According to United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) six out of ten of the world’s poorest people are women. Haughton and Khandker (2009) define poverty as following: “Poverty is pronounced deprivation in well-being, and comprises many dimensions. It includes low incomes and the inability to acquire the basic goods and services necessary for survival with dignity. Poverty also encompasses low levels of health and education, poor access to clean water and sanitation, inadequate physical security, lack of voice, and insufficient capacity and opportunity to better one’s life”. Human Development report (2010) reports that 1.44 billion poor people are living on less than $ 1.25 a day. Figure 1 shows the evolution of the percentage of the population living under $ 1.25 a day in different regions of the world between 1981 to 2005. It illustrates that although extreme poverty rates have been declining across many regions of the world in recent decades, high poverty rates still exist, especially in South Asia and Sub Saharan Africa.
Work previously done at Serere Agricultural and Animal Production Research Institute in Uganda showed that crossbreeding Bovans Brown cocks and indigenous hens significantly increased growth rate, number of eggs per clutch and mean live weight at 20 weeks of age. While those findings could have been attributed to heterosis it was not possible to delineate genetic and environmental (feeding) contributions. In order to study the genetic and feeding contributions, new eggs (1-4 days old) of local chickens were purchased from households in Soroti, Sironko, Jinja, Masaka, Sembabule and Mbarara districts in Uganda. In addition, new eggs of the same age of crossbred chickens (Bovans Brown x Local) were purchased from Soroti and Mukono districts. All eggs were hatched at the same time using a commercial hatchery at Mukono Agricultural Research and Development Centre. Hatchability was recorded and Local eggs from Sironko district had the highest hatchability (90.0%) followed by those from Sembabule district (87.0%) and the crossbred eggs (75% cross) from Soroti the lowest hatchability (70.0%). Chicks from Sembabule local eggs were heaviest (30.53gm) on average at day 1 followed by the crossbred chicks (75% cross) from Soroti which had average weight of 28.88gm at day 1. The smallest chicks (26.46gm) at day 1 were from the local eggs collected in Soroti district. All day 1 chicks were later transferred to Serere Institute where they were managed in the same way and fed ad libitum. Weights from day 1 to day 180 were recorded. Between day 1 and day 30, all chicks grew almost at the same pace but after day 60, the chicks from Masaka (local) grew fastest followed by those from Soroti district. Those from Sembabule were the slowest growers on average. The rest were between these two ecotypes. The highest increase in body weights was recorded between day 60 and day 150. At day 180 (6 months) the weights of all ecotypes converged towards the same mean weight of 1636gm with no signs of further growth. It was noted that some indigenous chicken ecotypes had better growth than the crossbred chickens and that among the indigenous chicken ecotypes there were significant differences in growth reflecting a certain level of genetic variability. If the feeding was standardized at ad libitum and management was uniform, the differences observed in growth could be attributed to differences in genes or differences in feed conversion.
It is disheartening to note that with almost thirteen years of implementation of the Millennium DevelopmentGoals and less than two years with fewer than 1000 days to the target date of 2015, the poverty profile is consistently on the increase. Unarguably, a greater proportion of the population still lives within the poverty line. This is characterized by widespread unemployment, insufficient income, inadequate food, lack of basic health care, lack of shelter, lack of safe drinking water, no access to basic education, and a host of others. This portends a fundamental challenge to the achievement of the Millennium DevelopmentGoals of eradicating poverty by 2015.
Barriers to accessing and utilizing maternal and infant services hinder the progress of achieving the MilleniumDevelopmentGoals 4 and 5, consequently improving maternal and infant health is an international priority.Maternal and infant mortality is highest in developing countries where several barriers to access and utilization of health care exist. This was a study of an on-going Maternal and Infant Survival to Health care Advancement (MAISHA) project to identify barriers to access and utilization of maternal and infant health services in Migori County, Kenya among 446 women of reproductive age. This was a cross sectional study which employed bothqualitative and quantitative methods. Data was collected using Interviewer - administered questionnaires, Key Informant Interview guides and Focus Group Discussion guides.Barriers to access of the services included socio-economic, cultural barriers and lack of up – to date training among the staff. Success in improving access and utilization of these services requires concerted efforts.
Abstract: The Sustainable DevelopmentGoals, while complex at first sight, express a simple narrative about the relationships between people and nature. This paper illustrates this in the context of a coral reef land or seascape supporting coastal people. Coral reefs, their health described by measures of coral and fish diversity and abundance, provide key services and benefits to people. These services directly support 10s of millions of jobs in multiple economic sectors in coastal and distant states, protect and harbor communities and cities across tropical coastlines, sustain use of living and non- living resources, provide transport infrastructure and valuable natural products, and in future may provide energy solutions. Through these multiple benefits, coral reefs contribute to reducing hunger and poverty, thus improving health, and potentially strengthening gender and social equality. However, access and use result in pressures that may drive decline in coral reef health. Broader land and seascape factors also affect reef health and therefore delivery of benefits, including land-use change and altered freshwater flows, as well as climate change. Managing this complex system requires appropriate awareness and knowledge, governance mechanisms and investments by stakeholders. This ‘SDG narrative’ can be used from local to global levels, motivating actions and policy at and across these scales to sustain ecosystem function and use, for the oceans what is also increasingly called a blue economy.
