industry in spite of a relatively low average return on invested capital, which is about 5 percent (measured by the share of liabilities on operational profit) and in spite of unused capacity in the industry. The exit barriers obviously intensify the rivalry among competing sellers. The influence of the exit barriers factor did not decrease with the entry of Czech Republic to EU. Highly specialized milk-processing technologies, which are not useful in any other industry, continue to work as an important exit barrier.
Input supply, milk production, collection and testing, processing, trade, and consumption were key valuechain functions. Some ladders were under-specified because of multiple tasks conducted by the same agent. Mainly keeping dairy animals under traditional shed by feeding under-balanced feed were key factors of poor productivity of the breeds. Analysis confirmed that cost of producing and processing milk could lower if working under economics of scale. There were very few chain supporters substantially support valuechain financing, however, 3 private dairy animal farms, 4 private dairies and 12 collection centres, 7 cooperatives and cow and farmers group at buffalo pocket centres were doing novel works on dairy business commercialization. In addition to its annual production of 15272 metric tons, around 32% milk was imported from adjoining districts to meet the growing demand of milk and milk product irrespective of outgoing 34 tons raw milk in Tanahu. Of the total milk marketed, processors handled only 729 tons milk for preparing low self- life products. The major consumption outlets of dairy products were hotels, teashops, town dwellers, ice cream factories and export Tanahu districts. Study also concluded inelastic demand and supply of local live breed but income elastic market demand of cross/improved one.
The supply chain in this company begins with plantation activities; those include nurseries, planting, plant maintenance, harvesting, and shipping. The Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) are sent to processing plants and then processed into CPO. CPO processing involves reception, sterilizing, threshing, pressing, and oil classification. CPO that has been produced will be stored in the storage tanks and delivered to the consumers. Supply chain activities can be seen in Fig. 2.
food ingredients in school canteens has a major role in terms of overall assessment of the catering system. Among the ingredients provided to school canteens, those coming from conventional agriculture are significantly decreasing and progressively replaced by “controlled chain products” ( filiera controllata ). The latter category includes mainly organic products and certified ones, as typical or local products (labelled as Protected Designation of Origin/PDO and Protected Geographical Indication/PGI), products from sustainable agriculture, and fair-trade products (Spigarolo 2006).