According to United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) six out of ten of the world’s poorest people are women. Haughton and Khandker (2009) define poverty as following: “Poverty is pronounced deprivation in well-being, and comprises many dimensions. It includes low incomes and the inability to acquire the basic goods and services necessary for survival with dignity. Poverty also encompasses low levels of health and education, poor access to clean water and sanitation, inadequate physical security, lack of voice, and insufficient capacity and opportunity to better one’s life”. Human Development report (2010) reports that 1.44 billion poor people are living on less than $ 1.25 a day. Figure 1 shows the evolution of the percentage of the population living under $ 1.25 a day in different regions of the world between 1981 to 2005. It illustrates that although extreme poverty rates have been declining across many regions of the world in recent decades, high poverty rates still exist, especially in South Asia and Sub Saharan Africa.
Work previously done at Serere Agricultural and Animal Production Research Institute in Uganda showed that crossbreeding Bovans Brown cocks and indigenous hens significantly increased growth rate, number of eggs per clutch and mean live weight at 20 weeks of age. While those findings could have been attributed to heterosis it was not possible to delineate genetic and environmental (feeding) contributions. In order to study the genetic and feeding contributions, new eggs (1-4 days old) of local chickens were purchased from households in Soroti, Sironko, Jinja, Masaka, Sembabule and Mbarara districts in Uganda. In addition, new eggs of the same age of crossbred chickens (Bovans Brown x Local) were purchased from Soroti and Mukono districts. All eggs were hatched at the same time using a commercial hatchery at Mukono Agricultural Research and Development Centre. Hatchability was recorded and Local eggs from Sironko district had the highest hatchability (90.0%) followed by those from Sembabule district (87.0%) and the crossbred eggs (75% cross) from Soroti the lowest hatchability (70.0%). Chicks from Sembabule local eggs were heaviest (30.53gm) on average at day 1 followed by the crossbred chicks (75% cross) from Soroti which had average weight of 28.88gm at day 1. The smallest chicks (26.46gm) at day 1 were from the local eggs collected in Soroti district. All day 1 chicks were later transferred to Serere Institute where they were managed in the same way and fed ad libitum. Weights from day 1 to day 180 were recorded. Between day 1 and day 30, all chicks grew almost at the same pace but after day 60, the chicks from Masaka (local) grew fastest followed by those from Soroti district. Those from Sembabule were the slowest growers on average. The rest were between these two ecotypes. The highest increase in body weights was recorded between day 60 and day 150. At day 180 (6 months) the weights of all ecotypes converged towards the same mean weight of 1636gm with no signs of further growth. It was noted that some indigenous chicken ecotypes had better growth than the crossbred chickens and that among the indigenous chicken ecotypes there were significant differences in growth reflecting a certain level of genetic variability. If the feeding was standardized at ad libitum and management was uniform, the differences observed in growth could be attributed to differences in genes or differences in feed conversion.
It is disheartening to note that with almost thirteen years of implementation of the Millennium DevelopmentGoals and less than two years with fewer than 1000 days to the target date of 2015, the poverty profile is consistently on the increase. Unarguably, a greater proportion of the population still lives within the poverty line. This is characterized by widespread unemployment, insufficient income, inadequate food, lack of basic health care, lack of shelter, lack of safe drinking water, no access to basic education, and a host of others. This portends a fundamental challenge to the achievement of the Millennium DevelopmentGoals of eradicating poverty by 2015.
These are the words from UN who set out these SDGs to improve the lives and future prospects of all humanity. The 17 SDGs include the following in the Agenda 2030 (UN, 2016b): no poverty; zero hunger; good health and well-being; quality education; gender equality; clean water and sanitation; aordable and clean energy; decent work and economic growth; industry, innovation and infrastructure; reduced inequalities; sustainable cities and communities; respon- sible consumption and production; climate action; life below water; life on land; peace, justice and strong institutions; and partnerships for the goals. To achieve these SDGs, partnerships between governments, private sector, civil society and citizens are essential to ensure the planet is left in a better state for future generations. This is represented in Figure 5.3.