The design development 1 process is such that the realisation and satisfaction of customer requirements is attained with inadequate support for designers and design management in considering product goals or requirements within the context of organisational performance requirements. Thus, the assignment of product requirements or goals are often considered from a customer or market perspective and consideration of how the satisfaction of such goals will effect upon business goals is retrospectively considered from perspectives such as finance or market share. While a product specification may support designers in focusing and controlling a range of factors or entities, as associated with the performance of a product, design managers lack the support of recognising how resources required to realise product performance will contribute or support the attainment of necessary performance levels within various organisational perspectives . Designers and design managers are thus placed in an activity that requires an array of factors and goals to be considered, from a diverse range of organisational perspectives, to ensure that overall performance is not sacrificed against micro level, or process, levels of performance. Therefore, designers and design managers require to be pro-actively guided in realising the attainment of optimal process performance, from its outputs to the process utilised to generate such outputs, while giving due consideration to the range of affected organisational perspectives and the overall performance of the organisation. However, if designers and design managers were required, at each decision point, to consider all the factors associated with the range of organisational perspectives, as associated with a local performance objective, they would be consumed
All of these would be forms of conventional political participation, but there are other forms of unconventional participation that do not correspond to the norms and customs of a system and that are characteristic of social movements . These forms of participation are channelled through activism and electronic protest that would consist of unconventional political actions on the Internet [51,47]. The level of participation is graduated following Marsh's scale of unconventional political action , which ranges from a level of low involvement, complexity and risk, such as signing an online petition, to actions bordering on the illegal, such as denial-of- service attacks (DoS). The workshop was developed using the 2030 Agenda as content, explaining the content of the sustainable developmentgoals and their themes so that the students had a broad vision of social, political and environmental issues and demands on a global scale . The students also had to consult various websites related to the SDGs. Links were provided to various websites of organisations that worked on aspects closely related to the SDGs (human rights, the environment, etc.). In the links provided, the students could choose between several to carry out various digital activism actions graduated according to a level from lowest to highest involvement and complexity, from clicktivism to hacktivism, among all those related to the SDGs (see Table 3).
decades. The final document of Rio+20 defined a mandate to establish an Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG) to develop a set of SDGs for consideration and appropriate action by the General Assembly. "The Rio outcome gave the mandate that the SDGs should be coherent with and integrated into the UN development agenda beyond 2015" (CENTRO RIO+, 2015). "Sustainable DevelopmentGoals are accompanied by targets and will be further elaborated through indicators focused on measurable outcomes" (UN OWG, 2014, p.5). They are oriented to action and applicability, besides taking into account different national realities, capacities and levels of development, and respecting national policies and priorities. With the SDGs, consisting of 17 Goals and 169 targets, one seeks to foster sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work, infrastructure and sustainable industrialization, reduce inequalities within and among countries, ensure availability and sustainable management of water, sanitation and sustainable energy and promote sustainable consumption and production patterns (OBS, 2015; UN, 2012).
In recent years, the UN has been laying stress not on higher economic growth rate, but on quality of human life. The millennium development goal set by UN points towards quality of life, which also includes tribal people. The post – MDG, 2015 needs better understanding of the current status of this tribal people to develop and design appropriate need based programme strategies towards ensuring better quality of life.The review of studies and research findings during thelast couple of decades revealed that the tribal people are downtrodden and vulnerable often suffering from various socio- economic, demographic, physical, nutritional and health problems. Besides,in the context of development being attacked and victimized from different angles such as displacement from their land, ecological settings along with exploitation, discrimination, deprivation, isolation etc. resulting in violation of human rights and social justices. The increasing trend of globalization and technological revolution arise question whether the government developmental programmes in reality benefiting the independent way of life of the tribal people or pushing them into precarious conditions and making them more vulnerable than ever?
Financial inclusion means people have access to financial services; they can use them, with such services in its best quality, and minimal risk of using the services. To reduce poverty and to achieve inclusive economic growth, financial inclusion is bedrock. Financial inclusion has been observed to be a core and critical area necessary for inclusive socio-economic development and transformation. Out of United Nations 17 Sustainable DevelopmentGoals (Shaping global economies development agenda), 7 of the goals cannot be achieved in earnest without enabling financial inclusion. Financial inclusion is therefore termed as the `` necessary enabler`` in achieving the sustainable developmentgoals.
The Sustainable DevelopmentGoals (SDGs) have placed great emphasis on the need for much greater social inclusion, and on making deliberate efforts to reach marginalized groups. People with disabilities are often marginalized through their lack of access to a range of services and opportunities. Assistive products can help people overcome impairments and barriers enabling them to be active, participating and productive members of society. Assistive products are vital for people with disabilities, frailty and chronic illnesses; and for those with mental health problems, and gradual cognitive and physical decline characteristic of aging populations. This paper illustrates how the achievement of each of the 17 SDGs can be facilitated by the use of assistive products. Without promoting the availability of assistive products the SDGs cannot be achieved equitably. We highlight how assistive products can be considered as both a mediator and a moderator of SDG achievement. We also briefly describe how the Global Cooperation on Assistive Technology (GATE) is working to promote greater access to assistive products on a global scale.
Water pollution in Indonesia occurred in several water bodies, which consist of rivers, lakes, reservoirs and the sea. The main source of water pollution is the waste from various human activities (anthropogenic), among others, domestic, agricultural (including fisheries and livestock) and industrial waste (such as textiles and mining). In this paper, we conduct the comprehensive studies on the impact of marine pollution on coastal ecosystem degradation in Indonesia. Possible approaches were also discussed in relation to the one of key point of sustainable developmentgoals (SDGs).
NTD programmes and initiatives have a privileged role to play in achieving those goals because of the prime im- portance of water and intermediate hosts in the lifecycle of many pathogens. NTDs thrive where water and sanita- tion are inadequate. For example, water contaminated with faeces and urine can contain worm eggs that contam- inate surface water and lead to transmission of schisto- somiasis. These can come from the faeces and urine of human and reservoir hosts, such as cows and buffalos, making it important to protect freshwater from animals and their waste. Poorly-constructed latrines facilitate the breeding of Culex mosquitoes, causing great nuisance as well as being efficient vectors of lymphatic filariasis and some viruses . Replacement of pit latrines with mod- ern toilets would contribute to a reduction in nuisance biting and transmission reduction . Similarly, Ae- des aegypti, the major vector of arboviruses, could be reduced by environmental management. This urban species breeds in many small uncontaminated water bodies . In many cases where piped water is lack- ing or unreliable, water-storage containers become major larval habitats for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopic- tus mosquitoes which transmit dengue, Zika, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses to humans.
For each goal listed above, a number of targets are proposed (see Annex 1) from an Arab regional perspective. As mentioned in section II of this document, the targets listed are in no way comprehensive; rather they focus on key issues with the aim of drawing attention to the priorities of the region. Like the MDGs, the purpose of the goals and targets is to serve as a rallying point for different actors, and galvanize actions and political will towards these global priorities. Hence, the need to harmonize reporting and monitoring of progress. Strengthening statistical systems of Arab countries in order to collect and analyze data at disaggregated levels as well as developing mechanisms to improve access to data and statistics are necessary for successful monitoring and reporting. Furthermore, and due to the disparities between the countries of the region, it is advised that the region supports global goals that are linked to a suite of targets that can be nationally selected and adapted to ensure relevance and national ownership.
Another equity criterion is the level of health and education. It corresponds even more directly than GNI to the main MDGs. The equity, as seen above, more than to compensate for a present low welfare, is to consider this low level as a handicap to growth and to compensate for it.. For that reason an appropriate indicator is the so-called Human Asset Index (HAI), used for the identification of the LDCs and composed of four components (literacy rate, secondary enrolment ratio, under-five child mortality and the percentage of the population which is undernourished). It could be preferred to the well known "Human Development Index" (HDI), because it is more comprehensive (including a nutrition factor) and uses more reliable data (eg child mortality instead of life expectancy). Moreover the HDI includes an income component, here taken into account separately. 15
Beyai et al. (2013), observed that as the deadline of December 2015 for the achievement of the Millennium DevelopmentGoals (MDGs) approaches, the success record of MDG for the Ghana‘s economy is mixed. They stated that while MDGs 1 and 2 are on course to be achieved, 3 and 7 are likely to be partially achieved, 6 has the potential to be achieved, and goals 4, 5 and the sanitation aspect of 7 are lagging. The study observed that the role of the Government of Ghana intervention through the MDG Acceleration Framework (MAF) serves as a key catalyst in fast achieving the goals at least to a level experienced in other economies. The MAF scheme was introduced to the Ghana Health Service (GHS) by the United Nations‘ Country Team spearheaded by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in 2010. The new intervention focused on MDG 5, which majorly addresses health related issues and was believed to be the arrowhead for achieving other Millennium DevelopmentGoals. Moreover, it was believed that MDG 5 which aimed at reducing maternal mortality through the MDG Acceleration Framework would help improve health indicators in the regions lagging behind. The authors stated that evidence abound that the three northern regions in Ghana are lagging behind the other regions as far as reducing maternal mortality is concerned. These regions also suffer the most in terms of access to quality health care for pregnant women and deliveries assisted by skilled health care workers. For all these indicators, there are disparities between the northern and southern regions and also across urban and rural areas. They identified lack of knowledge by pregnant women, financial and transportation difficulties, long distances to health facilities, and long waiting periods at health facilities as key reasons while mortality rate in the regions is high. Their paper shares Ghana‘s experience in the development of MDG Acceleration Framework (MAF) for MDG 5. It identifies gaps in Ghana‘s existing policies; programmes in maternal health interventions, which inhibit the attainment of MDG 5; maps the various steps leading to the development of MAF for MDG 5 ( see also Benno et al. (2005), Lolette Kritzinger-Van and Ritra Reinikka in Jan (2005); Mistry (2005), Roy (2005); Yonghyup (2005) Zamba and Oboh (2013)).