The restive situation in the Niger Delta continues unabated. Kidnapping, armed robbery and organized crime are the order of the day and the police are not well equipped to combat these crime. Sports/youth development is stunted. Nigeria could not grab the chanced of featuring in the first ever world cup to be played in African soil yet we claim to be the giant of Africa. In the area of transportation, only road transportation appears to be viable in Nigeria. Our railway lines are dead, air transportation is epileptic and only for the rich and our water transportation is grossly underdeveloped. The education sector is not left out. Incessant strike action and facilities below human standard exist in our schools. Otive (2006) lamented that in all indices of development, Nigeria fares poorly. It is therefore necessary that Nigeria as a matter of urgency should pay serious attention to the issue of sustainable development. The aim of this paper is to establish the fact that sustainable development could be achieved in Nigeria through the proper implementation of the Millennium DevelopmentGoals.
Stanton was certain that the vote would prove to be a key tool that would al- low women to overcome the imbalance in society. This conviction is the key to her ideology of achieving equal rights for women throughout society not just on the political stage. Stanton believed that enfranchised women would be able to attack traditional institutions that she perceived were keeping women in their subordinate position in society. She recognizes that without a political voice no group could encourage sweeping change and that this lack of political influence would continue to confine women to the private sphere where their husbands and fathers would continue to misrepresent them. For Stanton the vote was just the beginning of the changes that women needed to make. It was part of her strategy for the women’s rights movement to achieve its goals. Stanton wanted women to be aware of the limitations of their lives in order to embrace both her ideas and the movement that she established.
The last city which was selected for the data collection is Karachi which is the capital as well as largest city of Sindh. This city being over crowded with people has major concerns for the sustainability and the related goals. The literacy rate of Karachi is 65.26% which is highest in Sindh and at fourth number after Islamabad, Lahore and Rawalpindi. Population of Karachi consist of people from across Pakistan and foreigners as well thus making its culture diverse. . The existence of folks from all walks of life also makes the transfer of knowledge much easy. The possible reason behind the positive result of awareness could be the high literacy rate as well as the optimum knowledge transfer. The companies from all the selected cities were considered in order to check for their engagement towards the SDG fulfilment. The organizations were selected according to the business volume as well as their attachment with United Nations. The organizations with bigger business volumes generally seem to be less committed towards the fulfilment of sustainable developmentgoals . The selected organizations from Islamabad show a very minimal concern regarding the fulfilment of sustainable developmentgoals. Less commitment towards the cause has also been shown by the companies from Quetta and Karachi. The big organizations working in those cities are aware of the importance of sustainability in the environment but due to their big volume they seem less interested in complying with the efforts of attaining the developmental goals .
management and governance (e.g. Galloway, Hooper, Lant). Calls to foster interagency and interdisciplinary cooperation reflect the need for water resources practitioners who can communicate across intellectual and institutional boundaries. Furthermore, the growing need to minimize vulnerability, inequities, and environmental impacts and to encourage sustainable practices is forcing greater integration of the physical and social sciences and broadening the basic nature of water resources research. Consequently, water policy formulation has been rapidly entering a period of exchanges in which broadly trained professionals are needed for their intellectual diversity and practical experience. Geography as a discipline has long been engaged in bridging the sciences, natural resource management, environmental ethics, and policy formation. It has provided an intellectual incubator for the development and exposition of integrated approaches to water resources and watershed policy as well as for studies of watershed processes and human-environment interactions. The papers in this issue are not directly about geography, but they provide a stimulating sampler of water resources research being conducted by geographers. Neither the panel discussion in New Orleans nor the papers in this issue of Update cover all the essential topics in current water resources research, but hopefully they provide a glimpse into the great variety and significance of topics in this field.
Another equity criterion is the level of health and education. It corresponds even more directly than GNI to the main MDGs. The equity, as seen above, more than to compensate for a present low welfare, is to consider this low level as a handicap to growth and to compensate for it.. For that reason an appropriate indicator is the so-called Human Asset Index (HAI), used for the identification of the LDCs and composed of four components (literacy rate, secondary enrolment ratio, under-five child mortality and the percentage of the population which is undernourished). It could be preferred to the well known "Human Development Index" (HDI), because it is more comprehensive (including a nutrition factor) and uses more reliable data (eg child mortality instead of life expectancy). Moreover the HDI includes an income component, here taken into account separately. 15
For each goal listed above, a number of targets are proposed (see Annex 1) from an Arab regional perspective. As mentioned in section II of this document, the targets listed are in no way comprehensive; rather they focus on key issues with the aim of drawing attention to the priorities of the region. Like the MDGs, the purpose of the goals and targets is to serve as a rallying point for different actors, and galvanize actions and political will towards these global priorities. Hence, the need to harmonize reporting and monitoring of progress. Strengthening statistical systems of Arab countries in order to collect and analyze data at disaggregated levels as well as developing mechanisms to improve access to data and statistics are necessary for successful monitoring and reporting. Furthermore, and due to the disparities between the countries of the region, it is advised that the region supports global goals that are linked to a suite of targets that can be nationally selected and adapted to ensure relevance and national ownership.
and cultural workers, as they are in a position to create the necessary social and value package, which should become the nucleus forms the new society. However, the institution of education now simply does not give the person the possibility of self-realization. The problem of the attitude of the modern generation of young people towards education, as a necessary basis, determining the personality in society, is rapidly losing its significance. Under the onslaught of modernization, the accompanying liberal transformations and the democratic processes interpreted by the West, the modern young generation completely changes the world outlook, its social and cultural identity. A distinctive feature of today's society is the view of education as a necessity imposed by parents. There is no awareness of the need for education as the main component of the development of society. Personality does not think about revealing its potential, forcing itself into the framework of primitivism, carrying out a certain set of actions necessary for existence. The lack of an institutional education system, which does not allow modernization at the socio-cultural level, on the one hand, and the inconsistency of the very essence of modernization, on the other, lead to a deadlock in the implementation of institutional and personal modernization.
According to UNESCO report (2006) cited in Akomolafe(2010), girls make up 60% of all out of school children and women represent two thirds of illiterate adults.Girls usually perform worse than boys in schools and that in some countries one in every four girls drops out before fifth grade. Roughly, 85% of boys’ complete primary school compared to 76% of girls. Mathematics is the key to any development. Training (empowering) a woman is training a nation, so if the women are empowered mathematically the achievement of the MDGs is likely to be much easier
Drawing together the above observations, we conclude that the nature of governance challenges changes as you move outwards from the centre of the framework and its well-being goals. For goals in the inner level, many govern- ment instruments already exist for delivery, even if they do not always work efficiently or equitably. As we move outward, these mechanisms disintegrate, conflicts arise, and soft laws prevail. As with interactions between goals, poten- tial governance systems are more likely to be similar between goals operat- ing within the same level. The challenge of governing within levels is about building new relationships and new mechanisms that overcome sectoral and ministerial silos.
In this study, the impact of eight key macroeconomic determinants on economic growth were investigated during the period 1970-2013 using the recently developed Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration suggested by Pesaran et al. (2001). The key macroeconomic determinants investigated in this study include the accumulation of physical capital (investment); human capital development; population growth; real exchange rate depreciation; inflation; foreign aid; and international trade. Panel 1 of table 1 presents the long- run growth elasticity estimates on the responsiveness of a 1% change in key macroeconomic determinants to the responsiveness of the long-run level of real GDP per capita; while panel 2 presents the respective short-run elasticities.
Since about 1980, the Indian economy has grown, in terms of its gross domestic product (GDP), at over 6 per cent per annum compound, as against an average for the period 1950 to 1980 of around 3 to 3.5 percent. More recently, between 2003-04 and 2007-08, the rate of growth of India’s GDP even breached the 8 per cent barrier, giving rise to breathless celebrations in sections of the media about India being rapidly on its way to being a “superpower” or at the very least an economic powerhouse. While the current global economic crisis has led to some muting of the rhetoric, it is important not to lose sight of some basic and disturbing features of our track record of development even through these years of rapid GDP growth. This paper is an attempt to understand the millennium developmentgoals in a very descriptive and an interesting manner.